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  1. Enrique Moros (1996). La Demostración de la Existencia de Dios a Partir de la Libertad. Anuario Filosófico 29 (55):805-814.
    In this paper I analyse an argument for God's existence from the liberty proposed by Prof. Polo. I think that an examination of his transcendental antropology wild yield some important insights concerning of person and liberty. I argue this argument is sound and illuminating of our concept of God.
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  2. William Lad Sessions (1987). Coherence, Proper Basicality and Moral Arguments for Theism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (3):119 - 137.
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  3. William Lad Sessions (1985). A New Look at Moral Arguments for Theism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1/2):51 - 67.
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  4. Erik Wielenberg (2009). In Defense of Non-Natural, Non-Theistic Moral Realism. Faith and Philosophy 29 (1):23-41.
    Many believe that objective morality requires a theistic foundation. I maintain that there are sui generis objective ethical facts that do not reduce to natural or supernatural facts. On my view, objective morality does not require an external foundation of any kind. After explaining my view, I defend it against a variety of objections posed by William Wainwright, William Lane Craig, and J. P. Moreland.
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  5. Erik Wielenberg (2005). Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe. Cambridge University Press.
Arguments from Moral Normativity
  1. Arif Ahmed (2013). From Game Theoretical Accounts of Cooperation to Meta-Ethical Choices. Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):176-183.
  2. C. Stephen Evans (2013). God and Moral Obligation. Oxford University Press.
    God and moral obligations -- What is a divine command theory of moral obligation? -- The relation of divine command theory to natural law and virtue ethics -- Objections to divine command theory -- Alternatives to a divine command theory -- Conclusions: The inescapability of moral obligations.
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  3. Angus Ritchie (2012). From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of Our Ethical Commitments. Oxford University Press.
    Part I: The 'explanatory gap'. 1. Why take morality to be objective? -- 2. The gap opens: evolution and our capacity for moral knowledge -- Part II: Secular responses. 3. Alternatives to realism: Simon Blackburn and Allan Gibbard -- 4. Procedures and reasons: Tim Scanlon and Christine Korsgaard -- 5. Natural goodness: Philippa Foot's moral objectivism -- 6. Natural goodness and 'second nature': John McDowell and David Wiggin -- Part III: Theism. 7. From goodness to God: closing the explanatory gap (...)
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  4. Nicholas Unwin (2008). Divine Hoorays: Some Parallels Between Expressivism and Religious Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):659-684.
    Divine law theories of metaethics claim that moral rightness is grounded in God’s commands, wishes and so forth. Expressivist theories, by contrast, claim that to call something morally right is to express our own attitudes, not to report on God’s. Ostensibly, such views are incompatible. However, we shall argue that a rapprochement is possible and beneficial to both sides. Expressivists need to explain the difference between reporting and expressing an attitude, and to address the Frege-Geach problem. Divine law theorists need (...)
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Arguments from Moral Order
  1. Gene Fendt (2005). The Relation of Monologion and Proslogion. Heythrop Journal 46 (2):149–166.
    This paper argues that Monologion and Proslogion though distinguishable are not really separable. They are distinct as "the way in" and "the way when one is in" but "the way in" reveals itself as a discovery of already being in; thus these ways are distinct in act, but not in being. Monologion moves from imaginary ignorance to real reverence, while Proslogion begins within reverence to achieve understanding.
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The Secular Problem of Evil
  1. Joe Barnhardt & Joe Barnhart (forthcoming). Bowne, Dostoevsky and Brightman: Three Personalists Who Confronted the Problem of Evil. The Personalist Forum.
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  2. Peter Brian Barry (2011). Wickedness Redux. Philo 14 (2):137-160.
    Some philosophers have argued that the concepts of evil and wickedness cannot be well grasped by those inclined to a naturalist bent, perhaps because evil is so intimately tied to religious discourse or because it is ultimately not possible to understand evil, period. By contrast, I argue that evil—or, at least, what it is to be an evil person—can be understood by naturalist philosophers, and I articulate an independently plausible account of evil character.
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  3. James Cain (2004). Free Will and the Problem of Evil. Religious Studies 40 (4):437-456.
    According to the free-will defence, the exercise of free will by creatures is of such value that God is willing to allow the existence of evil which comes from the misuse of free will. A well-known objection holds that the exercise of free will is compatible with determinism and thus, if God exists, God could have predetermined exactly how the will would be exercised; God could even have predetermined that free will would be exercised sinlessly. Thus, it is held, the (...)
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  4. Philippe Gagnon (2012). The Problem of Trans-Humanism in the Light of Philosophy and Theology. In James B. Stump & Alan G. Padgett (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity, pp. 393-405. Blackwell. 393-405.
    Transhumanism is a means of advocating a re-engineering of conditions that surround human existence at both ends. The problem set before us in this chapter is to inquire into what determined its appearance, in particular in the humanism it seeks to overcome. We look at the spirit of overcoming itself, and the impatience with the Self, in order to try to understand why it seeks a saving power in technology. We then consider how the evolutionary account of the production of (...)
