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  1. Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). From Killer Machines to Doctrines and Swarms, or Why Ethics of Military Robotics Is Not (Necessarily) About Robots. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):269-278.
    Ethical reflections on military robotics can be enriched by a better understanding of the nature and role of these technologies and by putting robotics into context in various ways. Discussing a range of ethical questions, this paper challenges the prevalent assumptions that military robotics is about military technology as a mere means to an end, about single killer machines, and about “military” developments. It recommends that ethics of robotics attend to how military technology changes our aims, concern itself not only (...)
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  2. Alexander Cox, Christopher Nebelecky, Ronald Rudnicki, William Tagliaferri, John L. Crassidis & Barry Smith (2016). The Space Object Ontology. In 19th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2016). IEEE
    Achieving space domain awareness requires the identification, characterization, and tracking of space objects. Storing and leveraging associated space object data for purposes such as hostile threat assessment, object identification, and collision prediction and avoidance present further challenges. Space objects are characterized according to a variety of parameters including their identifiers, design specifications, components, subsystems, capabilities, vulnerabilities, origins, missions, orbital elements, patterns of life, processes, operational statuses, and associated persons, organizations, or nations. The Space Object Ontology provides a consensus-based realist framework (...)
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  3. Carrie Giunta, Blood Coltan: Remote-Controlled Warfare and the Demand for Strategic Minerals. Pambazuka.
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  4. Mark N. Jensen (2016). Gender Integration in the Military: A Rawlsian Approach. Hypatia 31 (3).
    Following the recent decisions by Western militaries to pursue greater integration of women into combat roles, this paper examines the principles that motivate integration and organizes them into a theoretically coherent scheme that could serve as a roadmap for policymakers as they rebuild military institutions and their combat units in an integrated fashion. The strategy of the paper is Rawlsian: the right relationship between the principles that motivate integration can be derived through an application of Rawls's methodology as described in (...)
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  5. Laura Duhan Kaplan (1994). Woman as Caretaker: An Archetype That Supports Patriarchal Militarism. Hypatia 9 (2):123 - 133.
    Feminist peace theories that find hope for peace in the ideal of the caretaking woman are grounded in patriarchal gender distinctions, fail to challenge adequately the patriarchal dualism that constitutes the self by devaluing the other, and the practice of caretaking about which they speak may be easily co-opted into the service of war. Feminist peace theory should address the devaluation of "others," in order to undermine this justification and motivation for war.
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  6. Shahid Manzoor, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith, Referent Tracking for Command and Control Messaging Systems. CEUR, Volume 555.
    The Joint Battle Management Language (JBML) is an XML-based language designed to allow Command and Control (C2) systems to interface easily with Modeling and Simulation (M&S) systems. While some of the XML-tags defined in this language correspond to types of entities that exist in reality, others are mere syntactic artifacts used to structure the messages themselves. Because these two kinds of tags are not formally distinguishable, JBML messages in effect confuse data with what the data represent. In this paper we (...)
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  7. Shahid Manzoor, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2009). Referent Tracking for Command and Control Messaging Systems. In Ontology for the Intelligence Community. CEUR, Vol. 555
    The Joint Battle Management Language (JBML) is an XML-based language designed to allow Command and Control (C2) systems to interface easily with Modeling and Simulation (M&S) systems. While some of the XML-tags defined in this language correspond to types of entities that exist in reality, others are mere syntactic artifacts used to structure the messages themselves. Because these two kinds of tags are not formally distinguishable, JBML messages in effect confuse data with what the data represent. In this paper we (...)
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  8. Peter Morosoff, Ron Rudnicki, Jason Bryant, Robert Farrell & Barry Smith (2015). Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability. In Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS). CEUR Vol. 1325 2-9.
    When the U.S. conducts warfare, elements of a force are drawn from different Services and work together as a single team to accomplish an assigned mission on the basis of joint doctrine. To achieve such unified action, it is necessary that specific Service doctrines be both consistent with and subservient to joint doctrine. But there are two further requirements that flow from the ways in which unified action increasingly involves not only live forces but also automated systems. First, the information (...)
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  9. Peter Olsthoorn (2008). The Ethics Curriculum at the Netherlands Defence Academy, and Some Problems with its Theoretical Underpinnings. In Paul Robinson, Nigel de Lee & Don Carrick (eds.), Ethics Education in the Military. Ashgate 119-130.
  10. Peter Olsthoorn & Myriame Bollen (2013). Civilian Care in War: Lessons From Afghanistan. In Michael Gross & Don Carrick (eds.), Military Medical Ethics forthe 21st Century. Ashgate 59-70.
