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Metaphor

Edited by Alper Yavuz (University of St. Andrews)
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Introductions Among philosophy of language textbooks only Lycan 2008 dedicates a chapter to metaphor. Two philosophy of language companions have chapters on metaphor: Moran 1997 and Reimer & Camp 2006. There is also a SEP entry: Hills 2012.
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  1. B. A. (1962). Metaphor and Reality. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):169-170.
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  2. S. C. A. (1982). Root Metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 36 (1):162-163.
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  3. Jan M. G. Aarts (1979). Metaphor and Non-Metaphor: The Semantics of Adjective Noun Combinations. Niemeyer.
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  4. E. M. Adams (1988). Earl Mac Cormac's Cognitive Theory of Metaphor. Southern Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):1-7.
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  5. John Alexander (1963). Metaphor and Ontology. Sophia 2 (3):12-18.
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  6. James Allman (1998). Language, Speakers, and Metaphor. Dissertation, Duke University
    I survey three analyses of metaphor, offered by Goodman, Rorty and Davidson, and find the first two unsatisfactory. To explain metaphor Goodman posits a relation--metaphorical reference--which is at best only an example of the phenomenon to be explained, and which at worst fails to distinguish metaphors from non-metaphors. Rorty's analysis casts metaphor as a linguistic object operating on verbal dispositions, but fails to account for the way in the interpretation of a metaphor depends upon an interpretation of its linguistic meaning. (...)
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  7. William P. Alston (1980). Irreducible Metaphors in Theology. In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Cornell Up 17-38.
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  8. Alexandra Arapinis (2015). Whole-for-Part Metonymy, Classification, and Grounding. Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (1):1-29.
    Since the early 1980s, metonymy has progressively gained central stage in linguistic investigations. The advent of cognitive linguistics marked a new turn in the study of this trope conceived, not as a deviation from semantic conventions, but as a phenomenon rooted in non-language-specific mechanisms of conceptualization of the world. Acknowledging that metonymy is ultimately cognitive in nature, this paper proposes to consider metonymy from its multiple levels of manifestation, integrating cognitive, pragmatic, semantic, but also ontological angles of approach. Taking whole-for-part (...)
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  9. Sonia Arribas (2007). Normativity Without Exception: Donald Davidson On Language And Communication. Sorites 18:76-97.
    This paper deals with three texts by Donald Davidson's that discuss the issue of linguistic innovation from different epistemological standpoints. I show that Davidson's theory of metaphor undergoes a crucial transformation: from an early stage in which metaphor is viewed as an unintelligible and exceptional element external to language, to a later stage in which it is conceived as intrinsic to language, and thus as potentially understandable. This tracing of Davidson's development leads me to formulate an understanding of the concepts (...)
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  10. Nicholas Asher (2011). Lexical Meaning in Context: A Web of Words. Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about the meanings of words and how they can combine to form larger meaningful units, as well as how they can fail to combine when the ...
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  11. Elizabeth Ashton (1997). Extending the Scope of Metaphor: An Examination of Definitions Old and New and Their Significance for Education. Educational Studies 23 (2):195-208.
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  12. Elizabeth Ashton (1994). Metaphor in Context: An Examination of the Significance of Metaphor for Reflection and Communication. Educational Studies 20 (3):357-366.
    This article shows how metaphor is basic to language structure. It is illustrated with practical examples of how metaphor is found within different social and cultural contexts, irrespective of historical time. Numerous examples are given of how metaphor works in efforts to communicate meaning. From an early age, young children are initiated into the use of metaphor. This appears to be understood intuitively, and examples of words games and riddles are given to show how children become familiar with the symbolic (...)
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  13. R. Will Ashton (2000). 'The Rule of Metaphor': A Hermeneutic and Generative Phenomenological Analysis of Metaphor in the Discourse of Integrated Medicine. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
    This dissertation shows how metaphor analysis may be used as an archeological method that takes the speech analyst beyond the surface of talk to disclose the generative density and sedimentation of possible meaning upon which a discourse is constructed. My analysis shows that within the context of the discourse of integrated medicine this method can bring certain semantic properties into view which might otherwise remain obscured or hidden. The method developed here is a critical one, framed in terms of the (...)
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  14. William Arthur Ausmus (1991). A Pragmatics of Metaphor: A Micronic Analysis of Metaphor in Conversation. Dissertation, Washington State University
    Metaphor is a linguistic phenomenon that has been studied primarily in terms of a semantic analysis. I treat metaphor as a pragmatic tool used by interactants in the process of doing figurative work in their conversational interactions. The use of conversational metaphor has consequences for the actions of the participants engaged in doing the routine activity of talk. I examine the relationships between the organization and structure of talk and conversational metaphors. In addition, I discuss the complex relationship between metaphor (...)
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  15. Emily Ayoob, Black & Davidson on Metaphor.
    Most theories of metaphor look at what occurs inside a metaphorical phrase and posit a shift in meaning in the metaphorical words. This includes the classic “Models and Metaphor,” by Max Black, who distinguishes between the literal words of the phrase and the metaphorical words. On this view, the two interact in such a way that the meanings of the metaphorical words change. In another view, Donald Davidson takes a radical stance in his “What Metaphors Mean” to assert that the (...)
