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  1. Juan José Acero (2011). Origins of Objectivity. Theoria 26 (3):373-376.
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  2. John D. Bailiff (1964). Some Comments on the `Ideal Observer'. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (3):423-428.
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  3. Diane Benedict-Gill (1984). Moral Objectivity. Philosophy of Education: Proceedings 60:219-224.
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  4. Simon Blackburn (2008). Interview - Simon Blackburn. The Philosophers' Magazine 40 (40):38-39.
    Cambridge professor Simon Blackburn is best known to the general public as the author of several books of popular philosophy such as  ink, Being Good andTruth: a Guide for the Perplexed. Academic philosophers also know him as the author of one of the most important books of contemporary moral philosophy, Ruling Passions, and as a former editor of the leading journal Mind.
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  5. Paul Boghossian (2011). The Maze of Moral Relativism. The New York Times.
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  6. Elizabeth Zeron Compton (2008). Varieties of Response-Dependence: A Critique of Zangwill. American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 1 (1):7-14.
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  7. Elmer H. Duncan (1970). The Ideal Aesthetic Observer: A Second Look. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):47-52.
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  8. Susan Dwyer, How not to argue that morality isn't innate: Comments on Jesse Prinz's “is morality innate?”.
    We must admire the ambition of Prinz’s title question. But does he provide a convincing answer to it? Prinz’s own view of morality as “a byproduct – accidental or invented – of faculties that evolved for different purposes (1),” which appears to express a negative reply, does not receive much direct argument here. Rather, Prinz’s main aim is to try to show that the considerations he believes are typically presented by moral nativists are insufficient or inadequate to establish that morality (...)
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  9. Matti Eklund, Evaluative Language and Evaluative Reality.
  10. Matti Eklund (2012). Alternative Normative Concepts. Analytic Philosophy 53 (2):139-157.
  11. Luca Ferrero (2009). Constitutivism and the Schmagency Challenge. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume Four. Oup Oxford.
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  12. M. Gilbert (1999). Critical Notice: Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity, Gilbert Harman and Judith Jarvis Thomson, 1996, Blackwell Publishers. Noûs 33 (2):295-303.
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  13. Charles Hartshorne (1977). Response to Rensch's Paper. In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature. University Press of America. 78.
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  14. M. Whitcomb Hess (1938). Objectivity in Moral Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy 35 (14):381-386.
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  15. John Hospers (1962). The Ideal Aesthetic Observer. British Journal of Aesthetics 2 (2):99-111.
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  16. Robert N. Johnson & Michael Smith (eds.) (2015). Passions and Projections: Themes From the Philosophy of Simon Blackburn. Oup Oxford.
    This volume presents fourteen original essays which explore the philosophy of Simon Blackburn, and his lifetime pursuit of a distinctive projectivist and anti-realist research program. The essays document the range and influence of Blackburn's work and reveal, among other things, the resourcefulness of his brand of philosophical pragmatism.
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  17. Jonathan Lear (1984). Moral Objectivity. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 17:135-170.
    The aim of this essay is to set out an argument for moral objectivity. A brief sketch of the considerations at issue should help make it possible to keep sight of the forest amid the profusion of trees.
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  18. Dan López De Sa (2013). The Aposteriori Response-Dependence of the Colors. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):65-79.
    The paper proposes and defends the following characterization of response dependent property: a property is response-dependent iff there is a response-dependence biconditional for a concept signifying it which holds in virtue of the nature of the property. Finding out whether a property is such is to a large extent a posteriori matter. Finally, colors are response dependent: they are essentially tied to issuing the relevant experiences, so that having those experiences does give access to their, dispositional, nature. Finally, some important (...)
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  19. Alexander Miller (2012). O quasi-realismo de Blackburn. Critica.
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  20. Hastings Rashdall (1904). Moral Objectivity and Its Postulates. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 5:1 - 28.
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  21. Naomi Scheman (1996). Feeling Our Way Toward Moral Objectivity. In L. May, Michael Friedman & A. Clark (eds.), Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science. Mit Press.
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  22. Scott Shalkowski (2008). Blackburn's Rejection of Modals. Philosophia Scientiae 12 (1):93-106.
    In this paper I present Simon Blackburn’s dilemma for truth conditional theories of modality and discuss its limitations. I discuss the nature of conceptual and argumentative circularity and argue that conceptual circularity does not apply to all of the main truth conditional theories of modality and that, likewise, argumentative circularity does not apply. There is nothing wrong, in principle, with theories of the modal in non-modal terms, but attending epistemological issues are significant and have been given too little attention. I (...)
