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Summary Michel Foucault (1926–84) was a discipline-straddling French intellectual of the middle late twentieth century. Trained in philosophy and psychology, his early 'archaeological' work of the 1960s can be viewed as a form of history of ideas, while his later 'genelogical' work of the 1970s was markedly more political, although still focused on historical materials, and is often viewed as a form of sociology. His last work, in the 1980s, however, concerned with ancient thought, and notions of ethics and subjectivity, is more clearly philosophical, and indeed in this period Foucault explicitly his thought as philosophical, based on a definition of philosophy as being concerned today with the relationship of truth and politics.
Key works Foucault's first major work is Foucault 2006, his longest and most varied work, published first in 1961, a political-cum-intellectual history of the phenomenon of madness in European history. Thereafter, he moved in an increasingly theoretical direction, firstly in his monumental history of the development of the modern 'human sciences (Foucault 1970) and secondly in his most theoretical work, Foucault 1972, which is in effect a contribution to the philosophy of language. After the momentous political upheaval in France in 1968, Foucault's life and work underwent a pronounced political turn, leading to his history of imprisonment Foucault 1977, and the first volume of his history of sexuality, in which he expounds the beginnings of a new theory of social power 
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  1. Jerold J. Abrams (2004). Pragmatism, Artificial Intelligence, and Posthuman Bioethics: Shusterman, Rorty, Foucault. [REVIEW] Human Studies 27 (3):241-258.
    Michel Foucault's early works criticize the development of modern democratic institutions as creating a surveillance society, which functions to control bodies by making them feel watched and monitored full time. His later works attempt to recover private space by exploring subversive techniques of the body and language. Following Foucault, pragmatists like Richard Shusterman and Richard Rorty have also developed very rich approaches to this project, extending it deeper into the literary and somatic dimensions of self-stylizing. Yet, for a debate centered (...)
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  2. Janet Afary (2005). Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamism. University of Chicago Press.
    In 1978, as the protests against the Shah of Iran reached their zenith, philosopher Michel Foucault was working as a special correspondent for Corriere della Sera and le Nouvel Observateur . During his little-known stint as a journalist, Foucault traveled to Iran, met with leaders like Ayatollah Khomeini, and wrote a series of articles on the revolution. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution is the first book-length analysis of these essays on Iran, the majority of which have never before appeared in (...)
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  3. Terry K. Aladjem (1991). The Philosopher's Prism: Foucault, Feminism, and Critique. Political Theory 19 (2):277-291.
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  4. Linda Alcoff (1996). Dangerous Pleasures: Foucault and the Politics of Pedophilia. In Susan Hekman (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Foucault. Pennsylvania State Press.
    This paper develops a critique of Foucault's treatment of child sexual abuse in relation to his theory of the relationship between discourse and experience.
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  5. Zulfiqar Ali, Foucault�€™s Conception of Power: Questioning the Relevance of Marx.
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  6. Amy Allen (2010). The Entanglement of Power and Validity : Foucault and Critical Theory. In Timothy O'Leary & Christopher Falzon (eds.), Foucault and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. 78--98.
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  7. Amy Allen (2009). Discourse, Power, and Subjectivation: The Foucault/Habermas Debate Reconsidered. Philosophical Forum 40 (1):1-28.
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  8. Amy Allen (2006). Review of Thomas Flynn, Sartre, Foucault and Historical Reason, Volume 2: A Poststructuralist Mapping of History. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (2).
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  9. Amy Allen (2003). Foucault and Enlightenment: A Critical Reappraisal. Constellations 10 (2):180-198.
    In a late discussion of Kant’s essay, “Was ist Aufklärung?,” Foucault credits Kant with posing “the question of his own present” and positions himself as an inheritor of this Kantian legacy.1 Foucault has high praise for the critical tradition that emerges from Kant’s historical-political reflections on the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; Kant’s concern in these writings with “an ontology of the present, an ontology of ourselves” is, he says, characteristic of “a form of philosophy, from Hegel, through Nietzsche and (...)
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  10. Amy Allen (2002). Power, Subjectivity, and Agency: Between Arendt and Foucault. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (2):131 – 149.
