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Metaphysics

Edited by Jonathan Schaffer (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
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  1. added 2016-05-27
    Andrew Spear, Werner Cuesters & Barry Smith (forthcoming). Functions in Basic Formal Ontology. Applied Ontology 11.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  2. added 2016-05-27
    Peter Langland-Hassan (forthcoming). Imagining Experiences. Noûs.
    It is often held that in imagining experiences we exploit a special imagistic way of representing mentality—one that enables us to think about mental states in terms of what it is like to have them. According to some, when this way of thinking about the mind is paired with more objective means, an explanatory gap between the phenomenal and physical features of mental states arises. This paper advances a view along those lines, but with a twist. What many take for (...)
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  3. added 2016-05-27
    Gbenga Fasiku (2010). The Metaphysics of Natural Kinds: An Essentialist Approach. Lambert Academic Publishing.
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  4. added 2016-05-26
    Carrie Jenkins (forthcoming). What Love Is And What It Could Be. Basic Books.
    This book unpicks the conceptual, ideological, and metaphysical tangles that get in the way of understanding romantic love. -/- Written for a general audience, What Love Is And What It Could Be explores different disciplinary perspectives on love, in search of the bigger picture. It presents a "dual-nature" theory: romantic love is simultaneously both a biological phenomenon and a social construct. The key philosophical insight comes in explaining why this a coherent—and indeed a necessary—position to take. -/- The deep motivation (...)
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  5. added 2016-05-25
    David Widerker (forthcoming). In Defense of Non-Causal Libertarianism. American Philosophical Quarterly.
    Non-Causal Libertarianism (NCL) is a libertarian position which aims to provide a non-causal account of action and freedom to do otherwise. NCL has been recently criticized from a number of quarters, notably from proponents of free will skepticism and agent-causation. The main complaint that has been voiced against NCL is that it does not provide a plausible account of an agent’s control over her action, and therefore, the account of free action it offers is inadequate. Some critics (mainly agent-causationists) have (...)
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  6. added 2016-05-25
    Kathy Behrendt (2016). Learning to Be Dead: The Narrative Problem of Mortality. In Michael Cholbi (ed.), Immortality and the Philosophy of Death. 157-172.
    The problem of mortality treats death as posing a paradox for the narrative view of the self. This view, on some interpretations, needs death in order to complete a life in a manner analogous to the ending of a story. But death is inaccessible to the subject herself, and so the analogy fails. Our inability to grasp the event of our own death is thought to undermine the possibility of achieving a meaningful, coherent, or complete life on narrativist terms. Narrativist (...)
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  7. added 2016-05-25
    Ari Maunu (2015). Leibnizian Rejection of Standard Thought Experiments Against Identity of Indiscernibles. Metaphysica 16 (2):189-193.
    It is argued that from a genuine Leibnizian point of view the well-known thought experiment, call it BTE, involving a possible world with only two exactly similar objects, cannot be used to refute Leibniz's Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles (LIdI). If the claim that there are two objects in BTE is based on primitive thisnesses, the Leibnizian objection is that there are no such things; and even if there were, then, quite generally, something true of one object – that (...)
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  8. added 2016-05-23
    Chad Vance (forthcoming). Modal Truthmakers, Truth Conditions, and Analyses: Or, How to Avoid the Humphrey Objection. Acta Analytica.
    Truthmakers, truth conditions, and analyses are closely related, but distinct in rather important ways. A failure to properly appreciate their differences has led to some confusion regarding the role that possible worlds ought to play with respect to modality. Those philosophers who initially proposed the existence of possible worlds were understood as providing an analysis of modality. More recently, many have interpreted them as providing modal truthmakers. But, possible worlds are (at best) only suited to serve as truth conditions for (...)
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  9. added 2016-05-20
    James Tartaglia (2016). Philosophy in a Meaningless Life. Bloomsbury.
