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  1. Robert Merrihew Adams (1985). Involuntary Sins. Philosophical Review 94 (1):3-31.
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  2. Bat-Ami Bar On (2003). Terrorism, Evil, and Everyday Depravity. Hypatia 18 (1):157-163.
    : This essay expresses ambivalence about the use of the term "evil" in analyses of terrorism in light of the association of the two in speeches intended to justify the United States' "war on terrorism." At the same time, the essay suggests that terrorism can be regarded as "evil" but only when considered among a multiplicity of "evils" comparable to it, for example: rape, war crimes, and repression.
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  3. Linda A. Bell (2009). Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to "The Atrocity Paradigm". Hypatia 24 (1):123 - 140.
    Inspired by Card's focus on atrocities, I reflect on attitudes and behaviors that buttress and support evil. Surely, the frequent anti-Semitic sermons in German churches helped to form and later to support the views of both Nazis and those who accepted and cooperated with them. Similarly, lynching, rape, and abuse occur within societies whose structures and laws reflect dominant, generally "genteel" racism and sexism and, in turn, help create perpetrators and at least somewhat sympathetic onlookers.
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  4. Richard Brook (2007). Deontology, Paradox, and Moral Evil. Social Theory and Practice 33 (3):431-440.
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  5. Robert F. Brown (1991). God's Ability to Will Moral Evil. Faith and Philosophy 8 (1):3-20.
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  6. Roger Burggraeve (1999). Violence and the Vulnerable Face of the Other: The Vision of Emmanuel Levinas on Moral Evil and Our Responsibility. Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (1):29-45.
  7. Claudia Card (1990). Caring and Evil. Hypatia 5 (1):101-108.
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  8. Claudia Card (1990). Review: Caring and Evil. [REVIEW] Hypatia 5 (1):101 - 108.
    Nel Noddings, in Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (1984), presents and develops an ethic of care as an alternative to an ethic that treats justice as a basic concept. I argue that this care ethic is unable to give an adequate account of ethical relationships between strangers and that it is also in danger of valorizing relationships in which carers are seriously abused.
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  9. Victoria Davion (2009). Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil. Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  10. Margaret Ann Denike (2003). The Devil's Insatiable Sex: A Genealogy of Evil Incarnate. Hypatia 18 (1):10-43.
    : This paper traces the political economy of the Christian concept of "evil" incarnate and its concomitant operations of sexual abjection and the repudiation of femininity, beginning with the early church's inaugural struggles to impose its monotheistic Law against maternal paganism. With attention to how "evil" has been deployed to sanction and sanctify the persecution of scapegoats, and particularly of heretics and witches, I examine the masculinist struggles for jurisdiction and control over women.
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  11. Frank B. Dilley (1990). The Free-Will Defence and Worlds Without Moral Evil. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 27 (1/2):1 - 15.
  12. David Forman (2012). Kant on Moral Freedom and Moral Slavery. Kantian Review 17 (1):1-32.
    Kant’s account of the freedom gained through virtue builds on the Socratic tradition. On the Socratic view, when morality is our end, nothing can hinder us from attaining satisfaction: we are self-sufficient and free since moral goodness is (as Kant says) “created by us, hence is in our power.” But when our end is the fulfillment of sensible desires, our satisfaction requires luck as well as the cooperation of others. For Kant, this means that happiness requires that we get other (...)
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  13. Jennifer L. Geddes (2003). Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil After the Holocaust. Hypatia 18 (1):104-115.
    : Hannah Arendt's and Charlotte Delbo's writings about the Holocaust trouble our preconceptions about those who do evil and those who suffer evil. Their jarring terms "banal evil" and "useless knowledge" point to limitations and temptations facing scholars of evil. While Arendt helps us to resist the temptation to mythologize evil, Delbo helps us to resist the temptation to domesticate suffering.
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  14. Richard Greene & K. Silem Mohammed (eds.) (2006). The Undead and Philosophy. Open Court.
