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  1. Marion Allet (2014). Why Do Microfinance Institutions Go Green? An Exploratory Study. Journal of Business Ethics 122 (3):405-424.
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  2. Marion Allet & Marek Hudon (forthcoming). Green Microfinance: Characteristics of Microfinance Institutions Involved in Environmental Management. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  3. Beatriz Armendáriz & Jonathan Morduch (2010). The Economics of Microfinance. The Mit Press.
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  4. Subrata Chakrabarty & A. Erin Bass (2013). Institutionalizing Ethics in Institutional Voids: Building Positive Ethical Strength to Serve Women Microfinance Borrowers in Negative Contexts. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):1-14.
    This study examines whether microfinance institutions (MFIs) that serve women borrowers at the base of the economic pyramid are likely to adopt a written code of positive organizational ethics (POE). Using econometric analysis of operational and economic data of a sample of MFIs from across the world, we find that two contextual factors—poverty level and lack of women’s empowerment—moderate the influence of an MFI’s percentage of women borrowers on the probability of the MFI having a POE code. MFIs that serve (...)
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  5. Subrata Chakrabarty & A. Erin Bass (forthcoming). Comparing Virtue, Consequentialist, and Deontological Ethics-Based Corporate Social Responsibility: Mitigating Microfinance Risk in Institutional Voids. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  6. Tzu-Kuan Chiu (2013). Putting Responsible Finance to Work for Citi Microfinance. Journal of Business Ethics (2):1-16.
    This paper develops an ethical framework for responsible finance and then applies it to Citigroup (Citi), a major financial actor in the microfinance sector, to see whether it meets with such obligations. The framework consists of two categories of responsibility. The first category is the special social responsibility of financial institutions; and the second is the fundamental principles of ethical behavior in financial services. From Citigroup’s microfinance model, scope of business, and multiple roles in the market, the company seems to (...)
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  7. Robert Edgar & Bruce Lusignan (forthcoming). Microfinance, USAID, and the UN: Who Microfinance Helps, the Services It Provides and the Institutions That Promote It. Ethics.
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  8. Marek Hudon (2009). Should Access to Credit Be a Right? Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):17 - 28.
    Discussion on financial ethics increasingly includes the problem of exclusion of the poorer segments of society from the financial system and access to credit. This paper explores the ethical dimensions surrounding the concept of a human right to credit. If access to credit is directly instrumental to economic development, poverty reduction and the improved welfare of all citizens, then one can proclaim, as Nobel Prize Laureate M. Yunus has done, that it is a moral necessity to establish credit as a (...)
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  9. Marek Hudon & Arvind Ashta (2013). Fairness and Microcredit Interest Rates: From Rawlsian Principles of Justice to the Distribution of the Bargaining Range. Business Ethics 22 (3):277-291.
    This paper addresses the fairness of microcredit interest rates. Since microfinance institutions provide credit for the poor at relatively high prices, the fairness of their interest rates has been repeatedly debated. We first apply Rawls' principles of justice to the case of microcredit interest rates and suggest some limitations related to the hypothesis of rationality of the borrowers and the level of inequality. We then suggest another framework based on the analysis of the distribution of the benefits generated by the (...)
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  10. Marek Hudon & Joakim Sandberg (2013). The Ethical Crisis in Microfinance. Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (4):561-589.
    Microfinance is often assumed to be an ethically progressive industry, but in recent years it has been the target of much ethical criticism. Microfinance institutions have been accused of using exploitative lending techniques and charging usurious interest rates; and critics even question the ability of microfinance to alleviate poverty. This article reviews recent research on the microfinance sector that addresses these ethical issues. We show how this research is relevant to a number of theoretical issues, such as how to define (...)
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  11. Richard Hudson & Roger Wehrell (2005). Socially Responsible Investors and the Microentrepreneur: A Canadian Case. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 60 (3):281 - 292.
    Socially responsible investors buy financial securities with two goals: to make a market-based return, and to make companies act in a more socially responsible way. Most research on socially responsible investment deals with investing in stocks traded on major exchanges. We add the case of loaning small amounts of funds to microentrepreneurs through a discussion of a particular case. The case is that of Calmeadow which, in conjunction with the Royal Bank of Canada, set up a microlending project in rural (...)