    This book combines an account of the autonomy of philosophy with a new theory of consciousness. The account of philosophy is rooted in the question of the meaning of life. This question, it is argued, is neither obscure nor obsolete, but rather reflects an ancient and natural concern to which all other traditional philosophical problems can be squarely related; allowing them to be reconnected with natural sources of interest, and providing a diagnosis of the typical lines of opposition to be (...)
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  10. added 2016-05-18
    Daniel Schulthess, Bergson, Truth-Making, and the Retrograde Movement of the True. Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Kevin Mulligan.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was one of the main exponents of evolutionary thinking in the later nineteenth and early twentieth century. He gave that kind of thinking an unprecedented metaphysical turn. In consequence of his versatility he also encountered the notion of truth-making, which he connected with his ever-present concerns about time and duration. Eager to stress the dimension of radical change and of novelty in the nature of things, he rejected (in one form) what he called “the retrograde movement of (...)
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  11. added 2016-05-18
    Jan Woleński, Truth-Makers and Convention T. Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Kevin Mulligan.
    This papers discuss the place, if any, of Convention T (the condition of material adequacy of the proper definition of truth formulated by Tarski) in the truth-makers account offered by Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons and Barry Smith. It is argued that although Tarski’s requirement seems entirely acceptable in the frameworks of truth-makers theories for the first-sight, several doubts arise under a closer inspection. In particular, T-biconditionals have no clear meaning as sentences about truth-makers. Thus, truth-makers theory cannot be considered as (...)
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  12. added 2016-05-17
    Tabea Hirzel (2015). Principles of Liberty: A Design-Based Research on Liberty as A Priori Constitutive Principle of the Social in the Swiss Nation Story. Dissertation, SCM University, Zug, Switzerland
    One of the still unsolved problems in liberal anarchism is a definition of social constituency in positive terms. Partially, this had been solved by the advancements of liberal discourse ethics. These approaches, built on praxeology as a universal framework for social formation, are detached from the need of any previous or external authority or rule for the discursive partners. However, the relationship between action, personal identity, and liberty within the process of a community becoming solely generated from the praxeological a (...)
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  13. added 2016-05-17
    Lina Jansson (2015). Explanatory Asymmetries: Laws of Nature Rehabilitated. Journal of Philosophy 112 (11):577-599.
    The problem of explanatory non-symmetries provides the strongest reason to abandon the view that laws can figure in explanations without causal underpinnings. I argue that this problem can be overcome. The solution that I propose starts from noticing the importance of conditions of application when laws do explanatory work, and I go on to develop a notion of nomological dependence that can tackle the non-symmetry problem. The strategy is to show how a strong notion of counterfactual dependence as guaranteed by (...)
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  14. added 2016-05-16
    Patrick Chiso, Heidegger, Levinas: Being a Face in the Real World.
    The universe is full of beings. Throughout the history of philosophy and of human thought many have sought ways to articulate this multiplicity and unity of being. The result, in western philosophy at least, was the birth of Metaphysics in general, and Ontology in particular. In the past, the discourse on being became very abstract such that it had no resemblance to being as encountered every day. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), set out to re-orient being towards the lived experience. He called (...)
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  15. added 2016-05-16
    Ann A. Pang-White (2016). Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,”. In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender. 69-88.
    In Chinese philosophy’s encounter with modernity and feminist discourse, Neo-Confucianism often suffered the most brutal attacks and criticisms. In “Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,” Ann A. Pang-White investigates Song Neo-Confucians’ views (in particular, that of Zhu Xi) on women by examining the Classifi ed Conversations of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi Yulei), the Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsi Lu), Further Reflections on Things at Hand (Xu Jinsi Lu), and other texts. Pang-White also takes a close (...)
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  16. added 2016-05-16
    Simon Prosser (2016). Experiencing Time. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does (...)
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  17. added 2016-05-16
    Janna Hastings, Werner Ceusters, Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (2012). Annotating Affective Neuroscience Data with the Emotion Ontology. In Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. ICBO 1-5.
