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Metaphysics

Edited by Jonathan Schaffer (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
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  1. added 2016-06-28
    H. G. Callaway (forthcoming). Fundamental Physics, Partial Models and Time’s Arrow. In L. Magnani (ed.), Proceedings of MBR2015. Springer
    This paper explores the scientific viability of the concept of causality—by questioning a central element of the distinction between “fundamental” and non-fundamental physics. It will be argued that the prevalent emphasis on fundamental physics involves formalistic and idealized partial models of physical regularities abstracting from and idealizing the causal evolution of physical systems. The accepted roles of partial models and of the special sciences in the growth of knowledge help demonstrate proper limitations of the concept of fundamental physics. We expect (...)
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  2. added 2016-06-27
    J. H. van Hateren, The Evolved Self has Agency, Purpose, and Unity.
    Recently developed extensions of evolutionary theory are used to explain the human self as an evolved, unitary, and purposeful phenomenon. A basic mechanism that can generate life's agency and goal-directedness is combined with mechanisms that can account for awareness by and of the self, and for the social characteristics of humans. The new theory is largely consistent with major existing theories of the self, in particular theories centred on self-esteem, self-determination theory, and terror management theory. It can therefore be regarded (...)
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  3. added 2016-06-27
    Gonzalo Montenegro (2016). Deleuze em Diálogo com Frémont: tentativas de ler leibniz. Deleuze Em Diálogo Com Frémont Artigos / Articles Trans/Form/Ação, Marília (n. 2, Abr./Jun., 2016):p. 147-174.
    Gilles Deleuze’s research during the 1980s focused on the 17th century German thinker G. W. Leibniz. In 1988, Deleuze published Le Pli, which forms part of a series of works on modern philosophy. This book displays Deleuze’s attention to the interpretations of contemporary commentators on modern philosophy, in this case, on Leibniz. In this context, there occurred a brief and important dialogue between Deleuze and Christiane Frémont, the French commentator and translator of Leibniz, with regard to their respective interpretations of (...)
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  4. added 2016-06-27
    Gilbert Plumer (2016). Argumentatively Evil Storytelling. In D. Mohammend & M. Lewinski (eds.), Argumentation and Reasoned Action: Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Argumentation, Lisbon 2015, Vol. 1. College Publications 615-630.
    What can make storytelling “evil” in the sense that the storytelling leads to accepting a view for no good reason, thus allowing ill-reasoned action? I mean the storytelling can be argumentatively evil, not trivially that (e.g.) the overt speeches of characters can include bad arguments. The storytelling can be argumentatively evil in that it purveys false premises, or purveys reasoning that is formally or informally fallacious. My main thesis is that as a rule, the shorter the fictional narrative, the greater (...)
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  5. added 2016-06-25
    R. Deans, S. E. Lewis, E. Huala, S. S. Anzaldo, Mi Ashburner, J. P. Balhoff, D. C. Blackburn, J. A. Blake, J. Burleigh & B. Chanet (2015). Finding Our Way Through Phenotypes. PLoS Biology 13 (1).
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  6. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo, Flávia Carvalho, Clademir Araldi, Carlos Miraglia, Alberto Semeler, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein, Marco Azevedo & Nythamar de Oliveira (2013). Naturalism: Contemporary Perspectives. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    The basic assumption present in these articles is that naturalism is highly compatible with a wide range of relevant philosophical questions and that, regardless of the classical problems faced by the naturalist, the price paid in endorsing naturalism is lower than that paid by essentialist or supernaturalist theories. Yet, the reader will find a variety of approaches, from naturalism in Moral Philosophy and Epistemology to naturalism in the Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind and of the Aesthetics.
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  7. added 2016-06-24
    Michael Baumgartner & Lorenzo Casini (forthcoming). An Abductive Theory of Constitution. Philosophy of Science.
    The first part of this paper finds Craver’s (2007) mutual manipulability theory (MM) of constitution inadequate, as it definitionally ties constitution to the feasibility of idealized experiments, which, however, are unrealizable in principle. As an alternative, the second part develops an abductive theory of constitution (NDC), which exploits the fact that phenomena and their constituents are unbreakably coupled via common causes. The best explanation for this common-cause coupling is the existence of an additional dependence relation, viz. constitution. Apart from adequately (...)
