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  1. Juan José Acero (2011). Origins of Objectivity. Theoria 26 (3):373-376.
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  2. John D. Bailiff (1964). Some Comments on the `Ideal Observer'. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (3):423-428.
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  3. Diane Benedict-Gill (1984). Moral Objectivity. Philosophy of Education: Proceedings 60:219-224.
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  4. Simon Blackburn (2008). Interview - Simon Blackburn. The Philosophers' Magazine 40 (40):38-39.
    Cambridge professor Simon Blackburn is best known to the general public as the author of several books of popular philosophy such as  ink, Being Good andTruth: a Guide for the Perplexed. Academic philosophers also know him as the author of one of the most important books of contemporary moral philosophy, Ruling Passions, and as a former editor of the leading journal Mind.
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  5. Simon Blackburn (2004). What’s It All About?: Simon Blackburn Asks What Philosophy Is. The Philosophers' Magazine 27:20-21.
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  6. Paul Boghossian (2011). The Maze of Moral Relativism. The New York Times.
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  7. Elizabeth Zeron Compton (2008). Varieties of Response-Dependence: A Critique of Zangwill. American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 1 (1):7-14.
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  8. Edward E. Dawson (1977). BLACKBURN, SIMON "Meaning, Reference and Necessity". [REVIEW] Philosophy 52:236.
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  9. Elmer H. Duncan (1970). The Ideal Aesthetic Observer: A Second Look. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):47-52.
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  10. Susan Dwyer, How not to argue that morality isn't innate: Comments on Jesse Prinz's “is morality innate?”.
    We must admire the ambition of Prinz’s title question. But does he provide a convincing answer to it? Prinz’s own view of morality as “a byproduct – accidental or invented – of faculties that evolved for different purposes (1),” which appears to express a negative reply, does not receive much direct argument here. Rather, Prinz’s main aim is to try to show that the considerations he believes are typically presented by moral nativists are insufficient or inadequate to establish that morality (...)
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  11. Matti Eklund, Evaluative Language and Evaluative Reality.
  12. Matti Eklund (2012). Alternative Normative Concepts. Analytic Philosophy 53 (2):139-157.
  13. Luca Ferrero (2009). Constitutivism and the Schmagency Challenge. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume Four. Oup Oxford.
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  14. M. Gilbert (1999). Critical Notice: Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity, Gilbert Harman and Judith Jarvis Thomson, 1996, Blackwell Publishers. Noûs 33 (2):295-303.
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  15. Charles Hartshorne (1977). Response to Rensch's Paper. In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature. University Press of America. 78.
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  16. M. Whitcomb Hess (1938). Objectivity in Moral Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy 35 (14):381-386.
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  17. John Hospers (1962). The Ideal Aesthetic Observer. British Journal of Aesthetics 2 (2):99-111.
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  18. Robert N. Johnson & Michael Smith (eds.) (2015). Passions and Projections: Themes From the Philosophy of Simon Blackburn. Oup Oxford.
    This volume presents fourteen original essays which explore the philosophy of Simon Blackburn, and his lifetime pursuit of a distinctive projectivist and anti-realist research program. The essays document the range and influence of Blackburn's work and reveal, among other things, the resourcefulness of his brand of philosophical pragmatism.
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  19. Jonathan Lear (1984). Moral Objectivity. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 17:135-170.
    The aim of this essay is to set out an argument for moral objectivity. A brief sketch of the considerations at issue should help make it possible to keep sight of the forest amid the profusion of trees.
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  20. Dan López De Sa (2013). The Aposteriori Response-Dependence of the Colors. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):65-79.
    The paper proposes and defends the following characterization of response dependent property: a property is response-dependent iff there is a response-dependence biconditional for a concept signifying it which holds in virtue of the nature of the property. Finding out whether a property is such is to a large extent a posteriori matter. Finally, colors are response dependent: they are essentially tied to issuing the relevant experiences, so that having those experiences does give access to their, dispositional, nature. Finally, some important (...)
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  21. G. A. Malinas (1979). BLACKBURN, Simon "Meaning, Reference and Necessity". [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 57:101.
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  22. Alexander Miller (2012). O quasi-realismo de Blackburn. Critica.
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  23. D. E. Over (1978). "Meaning, Reference and Necessity". Edited by Simon Blackburn. [REVIEW] Mind 87:146.
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  24. Hastings Rashdall (1904). Moral Objectivity and Its Postulates. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 5:1 - 28.
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  25. Alstrup Stig Rasmussen (1985). Quasi-Realism and Mind-Dependence. Philosophical Quarterly 35 (39):185.
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  26. Naomi Scheman (1996). Feeling Our Way Toward Moral Objectivity. In L. May, Michael Friedman & A. Clark (eds.), Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science. Mit Press.
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  27. Scott Shalkowski (2008). Blackburn's Rejection of Modals. Philosophia Scientiae 12 (1):93-106.
    In this paper I present Simon Blackburn’s dilemma for truth conditional theories of modality and discuss its limitations. I discuss the nature of conceptual and argumentative circularity and argue that conceptual circularity does not apply to all of the main truth conditional theories of modality and that, likewise, argumentative circularity does not apply. There is nothing wrong, in principle, with theories of the modal in non-modal terms, but attending epistemological issues are significant and have been given too little attention. I (...)