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  23. Sigrun Svavarsdóttir (2001). On Simon Blackburn's Ruling Passions. Philosophical Books 108:18-26.
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  24. K. V. (1978). The Ideal in Law. Review of Metaphysics 32 (1):152-154.
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  25. Hans Jürgen Wendel (1992). Radikaler Konstruktivismus Und Konstruktionismus. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (2):323 - 352.
    Radical Constructivism and Constructionism. Both radical constructivism and constructionism are naturalized approaches to epistemology. They try to fertilize results from biology and psychology for epistemological aims. They both refuse epistemological realism as unsustainable metaphysics. This raises the problem of the range of the naturalistic approach to epistemology. Constructivism, in both forms, turns out to be untenable because it runs in an aporia: it must borrow from realism either, or it must qualify its own position as a metaphysical one. But therewith, (...)
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Ideal Observer Theories
  1. Glen O. Allen (1970). From the "Naturalistic Fallacy" to the Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (4):533-549.
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  2. Christopher J. Berry, Maria Pia Paganelli & Craig Smith (eds.) (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Adam Smith. Oxford University Press.
    Preface Introduction Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith: Outline of Life, Times, and Legacy Part One: Adam Smith: Heritage and Contemporaries 1: Nicholas Phillipson: Adam Smith: A Biographer's Reflections 2: Leonidas Montes: Newtonianism and Adam Smith 3: Dennis C. Rasmussen: Adam Smith and Rousseau: Enlightenment and counter-Enlightenment 4: Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith and Early Modern Thought Part Two: Adam Smith on Language, Art and Culture 5: Catherine Labio: Adam Smith's Aesthetics 6: James Chandler: Adam Smith as Critic 7: Michael C. (...)
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  3. Roman Bonzon (1999). Aesthetic Objectivity and the Ideal Observer Theory. British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):230-240.
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  4. Richard B. Brandt (1955). The Definition of an "Ideal Observer" Theory in Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (3):407-413.
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  5. Alexander Broadie (2006). Sympathy and the Impartial Spectator. In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
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  6. Vivienne Brown & Samuel Fleischacker (eds.) (2010). The Philosophy of Adam Smith: Essays Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Theory of Moral Sentiments. Routledge.
    The Philosophy of Adam Smith contains essays by some of the most prominent philosophers and scholars working on Adam Smith today. It is a special issue of The Adam Smith Review, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments. Introduction Part 1: Moral phenomenology 1. The virtue of TMS 1759 D.D. Raphael 2. The Theory of Moral Sentiments and the inner life Emma Rothschild 3. The standpoint of morality in Adam Smith and Hegel Angelica Nuzzo Part 2: Sympathy (...)
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  7. Thomas Carson, Relativising the Ideal Observer Theory.
    Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
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  8. Geoff Cockfield, Ann Firth & John Laurent (eds.) (2007). New Perspectives on Adam Smith's the Theory of Moral Sentiments. Edward Elgar.
    1. Introduction Geoff Cockfield, Ann Firth and John Laurent -/- 2. The Role of Thumos in Adam Smith’s System Lisa Hill -/- 3. Adam Smith’s Treatment of the Greeks in The Theory of Moral Sentiments: The Case of Aristotle Richard Temple-Smith -/- 4. Adam Smith, Religion and the Scottish Enlightenment Pete Clarke -/- 5. The ‘New View’ of Adam Smith and the Development of his Views Over Time James E. Alvey -/- 6. The Moon Before the Dawn: A Seventeenth-Century Precursor (...)
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  9. James Dreier (1996). Book Review: The Moral Problem by Michael Smith. [REVIEW] Mind 105 (418):363-367.
  10. Roderick Firth (1952). Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12 (3):317-345.
    The moral philosophy of the first half of the twentieth century, at least in the English-speaking part of the world, has been largely devoted to problems of an ontological or epistemological nature. This concentration of effort by many acute analytical minds has not produced any general agreement with respect to the solution of these problems; it seems likely, on the contrary, that the wealth of proposed solutions, each making some claim to plausibility, has resulted in greater disagreement than ever before, (...)
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  11. Samuel Fleischacker (2013). Adam Smith's Moral and Political Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  12. Scott Forschler (2012). From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Become Heteronomous. In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter.
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite different (...)
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  13. Richard Garner (1967). Beardsley, Firth and the Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (4):618-623.
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  14. Jonathan Harrison (1956). Some Comments on Professor Firth's Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (2):256-262.