    The author argues for bringing the work of Michel Foucault and Hannah Arendt into dialogue with respect to the links between power, subjectivity, and agency.Although one might assume that Foucault and Arendt come from such radically different philosophical starting points that such a dialogue would be impossible, the author argues that there is actually a good deal of common ground to be found between these two thinkers. Moreover, the author suggests that Foucault's and Arendt's divergent views about the role that (...)
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  11. Amy Allen (2000). The Anti-Subjective Hypothesis: Michel Foucault and the Death of the Subject. Philosophical Forum 31 (2):113–130.
    The centerpiece of the first volume of Michel Foucault’s History of Sexuality is the analysis of what Foucault terms the “repressive hypothesis,” the nearly universal assumption on the part of twentieth-century Westerners that we are the heirs to a Victorian legacy of sexual repression. The supreme irony of this belief, according to Foucault, is that the whole time that we have been announcing and denouncing our repressed, Victorian sexuality, discourses about sexuality have actually proliferated. Paradoxically, as Victorian as we allegedly (...)
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  12. Amy Allen (1998). Foucault's Debt to Hegel. Philosophy Today 42 (1):71-78.
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  13. Barry Allen (2010). Foucault's Theory of Knowledge. In Timothy O'Leary & Christopher Falzon (eds.), Foucault and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. 143--162.
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  14. Barry Allen (1999). Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault Susan J. Hekman, Editor University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996, Ix + 320 Pp. [REVIEW] Dialogue 38 (01):221-.
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  15. Aurelia Armstrong, Foucault and Feminism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  16. Richard H. Armstrong (2008). Reception (M.) Leonard Athens in Paris. Ancient Greece and the Political in Post-War French Thought. (Classical Presences). Oxford UP, 2005. Pp. [X] + 264. £49. 9780199277254. (P.A.) Miller Postmodern Spiritual Practices. The Construction of the Subject and the Reception of Plato in Lacan, Derrida, and Foucault. (Classical Memories / Modern Identities). Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2007. Pp. X + 270. $59.95 (Hbk). 9780814210703 (Hbk). 9780814291474 (CD-ROM). [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:298-.
  17. Timothy J. Armstrong (ed.) (1992). Michel Foucault, Philosopher: Essays Translated From the French and German. Routledge.
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  18. Samantha Ashenden & David Owen (eds.) (1999). Foucault Contra Habermas: Recasting the Dialogue Between Genealogy and Critical Theory. Sage.
    Foucault contra Habermas is an incisive examination of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the debate between Foucault and Habermas over the meaning of enlightenment and modernity. It reprises the key issues in the argument between critical theory and genealogy and is organised around three complementary themes: defining the context of the debate; examining the theoretical and conceptual tools used; and discussing the implications for politics and criticism. In a detailed reply to Habermas' Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, this volume explains the (...)
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  19. Randall E. Auxier (2002). Foucault, Dewey, and the History of the Present. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):75-102.
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  20. Babette Babich (2009). ‘A Philosophical Shock’: Foucault’s Reading of Heidegger and Nietzsche. In Carlos G. Prado (ed.), Foucault's Legacy. Continuum.
  21. Patrick Baert (1998). Foucault's History of the Present as Self-Referential Knowledge Acquisition. Philosophy and Social Criticism 24 (6):111-126.
    Underlying this article is the conviction that social scientists typically take on board a too restrictive concept of knowledge acquisition. The paper propounds a new concept of knowledge acquisition, one which is self-referential (i.e. which affects one's presuppositions) and which draws upon the unfamiliar to reveal and undercut the familiar. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it is to show that this concept of knowledge acqui sition is already anticipated by Foucault, that it is a major concern of (...)
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  22. Michael Bailey (2002). Understanding Foucault. Contemporary Political Theory 1 (1):119.
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  23. Stephen J. Ball (ed.) (1990). Foucault and Education: Disciplines and Knowledge. Routledge.
    1 Introducing Monsieur Foucault Stephen J. Ball Michel Foucault is an enigma, a massively influential intellectual who steadfastly refused to align himself ...
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  24. Johannes Balthasar (1988). Michel Foucault. A Critical Analysis of His Work. Philosophy and History 21 (2):158-159.