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  16. A. B. (1962). Metaphor and Reality. Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):169-170.
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  17. D. B. B. (1964). The Human Metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):184-184.
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  18. Kenneth Richard Baake (2000). Metaphor and Knowledge: The Rhetorical Challenges at a Postmodern Science Think Tank. Dissertation, New Mexico State University
    This qualitative research project looks at how rhetoric is used in a science think-tank to formulate knowledge and facilitate interdisciplinary communication. It draws from the author's participant-observer experiences at the Santa Fe Institute since 1997 as a freelance writer, from a series of focused research questions related to rhetoric at the site, and from textual research. The study focuses on metaphor, which is the rhetorical trope that the SFI scientists identified as being of prime importance to their discourse. The central (...)
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  19. Daniela Bailer-Jones (2004). Review: Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):811-815.
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  20. John R. Baker (1996). The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor. Anthropology of Consciousness 7 (2):28-30.
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  21. G. S. Baranov (2005). Filosofii͡a Metafory. Kuzbassvuzizdat.
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  22. Stephen Barker (forthcoming). Figurative Speech: Pointing a Poisoned Arrow at the Heart of Semantics. Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    I argue that figurative speech, and irony in particular, presents a deep challenge to the orthodox view about sentence content. The standard view is that sentence contents are, at their core, propositional contents: truth-conditional contents. Moreover, the only component of a sentence’s content that embeds in compound sentences, like belief reports or conditionals, is the propositional content. I argue that a careful analysis of irony shows this view cannot be maintained. Irony is a purely pragmatic form of content that (...)
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  23. John Barnden (2015). Metaphor, Simile, and the Exaggeration of Likeness. Metaphor and Symbol 30 (1):41-62.
    This article reveals an overlooked way of interpreting sentences like “The Internet is crack [cocaine]” or “Libraries are supermarkets.” Many existing theories of metaphor could apply here. However, they can instead be interpreted in a likeness-exaggerating way, under which “Libraries are supermarkets” is simply an exaggerated way of saying that libraries are like supermarkets to a very high degree. This interpretation option follows from simple, general considerations about exaggeration and likeness scales. In this way it is preferable to the abbreviated-simile (...)
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  24. John A. Barnden (1997). Metaphors of Mind1. In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins 9--311.
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  25. J. Barnouw (1979). The Rule of Metaphor. Multi-Disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Review of Metaphysics 33 (1):200-204.
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  26. Patrick Bastable (1987). Metaphor and Religious Language. Philosophical Studies 31:454-456.
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  27. Monroe C. Beardsley (1962). The Metaphorical Twist. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (3):293-307.
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  28. Sherrill Jean Begres (1992). Metaphor and Constancy of Meaning. Grazer Philosophische Studien 43:143-161.
    The prevalent theories of metaphor in the literature, with very few exceptions, involve a conversion of either meaning or reference from the literal meaning or reference of the metaphor to either a corresponding simile or to a metaphorical meaning or reference. In this essay an altemative to the conversion view - i.e., a constancy theory - is offered that requires no such conversions. H.R Grice's notions of conversational maximes and implicatures provide a conceptual framework within which to account for metaphors (...)
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  29. Sherrill Jean Begres (1986). Theories of Metaphor. Dissertation, Wayne State University
    Metaphor, I argue, is a type of expression that is used to communicate information beyond that communicated by its literal meaning. I argue that the literal meaning of metaphors are essential. I attempt to account for metaphor in such a way as to retain the literal meaning, while also accounting for what is called the "metaphorical meaning" of metaphors. Secondly, I am concerned with the mechanisms in virtue of which we are able to distinguish the metaphorical from the literal. ;Chapter (...)
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  30. Teresa Bejarano (1999). Prelinguistic Metaphors? Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):361-373.
    The gap between the prelinguistic and the linguistic levels cannot be bridged as easily as Lakoff's cognitive linguistics suggests. Lakoff's event structure metaphor is reviewed here. Compared with physical movement, the bringing together of separated elements which occurs in predication would not be metaphorical only because it departs from concrete physical experience, but, more significantly, because it relies on elements artificially separated by means of language. However, if we do not overlook this fundamental leap, the event structure metaphor is a (...)
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  31. Motti Benari (2004). If It is Different Then How Come It is Similar? The Impressions of Sameness and Difference Experienced by Readers of Metaphoric Language. Pragmatics and Cognition 12 (2):351-374.
    In the current study of metaphor it is commonly assumed that during a metaphorical reading both an impression of dissimilarity and an impression of similarity are created in the reader's mind. These separate impressions exist simultaneously and each of them is considered to have linear relations with the metaphor's aptness without either coming at the expense of the other. Thus far this assumption has never received any satisfactory theoretical justification. In this paper I discuss the problem of the simultaneous existence (...)
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  32. Wm L. Benzon & David G. Hays (2008). Metaphor, Recognition and Neural Process. American Journal of Semiotics 5 (1):59-79.