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  8. added 2016-06-24
    Robin Stenwall (2016). Against Truthmaker Necessitarianism. Logique Et Analyse 59 (233).
    This paper is an argument against Truthmaker Necessitarianism—the doctrine that the existence of a truthmaker necessitates the truth of the proposition it makes true. Armstrong’s sufficiency argument for necessitarianism is examined and shown to be question begging. It is then argued in detail that truthmaking is a matter of grounding truth and that grounding is a dependency relation that neither entails nor reduces to necessitation.
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  9. added 2016-06-24
    D. M. Armstrong (2016). What is a Law of Nature? Cambridge University Press.
    First published in 1985, D. M. Armstrong's original work on what laws of nature are has continued to be influential in the areas of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Presenting a definitive attack on the sceptical Humean view, that laws are no more than a regularity of coincidence between stances of properties, Armstrong establishes his own theory and defends it concisely and systematically against objections. Presented in a fresh twenty-first-century series livery, and including a specially commissioned preface written by Marc (...)
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  10. added 2016-06-24
    Karen Green (2016). On the Error of Treating Functions as Objects. Analysis and Metaphysics 15.
  11. added 2016-06-24
    Joseph Rouse, Mechanisms as Modal Patterns.
    Philosophical discussions of mechanisms and mechanistic explanation have often been framed by contrast to laws and deductive-nomological explanation. A more adequate conception of lawfulness and nomological necessity, emphasizing the role of modal considerations in scientific reasoning, circumvents such contrasts and enhances understanding of mechanisms and their scientific significance. The first part of the paper sketches this conception of lawfulness, drawing upon Haugeland, Lange, and Rouse. This conception emphasizes the role of lawful stability under relevant counterfactual suppositions in scientific reasoning across (...)
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  12. added 2016-06-24
    Randolph Clarke & Thomas Reed (2015). Free Will and Agential Powers. Oxford Studies in Agency and Moral Responsibility 3:6-33.
    Free will is often said—by compatibilists and incompatibilists alike—to be a power (or complex of powers) of agents. This paper offers proposals for, and examines the prospects of, a powers-conception of free will that takes the powers in question to be causal dispositions. A difficulty for such an account stems from the idea that when one exercises free will, it is up to oneself whether one wills to do this or that. The paper also briefly considers whether a powers-conception that (...)
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  13. added 2016-06-22
    Daniele Sgaravatti (2016). Is Knowledge of Essence Required for Thinking About Something? Dialectica 70 (2):217-228.
    Lowe claims that having knowledge of the essence of an object is a precondition for thinking about it. Lowe supports this claim with roughly the following argument: you cannot think about something unless you know what you are thinking about; and to know what it is that you are thinking about just is to know its essence. I will argue that this line of reasoning fails because of an equivocation in the expression ‘what a thing is’, which can be used (...)
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  14. added 2016-06-22
    Konstantinos Nikoloudakis (2016). CHART FOR THE PRINCIPLE OF THE WORLD. Kosmologia.Gr:02.
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  15. added 2016-06-22
    Daniel Cohnitz (2006). Gedankenexperimente in der Philosophie. Mentis.
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  16. added 2016-06-22
    Agustín Rayo, Essence Without Fundamentality.
    I argue for a conception of essence that does not rely on distinctions of metaphysical fundamentality.
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  17. added 2016-06-21
    Patrik Hummel (forthcoming). Against the Complex Versus Simple Distinction. Erkenntnis:1-16.
    This paper examines three proposals on the difference between the complex and the simple view about personal identity: Parfit’s original introduction of the distinction, Gasser and Stefan’s definition, and Noonan’s recent proposal. I argue that the first two classify the paradigm cases of simplicity as complex, while Noonan’s proposal makes simplicity and complexity turn on features whose relevance for the distinction is questionable. Given these difficulties, I examine why we should be interested in whether a position is complex or simple. (...)
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  18. added 2016-06-20
    Tristan Haze (forthcoming). On Identity Statements: In Defense of a Sui Generis View. Disputatio.
