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  1. Dennis M. Ahern (1976). Is Mo Tzu a Utilitarian? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 3 (2):185-193.
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  2. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1984). An Approach to Verification Beyond Tradition in Early Chinese Philosophy: Mo Tzu's Concept of Sampling in a Community of Observers. Philosophy East and West 34 (2):175-183.
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  3. Erica Brindley (2007). Human Agency and the Ideal of Shang Tong (Upward Conformity) in Early Mohist Writings. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (3):409–425.
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  4. Shengqiang Cao & Zhuocai Sun (eds.) (2008). Mozi Yan Jiu. Zhongguo She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She.
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  5. Chung-ying Cheng (2008). Preface: Mozi Ùp (Fl. 479–438 Bce) Reconsidered. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):377-378.
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  6. Wai Wai Chiu (2013). Jian Ai and the Mohist Attack of Early Confucianism. Philosophy Compass 8 (5):425-437.
    In Chinese pre-Qin period, Mohism was the first school that challenged Confucianism. A common view is that Mohists attacked Confucianism by proposing jian ai, often translated as “universal love,” that opposes Confucian “graded love”. The Confucian-Mohist debate on ethics is often regarded as a debate between Mohist “universal love,” on the one hand; and Confucian emphasis on family and kinship, on the other. However, it is misleading to translate jian ai as “universal love,” as it distorts our understanding of the (...)
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  7. Chaehyun Chong (2008). Moism: Despotic or Democratic? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):511-521.
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  8. Weixiang Ding (2008). Mengzi's Inheritance, Criticism, and Overcoming of Moist Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):403-419.
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  9. Kristopher Duda (2001). Reconsidering Mo Tzu on the Foundations of Morality. Asian Philosophy 11 (1):23 – 31.
    Dennis Ahern and David Soles raise substantial problems for the conventional interpretation of Mo Tzu as a utilitarian. Although they defend different interpretations, both scholars agree that Mo Tzu is committed to a divine command theory in some form, citing the same key passages where, supposedly, Mo Tzu explicitly endorses the divine command theory. In this paper, I defend the orthodox interpretation, insisting that Mo Tzu is a utilitarian. I show that the passages cited by Ahern and Soles do not (...)
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  10. R. James Ferguson (1998). Inclusive Strategies for Restraining Aggression—Lessons From Classical Chinese Culture. Asian Philosophy 8 (1):31 – 46.
    An extensive body of Chinese philosophical thought suggests a redefinition of international security in terms of a non-threatening formulation of Comprehensive Security. In one culture viewed as particularly 'strategic', i.e. Chinese culture, we find strong traditions of inclusive, non-aggressive forms of security. Mo Tzu and the school of Mohism (5th-3rd centuries BC) developed a rigorous body of thought and practice based on universal regard, the protection of small states, and disesteem for aggressive wars. This is paralleled by a more general (...)
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  11. Owen Flanagan (2008). Moral Contagion and Logical Persuasion in the Mozi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):473-491.
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  12. Chris Fraser, Is Mozi 17 a Fragment of Mozi 26?
    , originally was not an independent chapter in the Fei Gong (Condemning Aggression) series, but rather part of the ending of Mozi 26, the first of the Tian Zhi ¤Ñ§Ó (Heaven’s Intention) chapters. I will argue that we have no reason to..
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  13. Chris Fraser, Thematic Relationships in Mozi 8-13.
    Summary. Analyses of the Mohist triads tend to rely mainly on observations about linguistic or rhetorical features. In this study, I aim to supplement such research by offering observations about the thematic content of the Shang- xian ©|½å and Shangtong ©|¦P triads (MZ 8-10 and 11-13). I argue that my observations are best explained by the hypothesis that the essays in both triads were compiled in the order shang-zhong-xia ¤W¤¤¤U . I also suggest that the writers of the later texts (...)
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  14. Chris Fraser, Mohism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  15. Chris Fraser (2008). Moism and Self-Interest. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):437-454.
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  16. Chris Fraser (2008). The Mohist School. In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  17. Chris Fraser, Doctrinal Developments in the Mozi Jian Ai Triad.
    doctrines of the three Mohist factions mentioned in the Hanfeizi and Zhuangzi (Yu Yue; see his preface to Mozi Jian Gu). The digest theory: Most of the essays can be attributed to three different..