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  25. Konrad Banicki (2014). Philosophy as Therapy: Towards a Conceptual Model. Philosophical Papers 43 (1):7-31.
    The idea of philosophy as a kind of therapy, though by no means standard, has been present in metaphilosophical reflection since antiquity. Diverse versions of it were also discussed and applied by more recent authors such as Wittgenstein, Hadot and Foucault. In order to develop an explicit, general and systematic model of therapeutic philosophy a relatively broad and well-structured account provided by Martha Nussbaum is subjected to analysis. The results obtained, subsequently, form a basis for a new model constructed around (...)
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  26. Ian Bapty (1990). Nietzsche, Derrida, and Foucault. In Ian Bapty & Tim Yates (eds.), Archaeology After Structuralism: Post-Structuralism and the Practice of Archaeology. Routledge.
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  27. Michael D. Barber (2001). Rudi Visker, Truth and Singularity: Taking Foucault Into Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (3):353-358.
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  28. Rafael Ramis Barceló (2010). Foucault on Law. Res Publica 16 (3):333-336.
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  29. A. D. Barder & F. Debrix (2011). Agonal Sovereignty: Rethinking War and Politics with Schmitt, Arendt and Foucault. Philosophy and Social Criticism 37 (7):775-793.
    The notion of biopolitical sovereignty and the theory of the state of exception are perspectives derived from Carl Schmitt’s thought and Michel Foucault’s writings that have been popularized by critical political theorists like Giorgio Agamben and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri of late. This article argues that these perspectives are not sufficient analytical points of departure for a critique of the contemporary politics of terror, violence and war marked by a growing global exploitation of bodies, tightened management of life, and (...)
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  30. Philip Barker (1993). Michel Foucault: Subversions of the Subject. St. Martin's Press.
    This unique and original study analyzes Foucault's interaction with the history of ideas, undertaking a genealogy of the subject that subverts conventional philosophical history to develop a distinctly Foucauldian intellectual history. Through a detailed account of Foucault's work and its relation to the history of ideas, Philip Barker shows how that history can be usefully reconceptualised using Foucault's concepts of genealogy and archaeology. Locating the emergence of self-reflexive consciousness in twelfth century philosophy, and elaborating upon autobiography as a philosophical persona, (...)
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  31. I. I. Barros (2012). Biopolítica Y pastorado Cristiano. Synesis 4 (2).
    El objetivo de nuestro trabajo está en exponer el punto final de la argumentación de Foucault acerca del cuidado de si cristiano ( epimeleia ton allon ), demostrando que la epimeleia ton allon cristiana está muy relacionada a la modalidad de gobierno de las almas y de los cuerpos que Foucault denomina de pastorado cristiano. Intentaremos demonstrar como la recusa de Foucault en aceptar una auténtica epimeleia heautou cristiana resulta en un inevitable vínculo de ésta con el nacimiento de la (...)
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  32. Andrew Barry, Thomas Osborne & Nikolas S. Rose (eds.) (1996). Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism, and Rationalities of Government. University of Chicago Press.
    Despite the enormous influence of Michel Foucault in gender studies, social theory, and cultural studies, his work has been relatively neglected in the study of politics. Although he never published a book on the state, in the late 1970s Foucault examined the technologies of power used to regulate society and the ingenious recasting of power and agency that he saw as both consequence and condition of their operation. These twelve essays provide a critical introduction to Foucault's work on politics, exploring (...)
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  33. C. D. Battershill (1986). Book Reviews : Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. By Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982. Pp. XXII + 231. 18.95. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 16 (3):394-397.
  34. Thomas M. Beaudoin (2008). Engaging Foucault with Rahner. Philosophy and Theology 20 (1/2):307-329.
    Putting Karl Rahner and Michel Foucault in conversation shows the space of overlapping concern in their work for the relationshipbetween subjectivity and knowledge, while introducing new questions about power and history in this relationship. Both fomenta respect for mystery, through Rahnerian “transcendence” and Foucauldian “rescendence,” that while not the same, may yet beunderstood as convergent without a fully realized connection. In other words, the relation between Rahner and Foucault may beposed as “asymptotic.”.
