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  1. Don Adams (2009). Aquinas and Modern Contractualism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):509 – 530.
    When modern ethical contractualists defend their view against “teleology,” they typically have in mind utilitarian or consequentialist theories according to which valuable states of affairs are to be promoted. But if we look to older teleological theories e.g. that found in the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas we will find a kind of teleology that can be incorporated beneficially into contractualist ethics. In this paper I argue that Scanlon would be well served, on grounds to which he appeals, to make (...)
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  2. Robert Merrihew Adams (2001). Scanlon's Contractualism: Critical Notice of T. M. Scanlon, "What We Owe to Each Other". Philosophical Review 110 (4):563-586.
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  3. David Alm (2008). Contractualism, Reciprocity, Compensation. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (3):1-23.
    Two generally recognized moral duties are to reciprocate benefits one has received from others and to compensate harms one has done to others. In this paper I want to show that it is not possible to give an adequate account of either duty – or at least one that corresponds to our actual practices – within a contractualist moral theory of the type developed by T. M. Scanlon (1982, 1998). This fact is interesting in its own right, as contractualism is (...)
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  4. Richard J. Arneson (2002). The End of Welfare as We Know It? Scanlon Versus Welfarist Consequentialism. Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):315-336.
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  5. Elizabeth Ashford (2003). The Demandingness of Scanlon's Contractualism. Ethics 113 (2):273-302.
    One of the reasons why Kantian contractualism has been seen as an appealing alternative to utilitarianism is that it seems to be able to avoid utilitarianism's extreme demandingness, while retaining a fully impartial moral point of view. I argue that in the current state of the world, contractualist obligations to help those in need are not significantly less demanding than utilitarian obligations. I also argue that while a plausible version of utilitarianism would be considerably less demanding if the state of (...)
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  6. Stephen W. Ball (1998). Critical Review of Rawls's Political Liberalism: A Utilitarian and Decision-Theoretical Analysis of the Main Arguments. Utilitas 10 (02):222-.
  7. Stephen W. Ball (1993). Maximin Justice, Sacrifice, and the Reciprocity Argument: A Pragmatic Reassessment of the Rawls/Nozick Debate. Utilitas 5 (02):157-.
  8. R. Eric Barnes (2012). Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (4):815-818.
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  9. Brian Barry (1996). Contractual Justice: A Modest Defence. Utilitas 8 (03):357-.
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  10. John Charvet (1998). Fundamental Equality. Utilitas 10 (03):337-.
    By fundamental equality is meant the idea of the equal worth of human beings understood as a constitutive principle of morality. The paper is concerned with how this principle may be justified. Attempts to justify it in an objectivist way by citing some quality of human beings in virtue of which they are supposed to be of equal worth are rejected. Such approaches in fact justify inequality to the extent that some people possess the quality to a greater degree than (...)
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  11. Michael Cholbi (2002). A Contractualist Account of Promising. Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):475-91.
    T.M. Scanlon (1998) proposes that promise breaking is wrong because it shows manipulative disregard for the expectations for future behavior created by promising. I argue that this account of promissory obligation is mistaken in it own right, as well as being at odds with Scanlon's contractualism. I begin by placing Scanlon's account of promising within a tradition that treats the creation of expectations in promise recipients as central to promissory obligation. However, a counterexample to Scanlon's account, his case of the (...)
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  12. David Copp & David Sobel (2000). What We Owe to Each Other, T. M. Scanlon, the Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998, IX + 420 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):333-378.
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  13. Fred D'Agostino, John Thrasher & Gerald Gaus, Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14. Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) (2003). Contractarianism, Contractualism. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Contractualism/Contractarianism collects, for the first time, both major classical sources and central contemporary discussions of these important approaches to philosophical ethics. Edited and introduced by Stephen Darwall, these readings are essential for anyone interested in normative ethics.
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  15. Mathieu Doucet (2013). Playing Dice with Morality: Weighted Lotteries and the Number Problem. Utilitas 25 (2):161-181.
    In this article I criticize the non-consequentialist Weighted Lottery (WL) solution to the choice between saving a smaller or a larger group of people. WL aims to avoid what non-consequentialists see as consequentialism's unfair aggregation by giving equal consideration to each individual's claim to be rescued. In so doing, I argue, WL runs into another common objection to consequentialism: it is excessively demanding. WL links the right action with the outcome of a fairly weighted lottery, which means that an agent (...)
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  16. Brian Feltham (2005). Scanlon and Contractualism. Contemporary Political Theory 4 (2):209.
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  17. Samuel Freeman (1990). Reason and Agreement in Social Contract Views. Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (2):122-157.