    The Emotion Ontology is an ontology covering all aspects of emotional and affective mental functioning. It is being developed following the principles of the OBO Foundry and Ontological Realism. This means that in compiling the ontology, we emphasize the importance of the nature of the entities in reality that the ontology is describing. One of the ways in which realism-based ontologies are being successfully used within biomedical science is in the annotation of scientific research results in publicly available databases. Such (...)
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  18. added 2016-05-16
    F. Macbride, Relations and Truthmaking II.
    Can Bradley's Regress be Solved by positing relational tropes as truthmakers? No, no more than Russell's Paradox can be solved by positing Fregean extensions. To call a trope relational is to pack into its essence the relating function it is supposed to perform but without explaining what Bradley's Regress calls into question, viz. the capacity of relations to relate. This problem has been masked from view by the assumption that the only genuine ontological problems that can be intelligibly raised are (...)
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  19. added 2016-05-15
    Mike Sutton, Justice, Knowledge, Life and Death: Philosophical Revelations From Plato, Ayer, Sartre and Heidegger Some Suggestions for Those New to Philosophy. Academia.Edu.
    "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer" by John Keats, may seem archaic now, especially its language. But it expresses the poet's delight and excitement when he discovers a new literary revelation, hitherto hidden from him. He makes an intellectual discovery. -/- I've had this sense of discovery when reading philosophy. Some new approach, some new idea, has made me see a concept I thought I understood in a different and more rigorous way; made me re- examine what I thought I'd (...)
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  20. added 2016-05-15
    Boris Hennig (2016). Four Causes. Www.Borishennig.De.
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  21. added 2016-05-15
    Valentin Cheshko, Valery Glazko & Yulia Kosova (2013). The Problem of Estimation of Evolutionary Risk of High Tech in the Concept of Stable Adaptive Strategy of Homo Sapiens. In Teodor N. Țîrdea (ed.), Strategia supravie uirii din perspectiva bioeticii, filosofiei și medicinei. Culegere de articole științifice. Vol. 3. Print-Caro 157-161.
  22. added 2016-05-14
    Fabian Dorsch (2016). Hume. In Amy Kind (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Imagination. Routledge 40-54.
    This chapter overviews Hume’s thoughts on the nature and role of imagining and focusses primarily on three important distinctions that Hume draws among our conscious mental episodes: (i) between impressions and ideas; (ii) between ideas of the memory and ideas of the imagination; and (iii), among the ideas of the imagination, between ideas of the judgement and ideas of the fancy. In addition, the chapter considers Hume’s views on the imagination as a faculty of producing ideas, as well as on (...)
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  23. added 2016-05-14
    Luca Forgione (2015). Kant on de Re. Some Aspects of the Kantian Non-Conceptualism Debate. Kant Studies Online:32-64.
    In recent years non-conceptual content theorists have taken Kant as a reference point on account of his notion of intuition (§§ 1-2). The present work aims at exploring several complementary issues intertwined with the notion of non-conceptual content: of these, the first concerns the role of the intuition as an indexical representation (§ 3), whereas the second applies to the presence of a few epistemic features articulated according to the distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description (§ 4). (...)
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  24. added 2016-05-14
    Barry Smith (2008). The Benefits of Realism: A Realist Logic with Applications. In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Walter de Gruyter 109-124.
    We propose a formalization of a realist ontology using first order logic with identity and allowing quantification over terms representing both individuals and universals. In addition to identity, the ontology includes also relational predicates such as subtype, instantiation, parthood, location, and inherence. Inspired in part by Davidson’s treatment of events, the ontology includes also various relations linking events to their participants and to the times at which they occur.
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  25. added 2016-05-14
    Matt Farr, Review of Mathias Frisch's Causal Reasoning in Physics. [REVIEW]
    Review of 'Causal Reasoning in Physics' by Mathias Frisch for British Journal for Philosophy of Science.