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  15. Noriaki Iwasa (2013). On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism. Prolegomena 12 (1):61-82.
    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson's, David Hume's, and Adam Smith's moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sentiments alone (...)
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  16. Antti Kauppinen (2013). Sentimentalism (International Encyclopedia of Ethics). In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell.
    Sentimentalism comes in many varieties: explanatory sentimentalism, judgment sentimentalism, metaphysical sentimentalism, and epistemic sentimentalism. This encyclopedia entry gives an overview of the positions and main arguments pro and con.
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  17. Jason Kawall (2010). The Epistemic Demands of Environmental Virtue. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):109-28.
    To lead an environmentally virtuous life requires information—about morality, environmental issues, the impacts of our actions and commitments, our options for alternatives, and so on. On the other hand, we are finite beings with limited time and resources. We cannot feasibly investigate all of our options, and all environmental issues (let alone moral issues, more broadly). In this paper I attempt to provide initial steps towards addressing the epistemic demands of environmental virtue. In the first half of the paper I (...)
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  18. Jason Kawall (2009). Virtue Theory, Ideal Observers, and the Supererogatory. Philosophical Studies 146 (2):179-96.
    I argue that recent virtue theories (including those of Hursthouse, Slote, and Swanton) face important initial difficulties in accommodating the supererogatory. In particular, I consider several potential characterizations of the supererogatory modeled upon these familiar virtue theories (and their accounts of rightness) and argue that they fail to provide an adequate account of supererogation. In the second half of the paper I sketch an alternative virtue-based characterization of supererogation, one that is grounded in the attitudes of virtuous ideal observers, and (...)
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  19. Jason Kawall (2006). On the Moral Epistemology of Ideal Observer Theories. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (3):359 - 374.
    In this paper I attempt to defuse a set of epistemic worries commonly raised against ideal observer theories. The worries arise because of the omniscience often attributed to ideal observers -- how can we, as finite humans, ever have access to the moral judgements or reactions of omniscient beings? I argue that many of the same concerns arise with respect to other moral theories (and that these concerns do not in fact reveal genuine flaws in any of these theories), and (...)
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  20. Jason Kawall (2004). Moral Response-Dependence, Ideal Observers, and the Motive of Duty: Responding to Zangwill. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 60 (3):357-369.
    Moral response-dependent metaethical theories characterize moral properties in terms of the reactions of certain classes of individuals. Nick Zangwill has argued that such theories are flawed: they are unable to accommodate the motive of duty. That is, they are unable to provide a suitable reason for anyone to perform morally right actions simply because they are morally right. I argue that Zangwill ignores significant differences between various approvals, and various individuals, and that moral response-dependent theories can accommodate the motive of (...)
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  21. Jason Kawall (2002). Virtue Theory and Ideal Observers. Philosophical Studies 109 (3):197 - 222.
    Virtue theorists in ethics often embrace the following characterizationof right action: An action is right iff a virtuous agent would performthat action in like circumstances. Zagzebski offers a parallel virtue-basedaccount of epistemically justified belief. Such proposals are severely flawedbecause virtuous agents in adverse circumstances, or through lack ofknowledge can perform poorly. I propose an alternative virtue-based accountaccording to which an action is right (a belief is justified) for an agentin a given situation iff an unimpaired, fully-informed virtuous observerwould deem the (...)
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  22. Andrew McGonigal (2005). Moral Facts and Suitably Informed Subjects: A Reply to Denham. Ratio 18 (1):82–92.
    The nature of moral facts, and their relationship to rationality, imagination and sentiment, have been central and pressing issues in recent moral philosophy. In this paper, I discuss and criticise a meta-ethical theory put forward by Alison Denham, which views moral facts as being constituted by the responses of ideal, empathetic agents. I argue that Denham’s account is radically unstable, in that she has given us an account of the nature of such agents which is inconsistent with an independently plausible (...)
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  23. Charles W. Mills (2005). "Ideal Theory" as Ideology. Hypatia 20 (3):165-184.
  24. James Otteson (2011). How High Does the Impartial Spectator Go? In Paul Oslington (ed.), Adam Smith as Theologian. Routledge.
  25. B. C. Postow (1978). Ethical Relativism and the Ideal Observer. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):120-121.
    I show that roderick firth's ideal observer theory contains a loophole which allows conflicting ethical statements to be true. To remedy this, I recommend that we add to the list of defining characteristics of an ideal observer, The requirement that he be unable to have obligation-Determining reactions toward acts which he knows to be incompatible.
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