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  18. Samuel Richard Freeman (2007). Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    John Rawls (1921-2002) was one of the 20th century's most important philosophers and continues to be among the most widely discussed of contemporary thinkers. His work, particularly A Theory of Justice, is integral to discussions of social and international justice, democracy, liberalism, welfare economics, and constitutional law, in departments of philosophy, politics, economics, law, public policy, and others. Samuel Freeman is one of Rawls's foremost interpreters. This volume contains nine of his essays on Rawls and Rawlsian justice, two of which (...)
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  19. Tamra Frei (2009). The Redundancy Objection, and Why Scanlon is Not a Contractualist. Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (1):47-65.
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  20. Barbara H. Fried (2012). Can Contractualism Save Us From Aggregation? Journal of Ethics 16 (1):39-66.
    This paper examines the efforts of contractualists to develop an alternative to aggregation to govern our duty not to harm (duty to rescue) others. I conclude that many of the moral principles articulated in the literature seem to reduce to aggregation by a different name. Those that do not are viable only as long as they are limited to a handful of oddball cases at the margins of social life. If extended to run-of-the-mill conduct that accounts for virtually all unintended (...)
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  21. Robert Garner (2012). Much Ado About Nothing?: Barry, Justice and Animals. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (3):363-376.
    This article examines the extent to which Brian Barry?s contractarian political theory ? justice as impartiality ? is able to incorporate the interests of animals. Despite the initial optimism that Barry might provide a theory of justice that can provide substantial protection for the interests of animals, it is clear that he offers relatively little. Insofar as animals can be protected within justice as impartiality, they are not being protected as a result of their intrinsic value, but merely as one, (...)
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  22. David P. Gauthier (2006). Rousseau: The Sentiment of Existence. Cambridge University Press.
    The distinguished philosopher David Gauthier examines Rousseau's evolving notion of freedom, particularly in his later works, where he focuses on a single quest: Can freedom and the independent self be regained? Rousseau's first answer is given in Emile, where he seeks to create a self-sufficient individual, neither materially nor psychologically enslaved to others. His second answer comes in the Social Contract, where he seeks to create a citizen who identifies totally with his community, so that he experiences his dependence on (...)
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  23. Allan Gibbard (2008). Reconciling Our Aims: In Search of Bases for Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    In these three Tanner lectures, distinguished ethical theorist Allan Gibbard explores the nature of normative thought and the bases of ethics. In the first lecture he explores the role of intuitions in moral thinking and offers a way of thinking about the intuitive method of moral inquiry that both places this activity within the natural world and makes sense of it as an indispensable part of our lives as planners. In the second and third lectures he takes up the kind (...)
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  24. Pablo Gilabert (2010). Kant and the Claims of the Poor. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):382-418.
  25. Pablo Gilabert (2007). Contractualism and Poverty Relief. Social Theory and Practice 33 (2):277-310.
  26. Pablo Gilabert (2006). Global Justice, Democracy and Solidarity. Res Publica 12 (4):435-443.
  27. A. H. Goldman (2012). Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality, by Nicholas Southwood. Mind 121 (482):539-543.
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  28. Everett W. Hall (1957). II. Justice as Fairness: A Modernized Version of the Social Contract. Journal of Philosophy 54 (22):662-670.
  29. Jean Hampton (1980). Contracts and Choices: Does Rawls Have a Social Contract Theory? Journal of Philosophy 77 (6):315-338.
  30. Carl G. Hedman (1987). Making the Social Contract Relevant. Social Theory and Practice 13 (3):327-360.
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  31. Pamela Hieronymi (2011). Of Metaethics and Motivation: The Appeal of Contractualism. In R. Jay Wallace, Rahul Kumar & Samuel Richard Freeman (eds.), Reasons and Recognition: Essays on the Philosophy of T. M. Scanlon. Oxford University Press.
    In 1982, when T. M. Scanlon published “Contractualism and Utilitarianism,” he noted that, despite the widespread attention to Rawls’ A Theory of Justice, the appeal of contractualism as a moral theory had been under appreciated. In particular, the appeal of contractualism’s account of what he then called “moral motivation” had been under appreciated.1 It seems to me that, in the intervening quarter century, despite the widespread discussion of Scanlon’s work, the appeal of contractualism, in precisely this regard, has still been (...)
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  32. Alison Hills (2010). Utilitarianism, Contractualism and Demandingness. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (239):225-242.
    One familiar criticism of utilitarianism is that it is too demanding. It requires us to promote the happiness of others, even at the expense of our own projects, our integrity, or the welfare of our friends and family. Recently Ashford has defended utilitarianism, arguing that it provides compelling reasons for demanding duties to help the needy, and that other moral theories, notably contractualism, are committed to comparably stringent duties. In response, I argue that utilitarianism is even more demanding than is (...)
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  33. Brad Hooker (2003). Contractualism, Spare Wheel, Aggregation. In Matt Matravers (ed.), Scanlon and Contractualism. Frank Cass. 53-76.