    Military doctors and nurses, employees with a compound professional identity as they are neither purely soldiers nor simply doctors or nurses, face a role conflict between the clinical professional duties to a patient and obligations, express or implied, real or perceived, to the interests of a third party such as an employer, an insurer, the state, or in this context, military command (London et al. 2006). In the context of military medical ethics this is commonly called dual loyalty (or, less (...)
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  11. Peter Olsthoorn, Myriame Bollen & Robert Beeres (2013). Dual Loyalties in Military Medical Care – Between Ethics and Effectiveness. In Herman Amersfoort, Rene Moelker, Joseph Soeters & Desiree Verweij (eds.), Moral Responsibility & Military Effectiveness. Asser
  12. Lamber Royakkers & Peter Olsthoorn (2014). Military Robots and the Question of Responsibility. International Journal of Technoethics 5 (1):01-14.
    Most unmanned systems used in operations today are unarmed and mainly used for reconnaissance and mine clearing, yet the increase of the number of armed military robots is undeniable. The use of these robots raises some serious ethical questions. For instance: who can be held morally responsible in reason when a military robot is involved in an act of violence that would normally be described as a war crime? In this article, we critically assess the attribution of responsibility with respect (...)
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  13. David Salmen, Tatiana Malyuta, Alan Hansen, Shaun Cronen & Barry Smith (2011). Integration of Intelligence Data Through Semantic Enhancement. In Proceedings of the Conference on Semantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS). CEUR, Vol. 808
    We describe a strategy for integration of data that is based on the idea of semantic enhancement. The strategy promises a number of benefits: it can be applied incrementally; it creates minimal barriers to the incorporation of new data into the semantically enhanced system; it preserves the existing data (including any existing data-semantics) in their original form (thus all provenance information is retained, and no heavy preprocessing is required); and it embraces the full spectrum of data sources, types, models, and (...)
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  14. Barry Smith (2012). Ontology for the Intelligence Analyst. CrossTalk 14 (Nov/Dec):18-25.
    As available intelligence data and information expand in both quantity and variety, new techniques must be deployed for search and analytics. One technique involves the semantic enhancement of data through the creation of what are called ‘ontologies’ or ‘controlled vocabularies.’ When multiple different bodies of heterogeneous data are tagged by means of terms from common ontologies, then these data become linked together in ways which allow more effective retrieval and integration. We describe a simple case study to show how these (...)
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  15. Barry Smith, Tatiana Malyuta & Others (2012). Horizontal Integration of Warfighter Intelligence Data. A Shared Semantic Resource for the Intelligence Community. In Proceedings of the Conference on Semantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS).
    We describe a strategy that is being used for the horizontal integration of warfighter intelligence data within the framework of the US Army’s Distributed Common Ground System Standard Cloud (DSC) initiative. The strategy rests on the development of a set of ontologies that are being incrementally applied to bring about what we call the ‘semantic enhancement’ of data models used within each intelligence discipline. We show how the strategy can help to overcome familiar tendencies to stovepiping of intelligence data, and (...)
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  16. Barry Smith, Tatiana Malyuta, Ron Rudnicki, William Mandrick, David Salmen, Peter Morosoff, Danielle K. Duff, James Schoening & Kesny Parent (2013). IAO-Intel: An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain. CEUR 1097:33-40.
    We describe on-going work on IAO-Intel, an information artifact ontology developed as part of a suite of ontologies designed to support the needs of the US Army intelligence community within the framework of the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A). IAO-Intel provides a controlled, structured vocabulary for the consistent formulation of metadata about documents, images, emails and other carriers of information. It will provide a resource for uniform explication of the terms used in multiple existing military dictionaries, thesauri and metadata registries, (...)
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  17. Roger Wertheimer (ed.) (2010). Empowering Our Military Conscience. Ashgate.
    Responding to increasing global anxiety over the ethics education of military personnel, this volume illustrates the depth, rigour and critical acuity of Professional Military Ethics Education (PMEE) with contributions by distinguished ethical theorists. It refreshes our thinking about the axioms of just war orthodoxy, the intellectual and political history of just war theorizing, and the justice of recent military doctrines and ventures. The volume also explores a neglected moral dimension of warfare, jus ante bellum (the ethics of pre-war practices) – (...)
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  18. Roger Wertheimer (2010). The Moral Singularity of Military Professionalism. In Empowering Our Military Conscience.
    Neither M. Walzer's collectivist conception of the "moral equality" of combatants, nor its antithetical individualist conceptions of responsibility are compatible with the ethos of military professionalism and its conception(s) of the responsibility of military professionals for service in an unjust war.
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