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  28. William H. Shaw (1981). Marxism and Moral Objectivity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 7:19.
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  29. J. R. O. Shea (2001). Simon Blackburn, Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 9 (2):261-264.
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  30. M. Smith (1985). BLACKBURN, S.: "Spreading the Word". [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 63:543.
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  31. Sigrun Svavarsdóttir (2001). On Simon Blackburn's Ruling Passions. Philosophical Books 108:18-26.
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  32. K. V. (1978). The Ideal in Law. Review of Metaphysics 32 (1):152-154.
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  33. Alan Weir (1994). Simon Blackburn, "Essays in Quasi-Realism". [REVIEW] International Journal of Philosophical Studies 2 (2):345.
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  34. Hans Jürgen Wendel (1992). Radikaler Konstruktivismus Und Konstruktionismus. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (2):323 - 352.
    Radical Constructivism and Constructionism. Both radical constructivism and constructionism are naturalized approaches to epistemology. They try to fertilize results from biology and psychology for epistemological aims. They both refuse epistemological realism as unsustainable metaphysics. This raises the problem of the range of the naturalistic approach to epistemology. Constructivism, in both forms, turns out to be untenable because it runs in an aporia: it must borrow from realism either, or it must qualify its own position as a metaphysical one. But therewith, (...)
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  35. C. Wright (1985). Blackburn, S., "Spreading the Word". [REVIEW] Mind 94:310.
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Ideal Observer Theories
  1. Glen O. Allen (1970). From the "Naturalistic Fallacy" to the Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (4):533-549.
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  2. Christopher J. Berry, Maria Pia Paganelli & Craig Smith (eds.) (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Adam Smith. Oxford University Press.
    Preface Introduction Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith: Outline of Life, Times, and Legacy Part One: Adam Smith: Heritage and Contemporaries 1: Nicholas Phillipson: Adam Smith: A Biographer's Reflections 2: Leonidas Montes: Newtonianism and Adam Smith 3: Dennis C. Rasmussen: Adam Smith and Rousseau: Enlightenment and counter-Enlightenment 4: Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith and Early Modern Thought Part Two: Adam Smith on Language, Art and Culture 5: Catherine Labio: Adam Smith's Aesthetics 6: James Chandler: Adam Smith as Critic 7: Michael C. (...)
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  3. Roman Bonzon (1999). Aesthetic Objectivity and the Ideal Observer Theory. British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):230-240.
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  4. Richard B. Brandt (1955). The Definition of an "Ideal Observer" Theory in Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (3):407-413.
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  5. Alexander Broadie (2006). Sympathy and the Impartial Spectator. In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
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  6. Vivienne Brown & Samuel Fleischacker (eds.) (2010). The Philosophy of Adam Smith: Essays Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Theory of Moral Sentiments. Routledge.
    The Philosophy of Adam Smith contains essays by some of the most prominent philosophers and scholars working on Adam Smith today. It is a special issue of The Adam Smith Review, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments. Introduction Part 1: Moral phenomenology 1. The virtue of TMS 1759 D.D. Raphael 2. The Theory of Moral Sentiments and the inner life Emma Rothschild 3. The standpoint of morality in Adam Smith and Hegel Angelica Nuzzo Part 2: Sympathy (...)
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  7. Thomas Carson, Relativising the Ideal Observer Theory.
    Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
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  8. Geoff Cockfield, Ann Firth & John Laurent (eds.) (2007). New Perspectives on Adam Smith's the Theory of Moral Sentiments. Edward Elgar.
    1. Introduction Geoff Cockfield, Ann Firth and John Laurent -/- 2. The Role of Thumos in Adam Smith’s System Lisa Hill -/- 3. Adam Smith’s Treatment of the Greeks in The Theory of Moral Sentiments: The Case of Aristotle Richard Temple-Smith -/- 4. Adam Smith, Religion and the Scottish Enlightenment Pete Clarke -/- 5. The ‘New View’ of Adam Smith and the Development of his Views Over Time James E. Alvey -/- 6. The Moon Before the Dawn: A Seventeenth-Century Precursor (...)
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  9. James Dreier (1996). Book Review: The Moral Problem by Michael Smith. [REVIEW] Mind 105 (418):363-367.
  10. Roderick Firth (1952). Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12 (3):317-345.
    The moral philosophy of the first half of the twentieth century, at least in the English-speaking part of the world, has been largely devoted to problems of an ontological or epistemological nature. This concentration of effort by many acute analytical minds has not produced any general agreement with respect to the solution of these problems; it seems likely, on the contrary, that the wealth of proposed solutions, each making some claim to plausibility, has resulted in greater disagreement than ever before, (...)
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  11. Samuel Fleischacker (2013). Adam Smith's Moral and Political Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  12. Scott Forschler (2012). From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Become Heteronomous. In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter.
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite different (...)
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  13. Richard Garner (1967). Beardsley, Firth and the Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (4):618-623.
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  14. Jonathan Harrison (1956). Some Comments on Professor Firth's Ideal Observer Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (2):256-262.
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  15. Noriaki Iwasa (2013). On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism. Prolegomena 12 (1):61-82.
    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson's, David Hume's, and Adam Smith's moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sentiments alone (...)
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