    This essay explores the reasons for thinking that Scanlon's contractualist principle serves merely as a ?spare wheel?, an element that spins along nicely but bears no real weight, because it presupposes too much of what it should be explaning. The ambitions and scope of Scanlon's contractualism are discussed, as is Scanlon's thesis that contracualism will assess candidate moral principles individually rather than as sets. The final third of the paper critizes Scanlon's account of fairness and his approach to cases where (...)
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  34. John Horton (1996). The Good, the Bad, and the Impartial. Utilitas 8 (03):307-.
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  35. John Horton (1991). A Theory of Social Justice? Utilitas 3 (01):121-.
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  36. Adam Hosein, Numbers, Fairness and Charity.
    This paper discusses the "numbers problem," the problem of explaining why you should save more people rather than fewer when forced to choose. Existing non-consequentialist approaches to the problem appeal to fairness to explain why. I argue that this is a mistake and that we can give a more satisfying answer by appealing to requirements of charity or beneficence.
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  37. Adam Hosein (2013). Contractualism, Politics, and Morality. Acta Analytica 28 (4):495-508.
    Rawls developed a contractualist theory of social justice and Scanlon attempted to extend the Rawlsian framework to develop a theory of rightness, or morality more generally. I argue that there are some good reasons to adopt a contractualist theory of social justice, but that it is a mistake to adopt a contractualist theory of rightness. I begin by illustrating the major shared features of Scanlon and Rawls’ theories. I then show that the justification for these features in Rawls’ theory, the (...)
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  38. Michael Howard (2008). Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy - by Samuel Freeman. Philosophical Books 49 (1):81-83.
  39. Jonathan Hughes & Stephen de Wijze (2001). Moral Contractualism Comes of Age. [REVIEW] Res Publica 7 (2):189--196.
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  40. Aaron James (2004). Rights and Circularity in Scanlon’s Contractualism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 1 (3):367-374.
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  41. Scott James (2009). The Caveman's Conscience: Evolution and Moral Realism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):215-233.
    An increasingly popular moral argument has it that the story of human evolution shows that we can explain the human disposition to make moral judgments without relying on a realm of moral facts. Such facts can thus be dispensed with. But this argument is a threat to moral realism only if there is no realist position that can explain, in the context of human evolution, the relationship between our particular moral sense and a realm of moral facts. I sketch a (...)
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  42. Leonard Kahn (2010). Review of "Essays on Derek Parfit's ON WHAT MATTERS&Quot;. [REVIEW] Metapsychology 14 (24).
  43. Mark Kalderon, How Not to Be a Normative Irrealist.
    Jimmy expresses sympathy for Scanlon’s contractualism but wonders whether it might be better developed in the context of a Humean expressivism. Jimmy presses this point, in part, by observing that much of what Scanlon wants to say about moral and normative discourse, such as their logical discipline and apparent truth-aptitude, can be accommodated by the expressivist. If all that Scanlon wants to say about moral and normative discourse can be accommodated by the expressivist then what content can be given to (...)
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  44. F. M. Kamm (2002). Owing, Justifying, and Rejecting. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (442):323-354.
    What We Owe to Each Other, by Thomas <span class='Hi'>Scanlon</span>. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999. Pp. 432. H/b £27.50, $39.95; P/b £13.95, $19.95.
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  45. Aharon F. Kleinberger (1976). The Social‐Contract Strategy for the Justification of Moral Principles. Journal of Moral Education 5 (2):107-126.
    Abstract: Rawls? arguments in defence of his claim to derive principles of morality and justice from his hypothetical? original position? are critically examined and found to be unconvincing. In particular, it is pointed out that a theory of justice cannot be at one and the same time (a) descriptive?explanatory and therefore tested against people's actual judgments in particular cases, and (b) prescriptive?justificatory and therefore providing rationally derived principles against which people's actual judgments are tested for correctness. Rawls? attempt to conflate (...)
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  46. Regina Kreide (2000). Context-Sensitive Universalism - on Thomas Scanlon's What We Owe to Each Other. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 26 (5):123-132.
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  47. Rahul Kumar (2003). Reasonable Reasons in Contractualist Moral Argument. Ethics 114 (1):6-37.
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  48. Rahul Kumar (2001). Contractualism on Saving the Many. Analysis 61 (2):165–170.
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  49. Rahul Kumar (1999). Defending the Moral Moderate: Contractualism and Common Sense. Philosophy and Public Affairs 28 (4):275–309.
  50. A. Faik Kurtulmus (2012). Uncertainty Behind the Veil of Ignorance. Utilitas 24 (01):41-62.
    This article argues that the decision problem in the original position should be characterized as a decision problem under uncertainty even when it is assumed that the denizens of the original position know that they have an equal chance of ending up in any given individual’s place. It supports this claim by arguing that (a) the continuity axiom of decision theory does not hold between all of the outcomes the denizens of the original position face and that (b) neither us (...)
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