    This paper is about the meaning and function of identity statements involving proper names. There are two prominent views on this topic, according to which identity statements ascribe a relation: the object-view, on which identity statements ascribe a relation borne by all objects to themselves, and the name-view, on which an identity statement 'a is b' says that the names 'a' and 'b' codesignate. The object- and name-views may seem to exhaust the field. I make a case for treating identity (...)
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  19. added 2016-06-19
    Kevin Morris (forthcoming). Physicalism, Truthmaking, and Levels of Reality: Prospects and Problems. Topoi:1-10.
    This paper considers the extent to which the notion of truthmaking can play a substantive role in defining physicalism. While a truthmaking-based approach to physicalism is prima facie attractive, there is some reason to doubt that truthmaking can do much work when it comes to understanding physicalism, and perhaps austere metaphysical frameworks in general. First, despite promising to dispense with higher-level properties and states, truthmaking appears to make little progress on issues concerning higher-level items and how they are related to (...)
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  20. added 2016-06-18
    B. R. George, What Even is 'Gender'?
    This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and exhausting the possible types of simple associations and identities based on these. The resulting system is significantly more fine-grained than most competitors, and helps to clarify a number of points of confusion and conceptual tension in academic and activist conversations about feminism, transgender politics, and the social analysis of gender.
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  21. added 2016-06-18
    Ray Scott Percival (1996). The Metaphysics of Scarcity. The Critical Rationalist 1 (2):1 - 31.
    Natural resources are infinite. This is possible because humans can create theories whose potential goes beyond the limited imaginative capacity of the inventor. For instance, no number of people can work out all the economic potential of quantum theory. Economic Resources are created by an interaction of Karl Popper's Worlds 1, 2 k 3, the worlds of physics, psychology and the abstract products of the human mind, such as scientific theories. Knowledge such as scientific theories has unfathomable information content, is (...)
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  22. added 2016-06-18
    Ray Scott Percival (1996). The Metaphysics of Scarcity. The Critical Rationalist 1 (2):1 - 31.
    Natural resources are infinite. This is possible because humans can create theories whose potential goes beyond the limited imaginative capacity of the inventor. For instance, no number of people can work out all the economic potential of quantum theory. Economic Resources are created by an interaction of Karl Popper's Worlds 1, 2 k 3, the worlds of physics, psychology and the abstract products of the human mind, such as scientific theories. Knowledge such as scientific theories has unfathomable information content, is (...)
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  23. added 2016-06-17
    Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate (2016). Reseña: William Large. Levinas' Totality and Infinity. Londres Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015, pp. 138. [REVIEW] Revista Estudios (32):305-314.
    La editorial Bloom s bury coloca al servicio de la comunidad académica, y específicamente a los investigadores de la obra de Emmanuel Levinas, un texto titulado "Levinas' Totality and Infinity". P resenta como objetivo, introducir a la lectura de la obra fundante de Levinas "Totalidad e Infinito" (TI). TI es un texto con una intrincada complejidad, su atípica estructura y desarrollo narrativo puede convertirse en todo un desafío para el neófito lect or de l a obra levinasiana. El aporte de (...)
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  24. added 2016-06-17
    Ray Scott Percival (1993). Is Jung's Theory of Archetypes Compatible with Neo-Darwinism and Sociobiology? Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems 16 (4):459 - 487.
  25. added 2016-06-16
    Ben Blumson, Distance and Dissimilarity.
    This paper considers whether an analogy between distance and dissimilarlity supports the thesis that degree of dissimilarity is distance in a metric space. A straightforward way to justify the thesis would be to define degree of dissimilarity as a function of number of properties in common and not in common. But, infamously, this approach has problems with infinity. An alternative approach would be to prove representation and uniqueness theorems, according to which if comparative dissimilarity meets certain qualitative conditions, then it (...)
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  26. added 2016-06-16
    David Ludwig (forthcoming). Overlapping Ontologies and Indigenous Knowledge. From Integration to Ontological Self-­Determination. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.
    Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to “take Indigenous knowledge seriously”. While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures. On the (...)