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  33. Douglas Berggren (1963). The Use and Abuse of Metaphor, II. Review of Metaphysics 16 (3):450 - 472.
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  34. Douglas Charles Berggren (1959). An Analysis of Metaphorical Meaning and Truth. Dissertation, Yale University
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  35. Merrie Bergmann (1991). Eva Feder Kittay: Metaphor Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 100 (1):112-115.
    Taking into account pragmatic considerations and recent linguistic and psychological studies, the author forges a new understanding of the relation between metaphoric and literal meaning. The argument is illustrated with analysis of metaphors from literature, philosophy, science, and everyday language.
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  36. Merrie Bergmann (1982). Metaphorical Assertions. Philosophical Review 91 (2):229-245.
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  37. A. Bezuidenhout (2008). Metaphorical Singular Reference. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3 (2):1-22.
    It is widely accepted that, in the course of inter- preting a metaphorical utterance, both literal and metaphorical interpretations of the utterance are available to the interpreter, al- though there may be disagreement about the order in which these interpretations are accessed. I call this the dual availability as- sumption. I argue that it does not apply in cases of metaphorical singular reference. These are cases in which proper names, com- plex demonstratives or definite descriptions are used metaphor- ically; e.g., (...)
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  38. Anne Bezuidenhout (2001). Metaphor and What is Said: A Defense of a Direct Expression View of Metaphor. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 25 (1):156–186.
    According to one widely held view of metaphor, metaphors are cases in which the speaker (literally) says one thing but means something else instead. I wish to challenge this idea. I will argue that when one utters a sentence in some context intending it to be understood metaphorically, one directly expresses a proposition, which can potentially be evaluated as either true or false. This proposition is what is said by the utterance of the sentence in that context. We don’t convey (...)
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  39. Raj Nath Bhat (2012). Metaphor Networks: The Comparative Evolution of Figurative Language. By Richard Trim. The European Legacy 17 (3):400 - 400.
    The European Legacy, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 400, June 2012.
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  40. Timothy Binkley (1974). On the Truth and Probity of Metaphor. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (2):171-180.
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  41. Max Black (2010). How Metaphors Work : A Reply to Donald Davidson. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Critical Inquiry. Routledge 131.
    To be able to produce and understand metaphorical statements is nothing much to boast about: these familiar skills, which children seem to acquire as they learn to talk, are perhaps no more remarkable than our ability to tell and to understand jokes. How odd then that it remains difficult to explain what we do in grasping metaphorical statements. In a provocative paper, "What Metaphors Mean,"1 Donald Davidson has recently charged many students of metaphor, ancient and modern, with having committed a (...)
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  42. Max Black (1977). More About Metaphor. Dialectica 31 (3‐4):431-457.
    SummaryAn elaboration and defense of the “interaction view of metaphor” introduced in the author's earlier study, “Metaphor” . Special attention is paid to the explication of the metaphors used in the earlier account.The topics discussed include: selection of the “targets” of the theory; classification of metaphors; how metaphorical statements work; relations between metaphors and similes; metaphorical thought; criteria of recognition; the “creative” aspects of metaphors; the ontological status of metaphors.Metaphors are found to be more closely connected with background models than (...)
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  43. David Blank (1994). Analogy, Anomaly, and Apollonius. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press
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  44. Frank Boers (1996). Spatial Prepositions and Metaphor a Cognitive Semantic Journey Along the Up-Down and the Front-Back Dimensions. Gunter Narr Verlag.
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  45. Vittoria Borso-Borgarello (1986). Metaphor and Myth in Contemporary Theory. Semiotics:328-339.
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  46. Guy Bouchard (1979). Rhétorique des mots, rhétorique des idées. À propos du « Traité de l'argumentation » de Ch. Perelman et L. Olbrechts-Tyteca. [REVIEW] Laval Théologique et Philosophique 35 (3):301-313.
    L'histoire de la rhétorique s'apparente à une peau de chagrin: d'une préoccupation pour les mots et les idées en général, elle a progressivement mis l'accent sur les mots, puis sur les tropes et figures, puis sur la métaphore et la métonymie, puis sur la seule métaphore. Mais l'intérêt pour les mots a refait surface dans des disciplines comme la linguistique et la stylistique. Et l'intérêt pour les idées caractérise l'oeuvre de Ch. Perelman, comme en témoigne, entre autres, son Traité de (...)
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  47. Roberts Bouson (1980). Metaphor and Simile. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago
    The view that metaphors are essentially exaggerated or hyperbolic similes is applied to two questions about metaphors. First, whether they must be literally false. It is concluded that they must have at least one sense in which they are false, read literally, while they may have additional senses in which they are true, so read. Secondly, some suggestions are offered as to why we use metaphor at all. It is noted that the rich ambiguity of metaphoric usage may allow the (...)
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  48. Michael Bradie (1984). The Metaphorical Character of Science. Philosophia Naturalis 21 (2/4):229-243.
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  49. C. Broniak (1987). Metaphor as a Function of Language, Intention, and Interpretation. Gnosis 3 (1):18-34.
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  50. Robert Brown (1965). Metaphorical Assertions. Philosophical Studies 16 (1-2):6 - 8.
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