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  18. Chris Fraser, Táng Jūnyì on Mencian and Mohist Conceptions of Mind.
    Tang Junyi (T’ang Chun-i 唐君毅) was among the founders of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the first chair of the Department of Philosophy at CUHK, an influential scholar of Chinese philosophy, and one of the leaders of the New Confucian movement. In this article, I take issue with the line of interpretation he develops in a provocative 1955 study of Mencius and Mozi. Though I don’t make the connections explicit, Tang’s views and my critique of them are relevant to (...)
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  19. Chad Hansen (1989). Mo-Tzu: Language Utilitarianism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (3-4):355-380.
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  20. Changchi Hao (2006). Is Mozi a Utilitarian Philosopher? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):382-400.
    In this essay I argue that Mozi's philosophy is anything but utilitarianism by way of analysing four ethical theories. Utilitarianism is an ethics in which the moral subject is an atomic individual human being, and its concern is how to fulfill the interests of the individual self and the social majority. Confucian ethics is centered on the notion of the family and its basic question is that of priority in the relationship between the small self and the enlarged or collective (...)
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  21. Zizong Hu (ed.) (2007). Mozi Si Xiang Yan Jiu. Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  22. Shiyu Jiao (2011). Mozi Gui Lai: Yi Ge Xian Dai Zhi Shi Fen Zi de Wen Hua Dan Dang. Guo Jia Tu Shu Guan Chu Ban She.
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  23. Christian Jochim (1980). Ethical Analysis of an Ancient Debate: Moists Versus Confucians. Journal of Religious Ethics 8 (1):135 - 147.
    Despite the importance of the Moist-Confucian debate to students of both Chinese thought and comparative religious ethics, it remains in need of a careful analysis using contemporary ethical theory. In presenting such an analysis, this essay aims to accomplish three things: (1) to show how Confucius and Mo-tzu were divided over the priority-of-the-right issue, the latter being a utilitarian in his working ethics despite his oft-noted interest in divine command theory; (2) to describe how their followers worked out a meta-ethical (...)
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  24. Daniel M. Johnson (2011). Mozi's Moral Theory: Breaking the Hermeneutical Stalemate. Philosophy East and West 61 (2):347-364.
    The most significant contemporary controversy surrounding the interpretation of the moral thought of Mozi is the debate over his ultimate criterion for right action. The problem is that there are two significant candidates found in the text of the Mozi.1 One is a kind of utilitarian principle: whatever benefits the world is right and whatever harms the world is wrong. The other is a divine will principle: whatever Heaven desires is right and whatever Heaven disapproves of is wrong. Both principles (...)
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  25. Karyn Lai (2008). An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This comprehensive introductory textbook to early Chinese philosophy covers a range of philosophical traditions which arose during the Spring and Autumn (722-476 BCE) and Warring States (475-221 BCE) periods in China, including Confucianism, Mohism, Daoism, and Legalism. It considers concepts, themes and argumentative methods of early Chinese philosophy and follows the development of some ideas in subsequent periods, including the introduction of Buddhism into China. The book examines key issues and debates in early Chinese philosophy, cross-influences between its traditions and (...)
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  26. Whalen Lai (1993). The Public Good That Does the Public Good: A New Reading of Mohism. Asian Philosophy 3 (2):125 – 141.
    Abstract Mohism has long been misrepresented. Mo?tzu is usually called a utilitarian because he preached a universal love that must benefit. Yet Mencius, who pined the Confucian way of virtue (humaneness and righteousness) against Mo?tzu's way of benefit, basically borrowed Mo?tzu's thesis: that the root cause of chaos is this lack of love?except Mencius renamed it the desire for personal benefit. Yet Mo?tzu only championed ?benefit? to head off its opposite, ?harm?, specifically the harm done by Confucians who with good (...)
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  27. Yong Li (2006). The Divine Command Theory of Mozi. Asian Philosophy 16 (3):237 – 245.
    In this study, I will examine the famous 'divine command theory' of Mozi. Through the discussion of several important chapters of Mozi, including Fayi (law), Tianzhi (the will of heaven), Minggui (knowing the spirits) and Jianai (universal love), I attempt to clarify the arguments of Mozi offered in support of his distinctive ideas of serving heaven, knowing the spirits and loving all. The analysis shows that there are serious problems with his assumptions, hence they fail to support his conclusions as (...)