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  35. A. Beaulieu (2010). Towards a Liberal Utopia: The Connection Between Foucault's Reporting on the Iranian Revolution and the Ethical Turn. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (7):801-818.
    The shift in Foucault’s work from genealogy to ethics finds consensus among Foucault scholars. However, the motivations behind this transition remain either misunderstood or understudied in large part. Foucault’s recently published or soon-to-be translated 1977/—9 lectures (published as Security, Territory, Population and as The Birth of Biopolitics) offer new elements for understanding this dense and uncharted period along Foucault’s itinerary. In this article, the author argues that Foucault’s interpretation of the liberal tradition, which is at the core of the 1977—9 (...)
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  36. Alain Beaulieu (2006). Gouvernement, Organisation Et Gestion. L'héritage de Michel Foucault. Dialogue 45 (4):805-808.
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  37. Alain Beaulieu (2006). Gouvernement, Organisation Et Gestion. L'héritage de Michel Foucault Armand Hatchuel, Éric Pezet, Ken Starkey Et Olivier Lenay, Dir. Collection «Sciences de l'Administration» Québec, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 2005, 467 P. [REVIEW] Dialogue 45 (04):805-.
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  38. Alain Beaulieu (2004). Foucault et le courage de la vérité. Symposium 8 (3):689-691.
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  39. Alain Beaulieu (2004). Foucault et la philosophie antique. Symposium 8 (3):691-693.
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  40. Alain Beaulieu (2003). Les sources heideggeriennes de la notion d'existence chez le dernier Foucault. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 101 (4):640-657.
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  41. John Behr (1993). Shifting Sands: Foucault, Brown and the Framework of Christian Asceticism. Heythrop Journal 34 (1):1–21.
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  42. Ronald Beiner (1995). Foucault's Hyper‐Liberalism. Critical Review 9 (3):349-370.
    In the last years of his life, Michel Foucault sought to address ?ethical? questions, having to do with the self's relation to itself, by trying to locate in the Roman Stoics and other philosophers of antiquity what he called ?an aesthetics of existence.? By this Foucault meant ?the idea of a self which has to be created as a work of art.? This article aims at a critical dialogue with the texts that compose this last phase of Foucault's thought, probing (...)
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  43. Jane Bennett (1996). "How is It, Then, That We Still Remain Barbarians?": Foucault, Schiller, and the Aestheticization of Ethics. Political Theory 24 (4):653-672.
    The wholesale aestheticization of society had found its grotesque apotheosis for a brief moment in fascism, with its panoply of myths, symbols, and orgiastic spectacles.... But in the post-war years a different form of aestheticization was also to saturate the entire culture of late capitalism, with its fetishism of style and surface, its culture of hedonism and technique, its reifying of the signifier and displacement of discursive meaning with random intensities. Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic.
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  44. T. J. Berard (1999). Michel Foucault, the History of Sexuality, and the Reformulation of Social Theory. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 29 (3):203–227.
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  45. J. Bernauer (2005). Confessions of the Soul Foucault and Theological Culture. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (5-6):557-572.
    The article studies Foucault’s treatment of religious culture and some theological responses to his approach. Foucault examined some modern practices as exhibiting a ‘Christianization-in-depth’, as, for example, in the extension of confession as a continuing practice in recent and current political culture. Confessions of faith characterize both fascism and communism and the confessional form of the latter showed extensive debt to the legacy of eastern Christian practices. The Soviet hermeneutics of the self contrasted with the western form because the self-knowledge (...)
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  46. J. W. Bernauer (1987). Michel Foucault's Ecstatic Thinking. Philosophy and Social Criticism 12 (2-3):156-193.
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  47. J. Bernauer & T. Keenan (1987). The Works of Michel Foucault 1954-1984. Philosophy and Social Criticism 12 (2-3):230-269.
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  48. James Bernauer (2006). An Uncritical Foucault? Foucault and the Iranian Revolution. Philosophy and Social Criticism 32 (6):781-786.
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  49. James William Bernauer (1990). Michel Foucault's Force of Flight: Toward an Ethics for Thought. Humanities Press International.
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  50. James William Bernauer & Jeremy R. Carrette (eds.) (2002). Michel Foucault and Theology: The Politics of Religious Experience. Ashgate.
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