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  15. R. Hackforth (1946). Moral Evil and Ignorance in Plato's Ethics. Classical Quarterly 40 (3-4):118-.
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  16. Allan Hazlett (2012). Non-Moral Evil. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):18-34.
    There is, I shall assume, such a thing as moral evil (more on which below). My question is whether is also such a thing as non-moral evil, and in particular whether there are such things as aesthetic evil and epistemic evil. More exactly, my question is whether there is such a thing as moral evil but not such a thing as non-moral evil, in some sense that reveals something special about the moral, as opposed to such would-be non-moral domains as (...)
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  17. Jill Graper Hernandez (2010). Moral Evil and Leibniz's Form/Matter Defense of Divine Omnipotence. Sophia 49 (1):1-13.
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that Leibniz’s form/matter defense of omnipotence is paradoxical, but not irretrievably so. Leibniz maintains that God necessarily must concur only in the possibility for evil’s existence in the world (the form of evil), but there are individual instances of moral evil that are not necessary (the matter of evil) with which God need not concur. For Leibniz, that there is moral evil in the world is contingent on God’s will (a dimension of (...)
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  18. Jon Vegar Hugaas (2010). Evil's Place in the Ethics of Social Work. Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (3):254-279.
    This article argues that the concept of evil is needed in normative ethics in general as well as in the professional ethics of social work. Attention is drawn to certain shortcomings in the classical theories of normative ethics when it comes to recognizing the profound destructiveness of certain types of acts that exceed the mere ?bad? or ?wrong? applied in the most common theories of moral philosophy. Having established the category of morally evil acts in general, the author turns to (...)
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  19. Louis Janssens (2000). Ontic Evil and Moral Evil. In Christopher Robert Kaczor (ed.), Proportionalism: For and Against. Marquette University Press.
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  20. Aurel Kolnai (1956). The Thematic Primacy of Moral Evil. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (22):27-42.
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  21. Norman Kretzmann (1988). God Among the Causes of Moral Evil. Philosophical Topics 16 (2):189-214.
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  22. María Pía Lara (2004). Claudia Card's Atrocity Paradigm. Hypatia 19 (4):186 - 193.
    This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  23. María Pía Lara (2004). Claudia Card's. Hypatia 19 (4).
    : This paper deals with Claudia Card's important contributions to a theory of evil that steps out from traditional models of thinking about this problem (theodicies, metaphysical theories, etc.). Instead, our author seeks to explore important elements from other theorists (such as Kant and Nietzsche) in order to build up her ideas of what she calls the "atrocity paradigm." This critical essay focuses mainly in the spaces where Card's conclusions need to rethink the limits and constraints of her theory.
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  24. C. Stephen Layman (2003). Natural Evil: The Comparative Response. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (1):1-23.
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  25. Alice MacLachlan (2009). Moral Powers and Forgivable Evils. In Kathryn Norlock & Andrea Veltman (eds.), Evil, Political Violence and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card. Lexington.
    In The Atrocity Paradigm, Claudia Card suggests we forgiveness as a potentially valuable exercise of a victim's moral powers. Yet Card never makes explicit just what 'moral powers' are, or how to understand their grounding or scope. I draw out unacknowledged implications of her framework: namely, that others than the primary victim may forgive, and -- conversely -- that some victims may find themselves morally dis-empowered. Furthermore, talk of "moral powers" allows us to appropriately acknowledge the value of refusals to (...)
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  26. Eugene Marshall (forthcoming). Spinoza on Evil. In The History of Evil. Volume III: The History of Evil in the Early Modern Age (1450-1700). Acumen Press.
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  27. Johannes Baptist Metz (ed.) (1970). Moral Evil Under Challenge. [New York]Herder and Herder.
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  28. Moti Mizrahi (2014). The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil. Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential (not logical or incompatibility) problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making defense, are (...)
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  29. James F. Moore (2010). Evagrius Ponticus and Cognitive Science: A Look at Moral Evil and the Thoughts. By George Tsakiridis. Zygon 45 (4):1024-1025.