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  5. Ada S. Jaarsma (2010). Habermas' Kierkegaard and the Nature of the Secular. Constellations 17 (2):271-292.
  6. Ada S. Jaarsma (2003). Irigaray's to Be Two: The Problem of Evil and the Plasticity of Incarnation. Hypatia 18 (1):44 - 62.
    Increasingly, feminist theorists, such as Alison Martin and Ellen T. Armour, are attending to the numerous religious allusions within texts by Luce Irigaray. Engaging with this scholarship, this paper focuses on the problematic of evil that is elaborated within Irigarayan texts. Mobilizing the work of Catherine Malabou, the paper argues that Malabou's methodology of reading, which she identifies as "plastic," illuminates the logic at work within Irigaray's deployment of sacred stories.
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  7. John Kekes (2005). The Roots of Evil. Cornell University Press.
    Uses case studies of evil, the most serious of our moral Problems, to explain why people act with cruelty, greed, prejudice and fanatacism.
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  8. Robin May Schott (2003). Introduction: Special Issue on "Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil". Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
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  9. Robin May Schott (2003). Introduction to Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil, Part II. Hypatia 18 (2):152-154.
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  10. Paul Tidman (1993). The Epistemology of Evil Possibilities. Faith and Philosophy 10 (2):181-197.
    In this paper I defend the Anselmian conception of God as a necessary being who is necessarily omnipotent, omniscient, and perfectly good against arguments that attempt to show that we have good reason to think there are evil possible worlds in which either God does not exist or in which He lacks at least one of these attributes. I argue that the critics of Anselmianism have failed to provide any compelling reason to think such worlds are possible. The best the (...)
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Moral Arguments for Theism, Misc
  1. Robert Merrihew Adams (1979). Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief. In C. F. Delaney (ed.), Rationality and Religious Belief. University of Notre Dame Press.
    Moral arguments were the type of theistic argument most characteristic of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. More recently they have become one of philosophy’s abandoned farms. The fields are still fertile, but they have not been cultivated systematically since the latest methods came in. The rambling Victorian farmhouse has not been kept up as well as similar structures, and people have not been stripping the sentimental gingerbread off the porches to reveal the clean lines of argument. This paper is (...)
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  2. Arif Ahmed (2013). From Game Theoretical Accounts of Cooperation to Meta-Ethical Choices. Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):176-183.
  3. Stephen R. L. Clark (1987). God's Law and Chandler. Philosophical Quarterly 37 (147):203-208.
  4. Stephen R. L. Clark (1982). God's Law and Morality. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (129):339-347.
  5. C. Stephen Evans (2010). Moral Arguments. In A Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Second Edition). Wiley Blackwell.
    This article provides a survey of types of moral arguments for the existence of God. The article begins by defending this type of arguments against some common criticisms, and then distinguishes practical moral arguments from theoretical moral arguments, before looking at the strengths and weaknesses of various versions of each type. The philosophers who are discussed include Immanuel Kant, Philip Quinn, Robert Adams, and George Mavrodes. The article defends the claim that such arguments can be an important part of a (...)
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  6. Robert K. Garcia (2009). Introduction. In Robert K. Garcia & Nathan L. King (eds.), Is Goodness Without God Good Enough? A Debate on Faith, Secularism, and Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield.
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  7. Steven D. Hales (2008). A Proof of the Existence of Fairies. Think 16:45 - 48.
    A modest satire on Kant’s moral argument for the existence of God, using Richard Dawkins’s ’The God Delusion’as a jumping-off point. It is written from the first-person perspective of a garden fairy at Kew Gardens.
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  8. Thomas W. Smythe & Michael Rectenwald (2011). Craig on God and Morality. International Philosophical Quarterly 51 (203):331 - 338.
    In this paper we critically evaluate an argument put forward by William Lane Craig for the existence of God based on the assumption that if there were no God, there could be no objective morality. Contrary to Craig, we show that there are some necessary moral truths and objective moral reasoning that holds up whether there is a God or not. We go on to argue that religious faith, when taken alone and without reason or evidence, actually risks undermining morality (...)
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  9. Robert S. Taylor (2010). Kant's Political Religion: The Transparency of Perpetual Peace and the Highest Good. Review of Politics 72 (1):1-24.
    Scholars have long debated the relationship between Kant’s doctrine of right and his doctrine of virtue (including his moral religion or ethico-theology), which are the two branches of his moral philosophy. This article will examine the intimate connection in his practical philosophy between perpetual peace and the highest good, between political and ethico-religious communities, and between the types of transparency peculiar to each. It will show how domestic and international right provides a framework for the development of ethical communities, including (...)
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  10. Erik Wielenberg (2009). In Defense of Non-Natural, Non-Theistic Moral Realism. Faith and Philosophy 29 (1):23-41.
    Many believe that objective morality requires a theistic foundation. I maintain that there are sui generis objective ethical facts that do not reduce to natural or supernatural facts. On my view, objective morality does not require an external foundation of any kind. After explaining my view, I defend it against a variety of objections posed by William Wainwright, William Lane Craig, and J. P. Moreland.
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