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  26. added 2016-05-13
    Andrew M. Bailey & Joshua Rasmussen (forthcoming). How Valuable Could a Material Object Be? Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    Arguments for substance dualism—the theory that we are at least partly non-material beings—abound. Many such arguments begin with our capacity to engage in conscious thought and end with dualism. Such are familiar. But there is another route to dualism. It begins with our moral value and ends with dualism. In this article, we develop and assess the prospects for this new style of argument. We show that, though one extant version of the argument does not succeed, there may yet be (...)
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  27. added 2016-05-13
    Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). Nominalizations: The Case of Nominalizations of Modal Predicates. In Lisa Matthewson, Cécile Meier, Hotze Rullman & Thomas Ede Zimmermann (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Semantics. Wiley
    Nominalizations of modal predicates have received little, if any, attention in the semantic or philosophical literature. This paper will argue that nominalizations of modal predicates require recognizing a novel ontological category of modal objects and it will outline a new semantics of modals based on modal objects.
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  28. added 2016-05-13
    Fabian Dorsch (forthcoming). Knowledge by Imagination - How Imaginative Experience Can Ground Knowledge. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy.
    In this article, I defend the view that we can acquire factual knowledge – that is, contingent propositional knowledge about certain (perceivable) aspects of reality – on the basis of imaginative experience. More specifically, I argue that, under suitable circumstances, imaginative experiences can rationally determine the propositional content of knowledge-constituting beliefs – though not their attitude of belief – in roughly the same way as perceptual experiences do in the case of perceptual knowledge. I also highlight (...)
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  29. added 2016-05-13
    Ann A. Pang-White (ed.) (2016). Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender. Bloomsbury Academic.
    Covering the historical, social, political, and cultural contexts, The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender presents a comprehensive overview of the complexity of gender disparity in Chinese thought and culture. -/- Divided into four main sections, an international group of experts in Chinese Studies write on Confucian, Daoist and Buddhist approaches to gender relations. Each section includes a general introduction, a set of authoritative articles written by leading scholars and comprehensive bibliographies, designed to provide the non-specialist with a (...)
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  30. added 2016-05-12
    Marius Stan (forthcoming). Rationalist Foundations and the Science of Force. In Brandon Look & Frederick Beiser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of German Eighteenth-Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press
  31. added 2016-05-11
    Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen (2016). Bradley's Reductio of Relations and Formal Ontological Relations. In Hemmo Laiho & Arto Repo (eds.), DE NATURA RERUM - Scripta in honorem professoris Olli Koistinen sexagesimum annum complentis. University of Turku 246-261.
    In this paper, we argue that formal ontological relations avoid Bradley's reductio of relations, including his famous relation regress.
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  32. added 2016-05-11
    Jonathan Surovell (2016). The Bradleyan Regress, Non-Relational Realism, and the Quinean Semantic Strategy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 93 (1):63-79.
    Non-Relational Realism is a popular solution to the Bradleyan regress of facts or truths. It denies that there is a relational universal of exemplification; for an object a to exemplify a universal F-ness, on this view, is not for a relation to subsist between a and F-ness. An influential objection to Non-Relational Realism is that it is unacceptably obscure. The author argues that Non-Relational Realism can be understood as a selective application of satisfaction semantics to predicates like ‘exemplify’, and that (...)
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  33. added 2016-05-11
    Jani Hakkarainen (2015). Hume on Spatial Properties. In Guigon Ghislain & Rodriguez-Pereyra Gonzalo (eds.), Nominalism about Properties. Routledge 79-94.
    I defend a reading of David Hume’s nominalism that he comes close to Keith Campbell's contemporary trope theory in the specific case of spatial properties. I argue that Hume's view should be construed as classifying spatial properties as Campbellian tropes (particular properties): abstract, particular, determinate and qualitatively simple properties. This has implications for reconstructing Hume's answer to the problem of universals. I argue that Hume’s account of objects resembling each other in respect of spatial properties (...)