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  30. Adam Morton (2004). Inequity/Iniquity: Card on Balancing Injustice and Evil. Hypatia 19 (4):197-201.
    : Card argues that we should not give injustice priority over evil. I agree. But I think Card sets us up for some difficult balances, for example of small evils against middle-sized injustices. I suggest some ways of staying off the tightrope.
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  31. Yujin Nagasawa (2003). Moral Evil and Human Freedom: A Reply to Tierno. Sophia 42 (2):107-111.
    Many theists believe that the so-called ‘free will defence’ successfully undermines the antitheist argument from moral evil. However, in a recent issue of Sophia Joel Thomas Tierno provides the ‘adequacy argument’ in order to show an alleged difficulty with the free will defence. I argue that the adequacy argument fails because it equivocates on the notion of moral evil.
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  32. Hilde Lindemann Nelson (2003). The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Review). Hypatia 18 (2):213-215.
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  33. Hilde Lindemann Nelson (2003). Book Review: Claudia Card. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [REVIEW] Hypatia 18 (2):213-215.
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  34. Kathryn Norlock & Andrea Veltman (eds.) (2009). Evil, Political Violence and Forgiveness: Essays in Honor of Claudia Card. Lexington.
    The collection brings together an international cohort of distinguished moral and political philosophers who mediate with Card upon an array of twentieth-century atrocities and on the nature of evil actions, persons and institutions.
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  35. Timothy O'Connor (2009). Theodicies and Human Nature: Dostoevsky on the Saint as Witness. In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Metaphysics and God. Routledge.
  36. Bat-Ami Bar On (2004). Politics and Prioritization of Evil. Hypatia 19 (4):192-196.
    In this essay I question an assumption of Card's, which seems to place the (Kantianstyle) ethical in a directive relationship with respect to the political. I call attention to the rupture between the two as a marker of modernity and suggest that the political is not only a sphere of power but also a value-sedimented field, with the values in question developing historically as in the case of liberal democracy.
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  37. Bat-Ami Bar On (2003). Terrorism, Evil, and Everyday Depravity. Hypatia 18 (1):157 - 163.
    This essay expresses ambivalence about the use of the term "evil" in analyses of terrorism in light of the association of the two in speeches intended to justify the United States' "war on terrorism." At the same time, the essay suggests that terrorism can be regarded as "evil" but only when considered among a multiplicity of "evils" comparable to it, for example: rape, war crimes, and repression.
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  38. Graham Oppy (2004). Arguments From Moral Evil. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 56 (2/3):59 - 87.
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  39. Paul Ramsey (1946). The Idealistic View of Moral Evil: Josiah Royce and Bernard Bosanquet. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6 (4):554-589.
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  40. Paul[from old catalog] Ramsey (1946). The Idealistic View of Moral Evil. [N.P..
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  41. Sherene Razack (2003). Those Who "Witness the Evil". Hypatia 18 (1):204 - 211.
    : For the better part of the last decade, Canadian peacekeepers have been encouraged to frame their activities in Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo and Croatia as encounters with "absolute evil." Peacekeeping is seen as a moral project in which the North civilizes the South. Using the Canadian peacekeeping context, I reflect on President Bush's use of the phrase "axis of evil" in the New World Order. I argue that this phrase reveals an epistemology structured by notions of the civilized (White) (...)
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  42. Elizabeth V. Spelman (2003). Book Review: Amelie Oksenberg Rorty. The Many Faces of Evil: Historical Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge, 2001. [REVIEW] Hypatia 18 (2):229-232.
  43. Stephen J. Sullivan (1994). Relativism, Evil, and Disagreement: A Reply to Hocutt. Philosophia 24 (1-2):191-201.
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  44. Richard Swinburne (2003). Freedom and Evil. In Julian Baggini & Jeremy Stangroom (eds.), What Philosophers Think. Continuum Press.
