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  1. Gavril Acalugaritei (1990). Correspondences Between Classifications and Between Classes of Entities in Molecular Genetics. Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2):103-111.
    Certain correspondences appear between the classifications and between the classes of various entities at molecular genetic level: types of fundamental correspondences between classifications and between classes of normal entities, on the one hand, and of mutant entities on the other hand; ranks of correspondences between classifications and between classes of entities. The concept of universality of the genetic code was reformulated on the basis of the above correspondences.
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  2. W. Balzer & C. M. Dawe (1986). Structure and Comparison of Genetic Theories: (2) the Reduction of Character-Factor Genetics to Molecular Genetics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (2):177-191.
    The present paper has two aims. First, we reconstruct the core of molecular genetics (MOLGEN) i.e. the array of theoretical assumptions which underly all or most applications of molecular genetics. Second, we define a reduction relation p reducing character-factor genetics (CFG) to MOLGEN. That p is a reduction relation is proved by establishing that p satisfies the two major conditions which are discussed in the literature as necessary or ‘essential’ for reduction. This substantiates the claim that molecular genetics is ‘better (...)
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  3. Jordan Bartol (2013). Re-Examining the Gene in Personalized Genomics. Science and Education 22 (10):2529-2546.
    Personalized genomics companies (PG; also called ‘direct-to-consumer genetics’) are businesses marketing genetic testing to consumers over the Internet. While much has been written about these new businesses, little attention has been given to their roles in science communication. This paper provides an analysis of the gene concept presented to customers and the relation between the information given and the science behind PG. Two quite different gene concepts are present in company rhetoric, but only one features in the science. (...)
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  4. Ann-Sophie Barwich (2015). What is so Special About Smell? Olfaction as a Model System in Neurobiology. Postgraduate Medical Journal 92:27-33.
    Neurobiology studies mechanisms of cell signalling. A key question is how cells recognise specific signals. In this context, olfaction has become an important experimental system over the past 25 years. The olfactory system responds to an array of structurally diverse stimuli. The discovery of the olfactory receptors (ORs), recognising these stimuli, established the olfactory pathway as part of a greater group of signalling mechanisms mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are the largest protein family in the mammalian genome and involved (...)
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  5. Jack R. Bateman & Chao‐Ting Wu (2007). DNA Replication and Models for the Origin of piRNAs. Bioessays 29 (4):382-385.
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  6. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.) (2007). Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier.
    Systems biology is a vigorous and expanding discipline, in many ways a successor to genomics and perhaps unprecendented in its combination of biology with a ...
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  7. Ruth Chadwick, Bioethics and Medical Practice in the Age of Molecular Genetics.
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  8. Mary Ann G. Cutter (2002). Molecular Genetics and the Transformation of Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):251 – 256.
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  9. Alfred Gierer & Gerhard Schramm (1956). Infectivity of Ribonucleic Acid From Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Nature 177:702-703.
    Upon separation of the protein from the nucleic acid component of tobacco mosaic virus by phenol, using a fast and gentle procedure, the nucleic acid is infective in assays on tobacco leaves. A series of qualitative and quantitative control experiments demonstrates that the biological activity cannot depend on residual proteins in the preparation, but is a property of isolated nucleic acid which is thus the genetic material of the virus.
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  10. William K. Goosens (1978). Reduction by Molecular Genetics. Philosophy of Science 45 (1):73-95.
    Taking reduction in the traditional deductive sense, the programmatic claim that most of genetics can be reduced by molecular genetics is defended as feasible and significant. Arguments by Ruse and Hull that either the relationship is replacement or at best a weaker form of reduction are shown to rest on a mixture of historical and logical confusions about the nature of the theories involved.
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  11. C. Howard (1994). Ethical Issues of Molecular Genetics in Psychiatry. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (2):119-120.
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  12. Ulrich Krohs & Werner Callebaut (2007). Data Without Models Merging with Models Without Data. In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier 181--213.
    Systems biology is largely tributary to genomics and other “omic” disciplines that generate vast amounts of structural data. “Omics”, however, lack a theoretical framework that would allow using these data sets as such (rather than just tiny bits that are extracted by advanced data-mining techniques) to build explanatory models that help understand physiological processes. Systems biology provides such a framework by adding a dynamic dimension to merely structural “omics”. It makes use of bottom-up and top-down models. The former are based (...)
