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  1. B. A. (1962). Metaphor and Reality. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):169-170.
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  2. S. C. A. (1982). Root Metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 36 (1):162-163.
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  3. Klaus Abels & Luiza Martí (forthcoming). Propositions or Choice Functions: What Do Quantifiers Quantify Over. Natural Language Semantics.
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  4. William P. Alston (1980). Irreducible Metaphors in Theology. In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Cornell Up. 17-38.
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  5. Alexandra Arapinis (forthcoming). Whole-for-Part Metonymy as Classification Exploiting Functional Integrity. Linguistics and Philosophy.
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  6. Elizabeth Ashton (1997). Extending the Scope of Metaphor: An Examination of Definitions Old and New and Their Significance for Education. Educational Studies 23 (2):195-208.
    This article provides an analysis of theories of metaphor, tracing how far those which have dominated Western thought until the past few decades are reflective of the definitions within which writers from Classical Greece were working. It is shown how, during the Middle Ages and beyond, in particular since the seventeenth century, definitions of metaphor which emphasised ‘literal’ and ‘figurative’ levels of meaning have led to serious misconceptions concerning its nature and function in the attempts of human beings to conceptualise (...)
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  7. Elizabeth Ashton (1994). Metaphor in Context: An Examination of the Significance of Metaphor for Reflection and Communication. Educational Studies 20 (3):357-366.
    This article shows how metaphor is basic to language structure. It is illustrated with practical examples of how metaphor is found within different social and cultural contexts, irrespective of historical time. Numerous examples are given of how metaphor works in efforts to communicate meaning. From an early age, young children are initiated into the use of metaphor. This appears to be understood intuitively, and examples of words games and riddles are given to show how children become familiar with the symbolic (...)
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  8. A. B. (1962). Metaphor and Reality. Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):169-170.
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  9. D. B. B. (1964). The Human Metaphor. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):184-184.
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  10. Daniela Bailer-Jones (2004). Review: Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):811-815.
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  11. John R. Baker (1996). The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor. Anthropology of Consciousness 7 (2):28-30.
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  12. G. S. Baranov (2005). Filosofii͡a Metafory. Kuzbassvuzizdat.
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  13. John Barnden (2014). Metaphor, Simile, and the Exaggeration of Likeness. Metaphor and Symbol 30 (1):41-62.
    This article reveals an overlooked way of interpreting sentences like “The Internet is crack [cocaine]” or “Libraries are supermarkets.” Many existing theories of metaphor could apply here. However, they can instead be interpreted in a likeness-exaggerating way, under which “Libraries are supermarkets” is simply an exaggerated way of saying that libraries are like supermarkets to a very high degree. This interpretation option follows from simple, general considerations about exaggeration and likeness scales. In this way it is preferable to the abbreviated-simile (...)
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  14. John A. Barnden (1997). Metaphors of Mind1. In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins. 9--311.
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  15. J. Barnouw (1979). The Rule of Metaphor. Multi-Disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Review of Metaphysics 33 (1):200-204.
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  16. Patrick Bastable (1987). Metaphor and Religious Language. Philosophical Studies 31:454-456.
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  17. Monroe C. Beardsley (1962). The Metaphorical Twist. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (3):293-307.
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  18. Sherrill Jean Begres (1992). Metaphor and Constancy of Meaning. Grazer Philosophische Studien 43:143-161.
    The prevalent theories of metaphor in the literature, with very few exceptions, involve a conversion of either meaning or reference from the literal meaning or reference of the metaphor to either a corresponding simile or to a metaphorical meaning or reference. In this essay an altemative to the conversion view - i.e., a constancy theory - is offered that requires no such conversions. H.R Grice's notions of conversational maximes and implicatures provide a conceptual framework within which to account for metaphors (...)
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  19. Teresa Bejarano-Fernández (1999). Prelinguistic Metaphors? Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):361-373.
    The gap between the prelinguistic and the linguistic levels cannot be bridged as easily as Lakoff's cognitive linguistics suggests. Lakoff's event structure metaphor is reviewed here. Compared with physical movement, the bringing together of separated elements which occurs in predication would not be metaphorical only because it departs from concrete physical experience, but, more significantly, because it relies on elements artificially separated by means of language. However, if we do not overlook this fundamental leap, the event structure metaphor is a (...)
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  20. Motti Benari (2004). If It is Different Then How Come It is Similar? The Impressions of Sameness and Difference Experienced by Readers of Metaphoric Language. Pragmatics and Cognition 12 (2):351-374.
