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  1. Klaus Abels & Luiza Martí (forthcoming). Propositions or Choice Functions: What Do Quantifiers Quantify Over. Natural Language Semantics.
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  2. William P. Alston (1980). Irreducible Metaphors in Theology. In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Cornell Up. 17-38.
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  3. Alexandra Arapinis (forthcoming). Whole-for-Part Metonymy as Classification Exploiting Functional Integrity. Linguistics and Philosophy.
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  4. Daniela Bailer-Jones (2004). Review: Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):811-815.
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  5. J. Barnouw (1979). The Rule of Metaphor. Multi-Disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Review of Metaphysics 33 (1):200-204.
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  6. Patrick Bastable (1987). Metaphor and Religious Language. Philosophical Studies 31:454-456.
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  7. Sherrill Jean Begres (1992). Metaphor and Constancy of Meaning. Grazer Philosophische Studien 43:143-161.
    The prevalent theories of metaphor in the literature, with very few exceptions, involve a conversion of either meaning or reference from the literal meaning or reference of the metaphor to either a corresponding simile or to a metaphorical meaning or reference. In this essay an altemative to the conversion view - i.e., a constancy theory - is offered that requires no such conversions. H.R Grice's notions of conversational maximes and implicatures provide a conceptual framework within which to account for metaphors (...)
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  8. Anne Bezuidenhout (2001). Metaphor and What is Said: A Defense of a Direct Expression View of Metaphor. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 25 (1):156–186.
    According to one widely held view of metaphor, metaphors are cases in which the speaker (literally) says one thing but means something else instead. I wish to challenge this idea. I will argue that when one utters a sentence in some context intending it to be understood metaphorically, one directly expresses a proposition, which can potentially be evaluated as either true or false. This proposition is what is said by the utterance of the sentence in that context. We don’t convey (...)
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  9. Timothy Binkley (1974). On the Truth and Probity of Metaphor. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (2):171-180.
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  10. Max Black (2010). How Metaphors Work : A Reply to Donald Davidson. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Arguing About Language. Routledge. 131.
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  11. David Blank (1994). Analogy, Anomaly, and Apollonius. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press.
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  12. Ben Blumson, 'Metaphorically'.
    Not every metaphor can be literally paraphrased by a corresponding simile – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is not the literal meaning of ‘Juliet is like the sun’. But every metaphor can be literally paraphrased, since if ‘metaphorically’ is prefixed to a metaphor, the result says literally what the metaphor says figuratively – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is the literal meaning of ‘metaphorically, Juliet is the sun’.
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  13. Antonio Calcagno (2001). Metaphor in Context. Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):162-164.
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  14. William Cameron (1978). Philosophy, Metaphor, and Taste. Journal of Value Inquiry 12 (4):241-257.
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  15. Elisabeth Camp, Saying and Seeing-As: The Linguistic Uses and Cognitive Effects of Metaphor.
    Metaphor is a pervasive feature of language. We use metaphor to talk about the world in both familiar and innovative ways, and in contexts ranging from everyday conversation to literature and scientific theorizing. However, metaphor poses serious challenges for standard theories of meaning, because it seems to straddle so many important boundaries: between language and thought, between semantics and pragmatics, between rational communication and mere causal association.
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  16. Elisabeth Camp (2008). Showing, Telling and Seeing. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3:1-24.
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  17. Elisabeth Camp (2006). Metaphor and That Certain 'Je Ne Sais Quoi'. Philosophical Studies 129 (1):1 - 25.
    Philosophers have traditionally inclined toward one of two opposite extremes when it comes to metaphor. On the one hand, partisans of metaphor have tended to believe that metaphors do something different in kind from literal utterances; it is a ‘heresy’, they think, either to deny that what metaphors do is genuinely cognitive, or to assume that it can be translated into literal terms. On the other hand, analytic philosophers have typically denied just this: they tend to assume that if metaphors (...)
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  18. Elisabeth Camp (2006). Contextualism, Metaphor, and What is Said. Mind and Language 21 (3):280–309.
    On a familiar and prima facie plausible view of metaphor, speakers who speak metaphorically say one thing in order to mean another. A variety of theorists have recently challenged this view; they offer criteria for distinguishing what is said from what is merely meant, and argue that these support classifying metaphor within 'what is said'. I consider four such criteria, and argue that when properly understood, they support the traditional classification instead. I conclude by sketching how we might extract a (...)
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  19. Elisabeth Camp (2005). Josef Stern, Metaphor in Context (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). Noûs 39 (4):715–731.
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  20. Elisabeth Camp (2005). Review: Josef Stern, Metaphor in Context. [REVIEW] Noûs 39 (4):715-731.
    Metaphor is a crucially context-dependent linguistic phenomenon. This fact was not clearly recognized until some time in the 1970’s. Until then, most theorists assumed that a sentence must have a fixed set of metaphorical meanings, if it had any at all. Often, they also assumed that metaphoricity was the product of grammatical deviance, in the form of a category mistake. To compensate for this deviance, they thought, at least one of the sentence’s constituent terms underwent a meaning-changing ‘metaphorical twist’, which (...)