    In this interview of me by Julian Baggini, I defend my view that the existence of evil (bad actions and bad states of affairs) does not count against the existence of God iff it is only by God allowing the evil that a certain good can be achieved; God does everything else he can to bring about that good; God has the right to allow the evil; and the outcome is sufficiently good. I argue that God as our creator has (...)
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  45. Joel Thomas Tierno (2008). On the Alleged Connection Between Moral Evil and Human Freedom: A Response to Trakakis' Third Critique. Sophia 47 (2):223-230.
    In this essay, I respond to Nick Trakakis’ “A Third (Meta-)Critique.” This critique is directed against my argument concerning the inadequacy of the traditional theistic argument from free will. I contend that the argument from free will does not adequately explain the distribution of moral evil in the world. I maintain that the third critique, like Trakakis’ earlier critiques, is unconvincing. I remain convinced that my original argument regarding the inadequacy of the traditional argument from free will is compelling. The (...)
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  46. Joel Thomas Tierno (2006). On the Alleged Connection Between Moral Evil and Human Freedom: A Response to Trakakis' Second Critique. Sophia 45 (2):131-138.
    In this essay, I answer Nick Trakakis’ second critique of my argument against the adequacy of traditional free will theodicy. I argue, first, that Trakakis errs in his implicit assertion that my argument relies upon our being strongly malevolent by nature. I argue, second, that Trakakis errs in thinking that our being weakly benevolent, morally bivalent, or weakly malevolent by nature is sufficient to refute my critique of the traditional freewill theodicy. I still maintain that the argument from freedom of (...)
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  47. Joel Thomas Tierno (2004). On the Alleged Connection Between Moral Evil and Human Freedom: Response to Nagasawa and Trakakis. Sophia 43 (1):115-126.
    In this essay, I respond to two criticisms of my essay, ‘On the Alleged Connection between Moral Evil and Human Freedom’. According to Yujin Nagasawa, I equivocate on the meaning of ‘moral evil.’ I respond by offering what I believe to be an unobjectionable stipulative under-standing of what counts as moral evil which is sufficient for my argument. According to Nick Trakakis, I seriously misunderstand the conception of freedom characteristic of free will theodicists. He suggests that my argument presupposes compatibilism. (...)
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  48. Joel Thomas Tierno (2001). On the Alleged Connection Between Moral Evil and Human Freedom. Sophia 40 (2):1-6.
    Those who advance the traditional argument from human freedom presume that human freedom provides an adequate explanation of moral evil. I argue that this presumption is erroneous. An adequate explanation of our capacity to make choices that produce moral evil must be distinguished from an adequate explanation of the actuality of such choices. Human freedom may account for our ability to make choices that issue in moral evil. It cannot, by itself, account for our actually making such choices. Something more (...)
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  49. Manuel Vargas (2010). Are Psychopathic Serial Killers Evil? Are They Blameworthy for What They Do? In Sarah Waller (ed.), Serial Killers and Philosophy. Blackwell.
    At least some serial killers are psychopathic serial killers. Psychopathic serial killers raise interesting questions about the nature of evil and moral responsibility. On the one hand, serial killers seem to be obviously evil, if anything is. On the other hand, psychopathy is a diagnosable disorder that, among other things, involves a diminished ability to understand and use basic moral distinctions. This feature of psychopathy suggests that psychopathic serial killers have at least diminished responsibility for what they do. In this (...)
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  50. Manuel Vargas (2006). Dead Serious: Evil and the Ontology of the Undead. In Richard Greene & K. Silem Mohammed (eds.), The Undead and Philosophy. Open Court.
    I don’t know whether undead beings exist. I also think it is an open question whether anyone is evil in, say, the way bad guys are depicted in supernatural horror films and serial killer movies. I do think it’s nevertheless puzzling that the undead are frequently portrayed as evil in that way. I’m inclined to think that if we were to stumble across any undead they would be less likely to be evil than any random live person we stumble across. (...)
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