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  13. Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Does EvoDevo Equal Regulatory Evolution?: Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom Sean B. Carroll New York and London : Norton , 2005 (350 Pp; $25.95 Hbk; ISBN 0393060160); From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd Ed.) Sean B. Carroll , Jennifer K. Grenier , Scott D. Weatherbee Malden, MA : Blackwell , 2004 (258 Pp; $49.95 Pbk; ISBN 1405119500). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (1):102-103.
  14. Manfred D. Laubichler (2003). From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (1):148-153.
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  15. Stefan Linquist, Brent Saylor, Karl Cottenie, Tyler A. Elliott, Stefan C. Kremer & T. Ryan Gregory (2013). Distinguishing Ecological From Evolutionary Approaches to Transposable Elements. Biological Reviews 88 (3):573- 584.
    Considerable variation exists not only in the kinds of transposable elements (TEs) occurring within the genomes of different species, but also in their abundance and distribution. Noting a similarity to the assortment of organisms among ecosystems, some researchers have called for an ecological approach to the study of transposon dynamics. However, there are several ways to adopt such an approach, and it is sometimes unclear what an ecological perspective will add to the existing co-evolutionary framework for explaining transposon-host interactions. This (...)
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  16. Ningombam Bupenda Meitei (2013). Age of Proto-Human. viXra.Org:15.
    The paper intends to find the more probable age of proto-human, which in turn could help in finding the timeline of proto-language. In the hominid line of evolution, the rise of modern humans plays a significant role and its role is also owing to the fact of their uniqueness due to language. Different disciplines are put together to solve the mystery of language of human. In an attempt to understand how old, language could be, the paper makes an attempt to (...)
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  17. Maureen Neitz & Jay Neitz (2000). Molecular Genetics of Color Vision and Color Vision Defects. Arch Ophthalmol 118 (5):691-700.
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  18. Emanuele Ratti (2015). Big Data Biology: Between Eliminative Inferences and Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 82 (2):198-218.
    Recently, biologists have argued that data - driven biology fosters a new scientific methodology; namely, one that is irreducible to traditional methodologies of molecular biology defined as the discovery strategies elucidated by mechanistic philosophy. Here I show how data - driven studies can be included into the traditional mechanistic approach in two respects. On the one hand, some studies provide eliminative inferential procedures to prioritize and develop mechanistic hypotheses. On the other, different studies play an exploratory role in providing useful (...)
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  19. John Sadler (2011). Psychiatric Molecular Genetics and the Ethics of Social Promises. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):27-34.
    A recent literature review of commentaries and ‘state of the art’ articles from researchers in psychiatric genetics (PMG) offers a consensus about progress in the science of genetics, disappointments in the discovery of new and effective treatments, and a general optimism about the future of the field. I argue that optimism for the field of psychiatric molecular genetics (PMG) is overwrought, and consider progress in the field in reference to a sample estimate of US National Institute of Mental Health funding (...)
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  20. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena to molecular (...)
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  21. John J. Sung (2008). Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The structure (...)
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  22. Degeng Wang (2005). “Molecular Gene”: Interpretation in the Right Context. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):453-464.
    How to interpret the “molecular gene” concept is discussed in this paper. I argue that the architecture of biological systems is hierarchical and multi-layered, exhibiting striking similarities to that of modern computers. Multiple layers exist between the genotype and system level property, the phenotype. This architectural complexity gives rise to the intrinsic complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationships. The notion of a gene being for a phenotypic trait or traits lacks adequate consideration of this complexity and has limitations in explaining the (...)
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  23. Ken Waters, Molecular Genetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  24. Marcel Weber, Causal Selection Versus Causal Parity in Biology: Relevant Counterfactuals and Biologically Normal Interventions.
    Causal selection is the task of picking out, from a field of known causally relevant factors, some factors as the actual causes of an event or class of events or the causes that "make the difference". The Causal Parity Thesis in the philosophy of biology is basically the claim that there are no grounds for such a selection. The main target of this thesis is usually gene centrism, the doctrine that genes play some special role in ontogeny, which is often (...)
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  25. Stephen L. Zegura (1997). Color Categories and Biology: Considerations From Molecular Genetics, Neurobiology, and Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):211-212.
    Evidence from molecular genetics bolsters the claim that color is not a perceptuolinguistic and behavioral universal. Neurobiology continues to fill in many details about the flow of color information from photon reception to central processing in the brain. Humans have the most acute color vision in the biosphere because of natural selection and adaptation, not coincidence.
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