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  27. added 2016-06-16
    Sean M. Carroll (2016). The Big Picture: On the Origins of Life, Meaning, and the Universe Itself. Dutton.
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  28. added 2016-06-16
    Kiyoshi Miki & John Krummel (2016). Myth. Social Imaginaries 2 (1):25-69.
    “Myth” comprises the first chapter of the book, The Logic of the Imagination, by Miki Kiyoshi. In this chapter Miki analyzes the significance of myth (shinwa) as possessing a certain reality despite being “fictions.” He begins by broadening the meaning of the imagination to argue for a logic of the imagination that involves expressive action or poiesis (production) in general, of which myth is one important product. The imagination gathers in myth material from the environing world lived by the social (...)
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  29. added 2016-06-15
    Gabriel Ferreira da Silva (forthcoming). "O que a nossa época mais precisa": Kierkegaard e o Problema das Categorias na filosofia do XIX. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia.
    In recent years, secondary literature about 19th Century philosophy has shown a reassessment of both its problems and movements, as well as the role of some philosophers within that scenario. In order to make explicit the contribution undertaken by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) to the general context of the anti-Hegelian turn in the middle of that century, this article analyzes the problems concerning categories as the loci of idealistic thesis of unity between logic and ontology as from Kierkegaard’s (...)
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  30. added 2016-06-15
    Eetu Pikkarainen (2013). From Ontology of Interaction to Semiotics of Education. In K. Tirri, E. Hanhimäki & E. Kuusisto (eds.), Interaction in Educational Domains. Sense Publishers 51-62.
    In this article I try to show that the most deep level ontology can have rich meaning for our understanding of such practical and everyday phenomena as education and interaction. With this deep level ontology I mean the problem of universals. Starting from famous traditional stances of realism and nominalism, which both are for the modern theories of growth and Bildung, I continue to the third and more recently developed ontological theory, trope theory according to which the properties (qualities, relations (...)
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  31. added 2016-06-14
    Kay Herrmann (2016). Vor dem Starten ankommen. Über Zeitreisen und Warp-Antriebe. Universitätsverlag Chemnitz.
    Time travel and superluminal travel are two of mankind's dreams. They inspire our imagination and provide material for bizarre stories. -/- A work on the subject of time travel and superluminal travel forces us to re-examine our concept of "time". The complexity and the contradictory nature this subject makes it difficult to be more precise about "time". On its deepest subjective side, time is a means of perception, a biological rhythm, a social phenomenon in terms of our collective understanding of (...)
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  32. added 2016-06-13
    Jessica Leech (2016). The Varieties of Modality. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (2):158-180.
    In ‘The Varieties of Necessity’ Fine presents purported counterexamples to the view that a proposition is a naturally necessary truth if and only if it is logically necessary relative to or conditional upon the basic truths about the status and distribution of natural kinds, properties and relations. The aim of this article is to defend the view that natural necessity is relative necessity, and the general idea that we can define other kinds of necessity as relative, against Fine's criticisms.
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  33. added 2016-06-13
    Anna Marmodoro (2016). Dispositional Modality Vis‐À‐Vis Conditional Necessity. Philosophical Investigations 39 (3):205-214.
    There is an ongoing debate in the metaphysics of dispositions regarding which type of modality governs their manifestation. This paper assumes as its default position the view that dispositions manifest by conditional necessity; that is, when in appropriate circumstances dispositions manifest necessarily. From this standpoint, the paper engages critically with an existing alternative in the literature, put forward most prominently by Mumford and Anjum, and known as dispositional modality. According to this latter view, even when in appropriate manifestation conditions, dispositions (...)
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  34. added 2016-06-13
    Alvin Plantinga (1978). The Nature of Necessity. Clarendon Press.
    This is a reissue of a book which is an exploration and defence of the notion of modality 'de re', the idea that objects have both essential and accidental properties. It is one of the first full-length studies of the modalities to emerge from the debate to which Saul Kripke, David Lewis, Ruth Marcus and others have contributed. The argument is developed by means of the notion of possible worlds, and ranges over key problems including the nature of essence, trans-world (...)
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  35. added 2016-06-10
    Sara Bernstein (forthcoming). Causal and Moral Indeterminacy. Ratio.