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  34. added 2016-05-11
    Jani Hakkarainen (2012). Hume as a Trope Nominalist. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (supl1):55-66.
    In this paper, I argue that Hume's solution to a problem that contemporary metaphysicians call “the problem of universals” would be rather trope-theoretical than some other type of nominalism. The basic idea in different trope theories is that particular properties, i.e., tropes are postulated to account for the fact that there are particular beings resembling each other. I show that Hume's simple sensible perceptions are tropes: simple qualities. Accordingly, their similarities are explained by these tropes themselves and their resemblance. Reading (...)
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  35. added 2016-05-10
    Daniel Nolan (forthcoming). The Possibilities of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History.
  36. added 2016-05-10
    Tomás N. Castro (2015). Pseudo-Dionysius on the Processes of Negation. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Postgraduates in Ancient Literature 2:1-11.
    One of the most intriguing characters of Late Antiquity is the author who wrote under the pseudonym ‘Dionysius, the Areopagite’. Although the 19th century German scholarship challenged the authenticity of the Corpus Areopagiticum, the interest in this singular synthesis of Greek Neoplatonist philosophy with Christian thought remains significant. Usually, the works of the corpus are organized according to their internal logic: departing from affirmations we find negations excellent, starting with the cataphatic method we prepare apophaticism. It is customary to point (...)
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  37. added 2016-05-08
    Andrei A. Buckareff (forthcoming). Pantheism and Saving God. Sophia:1-9.
    In this paper, I examine Mark Johnston’s panentheistic account of the metaphysics of the divine developed in his recent book, Saving God: Religion After Idolatry. On Johnston’s account, God is the ‘Highest One’ and is identified with ‘the outpouring of Being by way of its exemplification in ordinary existents for the sake of the self-disclosure of Being’. Johnston eschews supernaturalism and takes his position to be consistent with what he calls ‘legitimate naturalism’ which he takes to be some version of (...)
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  38. added 2016-05-07
    Stephen Puryear (forthcoming). Finitism, Divisibility, and the Beginning of the Universe: Replies to Loke and Dumsday. Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    Some philosophers contend that the past must be finite in duration, because otherwise reaching the present would have involved the sequential occurrence of an actual infinity of events, which they regard as impossible. I recently developed a new objection to this finitist argument, to which Andrew Ter Ern Loke and Travis Dumsday have replied. Here I respond to the three main points raised in their replies.
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  39. added 2016-05-07
    Anita Bandrowski, Ryan Brinkman, Mathias Brochhausen, Matthew H. Brush, Bill Bug, Marcus C. Chibucos, Kevin Clancy, Mã©Lanie Courtot, Dirk Derom, Michel Dumontier, Liju Fan, Jennifer Fostel, Gilberto Fragoso, Frank Gibson, Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran & Melissa A. Haendel (2016). The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations. PLoS ONE 11 (4):1-19.
    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to (...)
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  40. added 2016-05-07
    Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate (2015). Una propedéutica a la noción de tiempo y espacio según Leibniz. Veritatem 1 (1):113-130.
    El presente artículo presenta un carácter propedéutico en lo que respecta al tratamiento de las categorías de tiempo y espacio según el planteamiento de Leibniz. La pesquisa aborda en primera instancia una serie de considerandos contextuales en los que se desenvuelve el planteamiento del autor, para posteriormente esbozar, las principales tesis que sustentan el carácter fenoménico de las nociones mencionadas, para luego reflexionar en torno a la unidad y los límites del tiempo y el espacio.
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  41. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2013). نیاز جاودانگی برای معنای زندگی. Falsafeh 6 (72):81-90.
    Persian translation by Seyyed Mostafa Mousavi A’zam of 'The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning' (Ratio 2003).
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  42. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning. In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 416-427.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in Ratio (2003).