    In the current study of metaphor it is commonly assumed that during a metaphorical reading both an impression of dissimilarity and an impression of similarity are created in the reader's mind. These separate impressions exist simultaneously and each of them is considered to have linear relations with the metaphor's aptness without either coming at the expense of the other. Thus far this assumption has never received any satisfactory theoretical justification. In this paper I discuss the problem of the simultaneous existence (...)
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  21. Wm L. Benzon & David G. Hays (2008). Metaphor, Recognition and Neural Process. American Journal of Semiotics 5 (1):59-79.
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  22. Douglas Berggren (1963). The Use and Abuse of Metaphor, II. Review of Metaphysics 16 (3):450 - 472.
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  23. Merrie Bergmann (1982). Metaphorical Assertions. Philosophical Review 91 (2):229-245.
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  24. A. Bezuidenhout (2008). Metaphorical Singular Reference. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3 (2):1-22.
    It is widely accepted that, in the course of inter- preting a metaphorical utterance, both literal and metaphorical interpretations of the utterance are available to the interpreter, al- though there may be disagreement about the order in which these interpretations are accessed. I call this the dual availability as- sumption. I argue that it does not apply in cases of metaphorical singular reference. These are cases in which proper names, com- plex demonstratives or definite descriptions are used metaphor- ically; e.g., (...)
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  25. Anne Bezuidenhout (2001). Metaphor and What is Said: A Defense of a Direct Expression View of Metaphor. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 25 (1):156–186.
    According to one widely held view of metaphor, metaphors are cases in which the speaker (literally) says one thing but means something else instead. I wish to challenge this idea. I will argue that when one utters a sentence in some context intending it to be understood metaphorically, one directly expresses a proposition, which can potentially be evaluated as either true or false. This proposition is what is said by the utterance of the sentence in that context. We don’t convey (...)
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  26. Raj Nath Bhat (2012). Metaphor Networks: The Comparative Evolution of Figurative Language. By Richard Trim. The European Legacy 17 (3):400 - 400.
    The European Legacy, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 400, June 2012.
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  27. Timothy Binkley (1974). On the Truth and Probity of Metaphor. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (2):171-180.
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  28. Max Black (2010). How Metaphors Work : A Reply to Donald Davidson. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Arguing About Language. Routledge. 131.
    To be able to produce and understand metaphorical statements is nothing much to boast about: these familiar skills, which children seem to acquire as they learn to talk, are perhaps no more remarkable than our ability to tell and to understand jokes. How odd then that it remains difficult to explain what we do in grasping metaphorical statements. In a provocative paper, "What Metaphors Mean,"1 Donald Davidson has recently charged many students of metaphor, ancient and modern, with having committed a (...)
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  29. Max Black (1977). More About Metaphor. Dialectica 31 (3‐4):431-457.
    SummaryAn elaboration and defense of the “interaction view of metaphor” introduced in the author's earlier study, “Metaphor” . Special attention is paid to the explication of the metaphors used in the earlier account.The topics discussed include: selection of the “targets” of the theory; classification of metaphors; how metaphorical statements work; relations between metaphors and similes; metaphorical thought; criteria of recognition; the “creative” aspects of metaphors; the ontological status of metaphors.Metaphors are found to be more closely connected with background models than (...)
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  30. David Blank (1994). Analogy, Anomaly, and Apollonius. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press.
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  31. Ben Blumson, 'Metaphorically'.
    Not every metaphor can be literally paraphrased by a corresponding simile – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is not the literal meaning of ‘Juliet is like the sun’. But every metaphor can be literally paraphrased, since if ‘metaphorically’ is prefixed to a metaphor, the result says literally what the metaphor says figuratively – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is the literal meaning of ‘metaphorically, Juliet is the sun’.
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  32. Vittoria Borso-Borgarello (1986). Metaphor and Myth in Contemporary Theory. Semiotics:328-339.
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  33. C. Broniak (1987). Metaphor as a Function of Language, Intention, and Interpretation. Gnosis 3 (1):18-34.
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  34. Robert Brown (1965). Metaphorical Assertions. Philosophical Studies 16 (1-2):6 - 8.
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  35. Theodore L. Brown (2008). Making Truth: Metaphor in Science. University of Illinois Press.
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  36. Mark Burgin & Denijel Rotbart (1998). Metaphor as an Exact Concept in the Theory of Properties. Theoria 41 (2):91-103.
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  37. Antonio Calcagno (2001). Metaphor in Context. Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):162-164.
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  38. William Cameron (1978). Philosophy, Metaphor, and Taste. Journal of Value Inquiry 12 (4):241-257.