    This paper argues that several sorts of metaphysical and semantic indeterminacy afflict the causal relation. If, as it is plausible to hold, there is a relationship between causation and moral responsibility, then indeterminacy in the causal relation results in indeterminacy of moral responsibility more generally.
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  36. added 2016-06-09
    Michael J. Shaffer (forthcoming). “Filling In”, Thought Experiments and Intuitions. Episteme.
    Recently Timothy Williamson (2007) has argued that characterizations of the standard (i.e. intuition-based) philosophical practice of philosophical analysis are misguided because of the erroneous manner in which this practice has been understood. In doing so he implies that experimental critiques of the reliability of intuition are based on this misunderstanding of philosophical methodology and so have little or no bearing on actual philosophical practice or results. His main point is that the orthodox understanding of philosophical methodology is incorrect in that (...)
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  37. added 2016-06-08
    T. Scott Dixon (2016). What Is the Well-Foundedness of Grounding? Mind 125 (498):439-468.
    A number of philosophers think that grounding is, in some sense, well-founded. This thesis, however, is not always articulated precisely, nor is there a consensus in the literature as to how it should be characterized. In what follows, I consider several principles that one might have in mind when asserting that grounding is well-founded, and I argue that one of these principles, which I call ‘full foundations’, best captures the relevant claim. My argument is by the process of elimination. For (...)
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  38. added 2016-06-08
    Marek Pepliński (2016). Dobroć (Boga - Goodness of God). In Janusz Salamon (ed.), Przewodnik po filozofii religii. Nurt analityczny, Kraków 2016. Wydawnictwo WAM 121-40.
    The paper presents some historical (Plato, Aristotle, Plotin, Augustine, Boethius, Aquinas) and main contemporary topics about different accounts of goodness of God understood as ontological goodness, perfection and as ethical goodness - impeccability and benevolence. The arguments for goodness of God are presented, mainly from stance of Thomas Aquinas classical theism as well as arguments against compatibility of essential goodness and omnipotence (N. Pike) and being an moral agent. The article draws perspective of different philosophical issues connected with goodness of (...)
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  39. added 2016-06-06
    Johannes Himmelreich (forthcoming). The Paraphrase Argument Against Collective Actions. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-15.
    ABSTRACTThis paper is about the status of collective actions. According to one view, collective actions metaphysically reduce to individual actions because sentences about collective actions are merely a shorthand for sentences about individual actions. I reconstruct an argument for this view and show via counterexamples that it is not sound. The argument relies on a paraphrase procedure to unpack alleged shorthand sentences about collective actions into sentences about individual actions. I argue that the best paraphrase procedure that has been put (...)
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  40. added 2016-06-06
    Jonas Waechter (forthcoming). Positive Truthmakers for Negative Truths: A Solution to Molnar’s Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-14.
    The present paper addresses Molnar’s problem :72–86, 2000): that of finding positive truthmakers for negative truths. The proposed solution, called, is to hold truth and falsity to be primitive and positive features of propositions and to take every literal negative truth to be made true by the falsity of the atomic proposition that it embeds. The solution is shown to be compatible with Maximalism, Necessitarianism and with the Entailment Thesis, as well as with most if not all possible variants of (...)
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  41. added 2016-06-06
    Nicholas Southwood (2015). The Relevance of Human Nature. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 9.
    The so-called "Human Nature Constraint" holds that if an agent is unable, due to features of human nature, to bring herself to act in a certain way, then this suffices to block or negate the claim that the agent is required to act in that way. David Estlund (2011) has recently mounted a forceful objection to the Human Nature Constraint. I argue that Estlund’s objection fails – but instructively, in a way that gives Estlund resources for a different way of (...)
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  42. added 2016-06-05
    Jeroen Smid (forthcoming). Material Constitution is Ad Hoc. Erkenntnis:1-21.
    The idea that two objects can coincide—by sharing all their proper parts, or matter—yet be non-identical, results in the “Problem of Coincident Objects”: in what relation do objects stand if they are not identical but share all their proper parts? One solution is to introduce material constitution. In this paper, I argue that this is ad hoc since, first, this solution cannot be generalized to solve similar problems, and, second, there are pseudo cases of coincidence that should not trigger the (...)