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  43. added 2016-05-06
    Fraser MacBride (2016). Relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In this paper I provide a state of the art survey and assessment of the contemporary debate about relations. After (1) distinguishing different varieties of relations, symmetric from non-symmetric, internal from external relations etc. and relations from their set-theoretic models or sequences, I proceed (2) to consider Bradley’s regress and whether relations can be eliminated altogether. Next I turn (3) to the question whether relations can be reduced, bringing to bear considerations from the philosophy of physics as well as metaphysics. (...)
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  44. added 2016-05-06
    Luca Forgione (2016). Kant and Natural Kind Terms. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 31 (1):55-72.
    As is well known, the linguistic/philosophical reflection on natural kind terms has undergone a remarkable development in the early seventies with Putnam and Kripke’s essentialist approaches (cf. §3), touching upon different aspects (metaphysical and epistemological in particular) of Kan’s slant. Preliminarily, however, it might be useful to review some of the theoretical stages in Locke and Leibniz’s approaches on natural kind terms in the light of contemporary reflections (cf. § 2), to eventually pinpoint Kant’s contribution and see how some (...)
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  45. added 2016-05-05
    Filippo Casati & Naoya Fujikawa, Nonexistent Objects as Truth-Makers : Against Crane's Reductionism.
    According to Meinongianism, some objects do not exist but we can legitimately refer to and quantify over them. Moreover, Meinongianism standardly regards nonexistent objects as contributing to the truth-makers of sentences about nonexistent objects. Recently, Tim Crane has proposed a weak form of Meinongianism, a reductionism, which denies any contribution of nonexistent objects to truth-making. His reductionism claims that, even though we can truly talk about nonexistent objects by using singular terms and quantifiers about them, any truth about nonexistent objects (...)
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  46. added 2016-05-05
    Alexander Sandgren (2016). Cruel Intensions: An Essay on Intentional Identity and Intentional Attitudes. Dissertation, The Australian National University
    Some intentional attitudes (beliefs, fears, desires, etc.) have a common focus in spite of there being no object at that focus. For example, two beliefs may be about the same witch even when there are no witches, different astronomers had beliefs directed at Vulcan, even though there is no such planet. This relation of having a common focus, whether or not there is an actual concrete object at that focus, is called intentional identity. In the first part of this thesis (...)
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  47. added 2016-05-05
    Fraser MacBride (2015). "On The Origins of Order: Non-Symmetric or Only Symmetric Relations?". In M. J. Loux & G. Galuzzo (eds.), The Problem of Universals in Contemporary Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 173-94.
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  48. added 2016-05-04
    Srećko Kovač (2015). Causal Interpretation of Gödel's Ontological Proof. In Kordula Świętorzecka (ed.), Gödel's Ontological Argument: History, Modifications, and Controversies. Semper 163.201.
  49. added 2016-05-03
    Jiri Benovsky (forthcoming). 'Nothing Over and Above' or 'Nothing'? On Eliminativism, Reductionism, and Composition. Polish Journal of Philosophy.
    In this article, I am interested in an issue concerning eliminativism about ordinary objects that can be put as the claim that the eliminativist is guilty of postulating the existence of something (atoms arranged tablewise) but not of something that is identical to it (the table). But, as we will see, this turns out to be a problem for everybody except the eliminativist. Indeed, this issue highlights a more general problem about the relationship between an entity and the parts the (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-03
    Barbara Vetter (forthcoming). Williamsonian Modal Epistemology, Possibility-Based. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-30.
    Williamsonian modal epistemology is characterized by two commitments: realism about modality, and anti-exceptionalism about our modal knowledge. Williamson’s own counterfactual-based modal epistemology is the best known implementation of WME, but not the only option that is available. I sketch and defend an alternative implementation which takes our knowledge of metaphysical modality to arise, not from knowledge of counterfactuals, but from our knowledge of ordinary possibility statements of the form ‘x can F’. I defend this view against a criticism indicated in (...)
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