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  12. Mathew Joseph (2012). Microfinance and Social Pressure in India: A Study of SKS. International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy 6 (3):189.
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  13. Eric Palmer (2013). The Andhra Pradesh Microfinance Crisis and American Payday Lending: Two Studies in Vulnerability. Révue Ethique Et Economique / Ethics and Economics 10 (2):44-57.
    Microcredit, a non-profit lending approach that is often championed as a source of women’s inclusion and empowerment, has in the past decade been followed by microfinance, a forprofit sibling of a different temperament. Microfinance in India is now in turmoil, precipitated by legislation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, which has encouraged withholding of payment, which in turn has frozen the market. This paper considers one precipitating condition of the crisis: the remarkable, new, and developing burden of formal economic debt (...)
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  14. Francesc Prior & Antonio Argandoña (2009). Credit Accessibility and Corporate Social Responsibility in Financial Institutions: The Case of Microfinance. Business Ethics 18 (4):349-363.
    What are financial institutions' social responsibilities in developing countries? On the one hand, these institutions share the generic responsibilities of all human organizations and business enterprises. However, their specific social responsibility is the performance of the social function of financial intermediaries, which, in the case of emerging countries, consists mainly of contributing to economic growth and solving the problem of poverty. This paper describes a number of technical-economic and moral problems that take us to a consideration of the performance of (...)
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  15. Ravinder Rena (2008). Women's Enterprise Development in Eritrea Through Microfinance. ICFAI University Journal of Entrepreneurship and Development 5 (3):41-58.
    Women play a key role in economic growth and development, yet they are still discriminated against in economic life. Eritrea has extreme poverty and more than 66 percent of people live below poverty line. Eventually, the number of poor households in the country is high. Many are women-headed households, whose husbands died during the conflicts or who are now serving in the National Service. Women-headed households are particularly vulnerable. The Savings and Micro Credit Program (SMCP) provides major microfinance to women (...)
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  16. Wahibur Rokhman & Arif Hassan (2012). The Effect of Islamic Work Ethic on Organisational Justice. African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):25.
    The study proposed to investigate the effect of the Islamic work ethic on the perception of justice among employees in Islamic microfinance institutions in Indonesia. The construct of organisational justice included three dimensions, namely distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. The sample consisted of 370 employees from 60 Islamic microfinance institutions in Central Java, Indonesia. The results suggest that the Islamic work ethic positively contributes to the aforementioned three dimensions of the perception of justice. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research (...)
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  17. Joakim Sandberg (2012). Mega-Interest on Microcredit: Are Lenders Exploiting the Poor? Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):169-185.
    Microcredit is often hailed as an effective way of alleviating poverty. In recent years, however, microfinance institutions have been the target of much criticism due to their comparatively high interest rates (which may be as high as 70–100% per annum). This paper discusses whether it can be morally justified to charge very high rates of interest when lending money to the poor. Arguments are drawn from contemporary as well as historical debates on usury, exploitation, egalitarianism and consequentialism. It is conceded (...)
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  18. Evan Selinger (2008). Does Microcredit “Empower”? Reflections on the Grameen Bank Debate. Human Studies 31 (1):27 - 41.
    Recent debates about the Grameen Bank’s microlending practices depict participating female borrowers as having fundamentally empowering or disempowering experiences. I argue that this discursive framework may be too reductive: it can conceal how technique and technology simultaneously facilitate relations of dependence and independence; and it can diminish our capacity to understand and assess innovative development initiatives.
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  19. Marco Tavanti (2013). Before Microfinance: The Social Value of Microsavings in Vincentian Poverty Reduction. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):697-706.
    The purpose of this article is to present and discuss the values and limits of microfinance within the context of poverty reduction, international development, and community empowerment. The main thesis is that microfinance requires a more complex strategy than simply the provision of credits. The development of financial capital depends on the increase in human capacity and social capital. Microfinance is revisited under the ethical lenses of global responsibility for alleviating poverty and developing community sustainability. Through a critical review of (...)
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