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  43. added 2016-06-05
    Lucas Champollion (2016). Overt Distributivity in Algebraic Event Semantics. Semantics and Pragmatics 9 (16):1-65.
    This is the second in a pair of papers that aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of the semantic phenomenon of distributivity in natural language. This paper describes and explains observable cross-linguistic differences in overt distributive items in the framework of Neo-Davidsonian algebraic event semantics. The previous paper, Champollion 2016, postulated two covert distributivity operators, D and Part, in the grammar, even though the semantic effects of D can be subsumed under the workings of Part. This paper motivates the split (...)
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  44. added 2016-06-05
    Lucas Champollion (2016). Covert Distributivity in Algebraic Event Semantics. Semantics and Pragmatics 9 (15):1-66.
    This is the first in a pair of papers that aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of the semantic phenomenon of distributivity in natural language. This paper investigates and formalizes different sources of covert distributivity. Apart from lexical distributivity effects, which are modeled by meaning postulates, phrasal distributivity is captured via two covert operators: (i) a D operator distributing over atoms only (Link 1987), and (ii) a cover-based Part operator, which can also distribute over non-atomic pluralities under contextual licensing (Schwarzschild (...)
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  45. added 2016-06-04
    Fraser Macbride (2014). THE TRANSCENDENTAL METAPHYSIC OF G.F. STOUT: HIS DEFENCE AND ELABORATION OF TROPE THEORY. In A. Reboul (ed.), Mind, Value and Metaphysics: Papers Dedicated to Kevin Mulligan. Springer 141-58.
    G. F. Stout is famous as an early twentieth century proselyte for abstract particulars, or tropes as they are now often called. He advanced his version of trope theory to avoid the excesses of nominalism on the one hand and realism on the other. But his arguments for tropes have been widely misconceived as metaphysical, e.g. by Armstrong. In this paper, I argue that Stout’s fundamental arguments for tropes were ideological and epistemological rather than metaphysical. He moulded his scheme to (...)
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  46. added 2016-06-03
    Thomas Atkinson (forthcoming). Conceivability, Possibility and the Resurrection of Material Beings. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-18.
    In his 1998 postscript to ‘The Possibility of Resurrection’ Peter van Inwagen argues that the scenario he describes by which God might resurrect a human organism, even though probably not true, is still conceivable and, consequently, ‘serves to establish a possibility’, namely, the metaphysical possibility of the resurrection of material beings. Van Inwagen, however, has also argued in favour of ‘modal scepticism’ [van Inwagen in, God, knowledge and mystery: essays in philosophical theology, Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1995b, pp. 11–12; van (...)
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  47. added 2016-06-03
    Rodrigo Guerizoli, Individuação. Compêndio Em Linha de Problemas de Filosofia Analítica.
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  48. added 2016-05-31
    Andrew Spear, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (forthcoming). Functions in Basic Formal Ontology. Applied Ontology 11.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  49. added 2016-05-31
    Kevin Timpe (2015). Locke and the Laws of Nature. Philosophical Studies 172 (10):2551-2564.
    Many commentators have argued that Locke understood laws of nature as causally efficacious. On this view the laws are causally responsible for the production of natural phenomena. This paper argues that this interpretation faces serious difficulties. First, I argue that it will be very difficult to specify the ontological status of these laws. Proponents of the view suggest that these laws are divine volitions. But I argue that this will be difficult or impossible to square with Locke’s nominalism. Second, I (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-31
    Andreas Kemmerling (2015). The Conceptual Inexhaustibility of Personhood. Tsinghua Studies in Western Philosophy 1 (1):368-399.
    Some leading neuro-scientists recently proclaimed an obviously false view that a human person is his/her brain. This falsity arises partly from the conceptual difficulties concerning personhood/a person. By revealing inexhaustible richness of the characteristics of this concept of a person, this essay explains why the concept is so utterly puzzling. The author contrasts Descartes’ concept of a person with Locke’s. For Descartes, the concept has four features: (1) it is the concept of the mind/body-union; (2) it is innate and a (...)
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