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  39. Elisabeth Camp (2008). Showing, Telling and Seeing. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3:1-24.
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  40. Elisabeth Camp (2007). Showing, Telling and Seeing. Metaphor and “Poetic” Language. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3 (1).
    Theorists often associate certain “poetic” qualities with metaphor – most especially, producing an open-ended, holistic perspective which is evocative, imagistic and affectively-laden. I argue that, on the one hand, non-cognitivists are wrong to claim that metaphors only produce such perspectives: like ordinary literal speech, they also serve to undertake claims and other speech acts with propositional content. On the other hand, contextualists are wrong to assimilate metaphor to literal loose talk: metaphors depend on using one thing as a perspective for (...)
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  41. Elisabeth Camp (2006). Metaphor and That Certain 'Je Ne Sais Quoi'. Philosophical Studies 129 (1):1 - 25.
    Philosophers have traditionally inclined toward one of two opposite extremes when it comes to metaphor. On the one hand, partisans of metaphor have tended to believe that metaphors do something different in kind from literal utterances; it is a ‘heresy’, they think, either to deny that what metaphors do is genuinely cognitive, or to assume that it can be translated into literal terms. On the other hand, analytic philosophers have typically denied just this: they tend to assume that if metaphors (...)
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  42. Elisabeth Camp (2006). Contextualism, Metaphor, and What is Said. Mind and Language 21 (3):280–309.
    On a familiar and prima facie plausible view of metaphor, speakers who speak metaphorically say one thing in order to mean another. A variety of theorists have recently challenged this view; they offer criteria for distinguishing what is said from what is merely meant, and argue that these support classifying metaphor within 'what is said'. I consider four such criteria, and argue that when properly understood, they support the traditional classification instead. I conclude by sketching how we might extract a (...)
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  43. Elisabeth Camp (2005). Review: Josef Stern, Metaphor in Context. [REVIEW] Noûs 39 (4):715-731.
    Metaphor is a crucially context-dependent linguistic phenomenon. This fact was not clearly recognized until some time in the 1970’s. Until then, most theorists assumed that a sentence must have a fixed set of metaphorical meanings, if it had any at all. Often, they also assumed that metaphoricity was the product of grammatical deviance, in the form of a category mistake. To compensate for this deviance, they thought, at least one of the sentence’s constituent terms underwent a meaning-changing ‘metaphorical twist’, which (...)
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  44. Elisabeth Camp (2005). Josef Stern, Metaphor in Context (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). Noûs 39 (4):715–731.
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  45. Elisabeth Maura Camp (2003). Saying and Seeing-As: The Linguistic Uses and Cognitive Effects of Metaphor. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    Metaphor is a pervasive and significant feature of language. We use metaphor to talk about the world in familiar and innovative ways, and in contexts ranging from everyday conversation to literature and scientific theorizing. However, metaphor poses serious challenges for standard philosophical theories of meaning, because it straddles so many important boundaries: between language and thought, between semantics and pragmatics, between rational communication and mere causal association. ;In this dissertation, I develop a pragmatic theory of metaphorical utterances which reconciles two (...)
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  46. J. Carbonell (1982). Metaphor Comprehension. In W. Lehnert (ed.), Strategies for Natural Language Processing. Lawrence Erlbaum. 413--433.
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  47. James D. Carney (1983). The Meaning of a Metaphor. Philosophical Studies 44 (2):257 - 267.
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  48. N. Carston, Metaphor, Ad Hoc Concepts and Word Meaning - More Questions Than Answers.
    Recent work in relevance-theoretic pragmatics develops the idea that understanding verbal utterances involves processes of ad hoc concept construction. The resulting concepts may be narrower or looser than the lexical concepts which provide the input to the process. Two of the many issues that arise are considered in this paper: (a) the applicability of the idea to the understanding of metaphor, and (b) the extent to which lexical forms are appropriately thought of as encoding concepts.
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  49. Robyn Carston (2012). Metaphor and the Literal–Nonliteral Distinction. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press. 469--492.
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  50. Robyn Carston (2010). Metaphor: Ad Hoc Concepts, Literal Meaning and Mental Images. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3pt3):295-321.
    I propose that an account of metaphor understanding which covers the full range of cases has to allow for two routes or modes of processing. One is a process of rapid, local, on-line concept construction that applies quite generally to the recovery of word meaning in utterance comprehension. The other requires a greater focus on the literal meaning of sentences or texts, which is metarepresented as a whole and subjected to more global, reflective pragmatic inference. The questions whether metaphors convey (...)
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