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  21. N. Carston, Metaphor, Ad Hoc Concepts and Word Meaning - More Questions Than Answers.
    Recent work in relevance-theoretic pragmatics develops the idea that understanding verbal utterances involves processes of ad hoc concept construction. The resulting concepts may be narrower or looser than the lexical concepts which provide the input to the process. Two of the many issues that arise are considered in this paper: (a) the applicability of the idea to the understanding of metaphor, and (b) the extent to which lexical forms are appropriately thought of as encoding concepts.
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  22. Robyn Carston (2010). Metaphor: Ad Hoc Concepts, Literal Meaning and Mental Images. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3pt3):295-321.
    I propose that an account of metaphor understanding which covers the full range of cases has to allow for two routes or modes of processing. One is a process of rapid, local, on-line concept construction that applies quite generally to the recovery of word meaning in utterance comprehension. The other requires a greater focus on the literal meaning of sentences or texts, which is metarepresented as a whole and subjected to more global, reflective pragmatic inference. The questions whether metaphors convey (...)
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  23. Clive Cazeaux (2011). Living Metaphor. Studi Filosofici 34 (1):291-308.
    The concept of ‘living metaphor’ receives a number of articulations within metaphor theory. A review of four key theories – Nietzsche, Ricoeur, Lakoff and Johnson, and Derrida – reveals a distinction between theories which identify a prior, speculative nature working on or with metaphor, and theories wherein metaphor is shown to be performatively always, already active in thought. The two cannot be left as alternatives because they exhibit opposing theses with regard to the ontology of metaphor, but neither can an (...)
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  24. Ann K. Clark (1977). Metaphor and Literal Language. Thought 52 (4):366-380.
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  25. Stephen R. L. Clark (1994). The Possible Truth of Metaphor. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 2 (1):19 – 30.
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  26. Ted Cohen (1975). Figurative Speech and Figurative Acts. Journal of Philosophy 72 (19):669-684.
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  27. Finn Collin & Anders Engstrøm (2001). Metaphor and Truth-Conditional Semantics: Meaning as Process and Product. Theoria 67 (1):75-92.
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  28. Colm Connellan (1980). Metaphor. Philosophical Studies 27:391-394.
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  29. Gemma Corradi Fiumara (1995). The Metaphoric Process: Connections Between Language and Life. Routledge.
    In this monumental work of complex and probing proportions, the renowned feminist and psychoanalyst Gemma Corradi Fiumara surveys the vast literature on metaphor. She suggests that metaphorical language communicates via the creation images, pictures and finds in it an irreducible aspect to interpersonal communication and our use of language itself. Combining an intimate knowledge of psychology and and philosophy to produce a masterful work in the function and role of metaphor in language and life, Fiumara contends that metaphors lead to (...)
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  30. Adam M. Croom (2008). Racial Epithets: What We Say and Mean by Them. Dialogue 51:34-45.
    Racial epithets are terms used to characterize people on the basis of their race, and are often used to harm the people that they target. But what do racial epithets mean, and how do they work to harm in the way that they do? In this essay I set out to answer these questions by offering a pragmatic view of racial epithets, while contrasting my position with Christopher Hom's semantic view.
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  31. Kim Cuddington (2001). The “Balance of Nature” Metaphor and Equilibrium in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):463-479.
    I claim that the balance of nature metaphoris shorthand for a paradigmatic view of natureas a beneficent force. I trace the historicalorigins of this concept and demonstrate that itoperates today in the discipline of populationecology. Although it might be suspected thatthis metaphor is a pre-theoretic description ofthe more precisely defined notion ofequilibrium, I demonstrate that balance ofnature has constricted the meaning ofmathematical equilibrium in population ecology.As well as influencing the meaning ofequilibrium, the metaphor has also loaded themathematical term with values.Environmentalists (...)
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  32. Marcel Danesi (2003). Metaphorical “Networks” and Verbal Communication. Sign Systems Studies 31 (2):341-363.
    This paper presents the notion that verbal discourse is structured, in form and contents, by metaphorical reasoning. It discusses the concept of “metaphorical network” as a framework for relating the parts of a speech act to each other, since such an act seems to cohere into a meaningful text on the basis of “domains” that deliver common concepts. The basic finding of several research projects on this concept suggest that source domains allow speakers to derive sense from a verbal interaction (...)
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  33. Donald Davidson (2010). What Metaphors Mean. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Arguing About Language. Routledge. 31.
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  34. Martin Davies (1982). Idiom and Metaphor. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 83:67-85.
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  35. John B. Davis (1981). Metaphor. Philosophical Studies 28:259-265.
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  36. Rafael de Clercq (2005). Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor, and the Nature of Aesthetic Properties. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):27–32.
    The paper argues that an important class of aesthetic terms cannot be used as metaphors because it is impossible to commit a category mistake with them. It then uses this fact to provide a general definition of 'aesthetic property'.
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  37. Jessica de Villiers & Robert J. Stainton, Differential Pragmatic Abilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Case of Pragmatic Determinants of Literal Content.
    It has become something of a truism that people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with pragmatics. Granting this, however, it is important to keep in mind that there are numerous kinds of pragmatic ability. One very important divide lies between those pragmatic competences which pertain to non-literal contents – as in, for instance, metaphor, irony and Gricean conversational implicatures – and those which pertain to the literal contents of speech acts. It is against this backdrop that our question (...)
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  38. Alexander J. Doherty (2002). Aquinas on Scriptural Metaphor and Allegory. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:183-192.
    This paper attempts to situate Thomas Aquinas with respect to philosophical discussions of the nature of metaphorical language. I consider Aquinas’s comments in the Summa Theologiae on Scriptural metaphor and allegory in the light of two theses in current discussions of metaphor: the substitution thesis and the dual-meaning thesis. I compare Aquinas’s view to those of Aristotle and Donald Davidson. The substitution thesis asserts that figurative expressions can be replaced by semantically equivalent literal expressions. The dual-meaning thesis asserts that, in (...)
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  39. Shimon Edelman, A New Vision of Language.
    A metaphor that has dominated linguistics for the entire duration of its existence as a discipline views sentences as edifices consisting of Lego-like building blocks. It is assumed that each sentence is constructed (and, on the receiving end, parsed) ab novo, starting (ending) with atomic constituents, to logical semantic specifications, in a recursive process governed by a few precise algebraic rules. The assumptions underlying the Lego metaphor, as it is expressed in generative grammar theories, are: (1) perfect regularity of what (...)
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  40. Andy Egan (2008). Pretense for the Complete Idiom. Noûs 42 (3):381 - 409.
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  41. Jerome A. Feldman (2006/2008). From Molecule to Metaphor: A Neural Theory of Language. Mit Press.
    A theory that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a function of our brains and experience, integrating recent findings from biology, ...
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  42. Thomas Frentz (2011). Creative Metaphors, Synchronicity, and Quantum Physics. Philosophy and Rhetoric 44 (2):101-128.
    The very notion of transposition, the constant theme of a theory of tropes, brings operations into play that legitimate a mixed approach involving psychology and linguistics.The recognition that science cannot do without metaphor—that all theories are elaborations of basic metaphors or systems of metaphors—is only one part of a larger emerging awareness of the pervasiveness of metaphor in all language.Metaphor always has about it precisely this revealing of hitherto unexpected connectives which we may note in the progressions of a dream.In (...)
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  43. Jay L. Garfield (2000). Thought as Language: A Metaphor Too Far. Protosociology 14:85-101.
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  44. Raymond W. Gibbs Jr (1998). Cognitive Science Meets Metaphor and Metaphysics. Minds and Machines 8 (3):433-436.
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  45. Jerry H. Gill (1979/1996). Wittgenstein and Metaphor. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 40 (2):272-284.
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  46. Michael Glanzberg (2007). Metaphor and Lexical Semantics. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3 (1):1-47.
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  47. Sam Glucksberg & Catrinel Haught (2006). On the Relation Between Metaphor and Simile: When Comparison Fails. Mind and Language 21 (3):360–378.
    Since Aristotle, many writers have treated metaphors and similes as equals: any metaphor can be paraphrased as a simile, and vice-versa. This property of metaphors is the basis for psycholinguistic comparison theories of metaphor comprehension. However, if metaphors cannot always be paraphrased as similes, then comparison theories must be abandoned. The different forms of a metaphor—the comparison and categorical forms—have different referents. In comparison form, the metaphor vehicle refers to the literal concept, e.g. 'in my lawyer is like a shark', (...)
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  48. Esther Romero González & Belén Soria Clivillés (2007). A View of Novel Metaphor in the Light of Recanati's Proposals. In María José Frápolli (ed.), Saying, Meaning and Referring: Essays on François Recanati's Philosophy of Language. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  49. James Grant (2013). The Critical Imagination. Oxford University Press.
    The Critical Imagination is a study of metaphor, imaginativeness, and criticism of the arts. Since the eighteenth century, many philosophers have argued that appreciating art is rewarding because it involves responding imaginatively to a work. Literary works can be interpreted in many ways; architecture can be seen as stately, meditative, or forbidding; and sensitive descriptions of art are often colourful metaphors: music can 'shimmer', prose can be 'perfumed', and a painter's colouring can be 'effervescent'. Engaging with art, like creating it, (...)
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  50. James Grant (2011). Metaphor and Criticism BSA Prize Essay, 2010. British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (3):237-257.
    The prevalence of colourful metaphors and figurative language in critics’ descriptions of artworks has long attracted attention. Talk of ‘liquid melodies’, ‘purple prose’, ‘soaring arches’, and the use of still more elaborate figurative descriptions, is not uncommon. My aim in this paper is to explain why metaphor is so prevalent in critical description. Many have taken the prevalence of art-critical metaphors to reveal something important about aesthetic experience and aesthetic properties. My focus is different. I attempt to determine what metaphor (...)
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