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  28. Hui-Chieh Loy (2012). The Mozi: A Complete Translation (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):308-311.
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  29. Hui-Chieh Loy (2011). The Word and the Way in Mozi. Philosophy Compass 6 (10):652-662.
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  30. Hui-Chieh Loy (2008). Justification and Debate: Thoughts on Moist Moral Epistemology. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):455-471.
  31. Hui-Chieh Loy, Mozi (Mo-Tzu). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  32. Xiufen Lu 1 (2006). Understanding Mozi's Foundations of Morality: A Comparative Perspective. Asian Philosophy 16 (2):123-134.
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  33. Xiufen Lu (2006). Understanding Mozi's Foundations of Morality: A Comparative Perspective. Asian Philosophy 16 (2):123-134.
    In the Western studies of the texts of Mozi, three distinctive views have surfaced in the past few decades: (1) Mozi is inconsistent because he seems to have been committed to both a Utilitarian standard and a divine command theory; (2) Mozi is a divine command theorist who argues that it is right to benefit the world because it is the will of heaven; and (3) Mozi is a utilitarian thinker who has based morality on the criterion of whether actions (...)
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  34. Alice Lum (1977). Social Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of Mo Tzu. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 4 (2):187-207.
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  35. Yi-Pao Mei (1934). Motse ... The Neglected Rival of Confucius. London, A. Probsthain.
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  36. Yi-Pao Mei (1929/1973). The Ethical and Political Works of Motse. Westport, Conn.,Hyperion Press.
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  37. Di Mo (2003). Mozi: Basic Writings. Columbia University Press.
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  38. Franklin Perkins (2008). Introduction: Reconsidering the Mozi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):379-383.
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  39. Franklin Perkins (2008). The Moist Criticism of the Confucian Use of Fate. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):421-436.
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  40. Thomas Radice (2011). Manufacturing Mohism in the Mencius. Asian Philosophy 21 (2):139 - 152.
    The Mencius contains several negative remarks about the Mohists and their doctrine of ?universal love? (jian?ai). However, little attention has been paid to whether Mencius? descriptions of Mohism were accurate. Fortunately, there is a surviving record of the beliefs of Mozi in the text that bears his name. In this essay, I analyze this text and descriptions of Mohism from other early Chinese texts, and compare them to the criticisms of Mohism in the Mencius. Ultimately, I show that the image (...)
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  41. Dan Robins (2012). Mohist Care. Philosophy East and West 62 (1):60-91.
    As the Mohist doctrine of inclusive care (jian ai 兼愛) is usually understood, it is an affront to both human nature and commonsense morality.1 We are told that the Mohists rejected all particularist ties, especially to family, in the interests of a radically universalist ethic.2 But love for those close to us is deeply rooted in our natures, and few would deny that this love has moral significance. If the Mohists did deny this, it would be easy to dismiss them, (...)
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  42. Dan Robins (2011). Ian Johnston, The Mozi: A Complete Translation. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):551-556.
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  43. Dan Robins (2008). The Moists and the Gentlemen of the World. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):385-402.
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  44. Kwong-loi Shun (1991). Mencius' Criticism of Mohism: An Analysis of "Meng Tzu" 3a:. Philosophy East and West 41 (2):203-214.
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  45. Ding Sixin (2011). A Study on the Dating of the Mozi Dialogues and the Mohist View of Ghosts and Spirits. Contemporary Chinese Thought 42 (4):39-87.
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  46. David E. Soles (1999). Mo Tzu and the Foundations of Morality. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):37-48.
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  47. Steven A. Stegeman (2011). Unfolding Mozi's Standard of Sound Doctrine. Asian Philosophy 21 (3):227 - 239.
    This essay revolves around a careful assessment of Hui-chieh Loy's essay ?Justification and Debate: Thoughts on Moist Moral Epistemology?. There is much to appreciate in Loy's analysis of the standard of sound doctrine in the ?Against Fatalism? chapters of the Mozi, but a close reading of Loy's essay reveals problematic aspects in his approach along both hermeneutic and logical lines. For one, he groups Mozi's tests of the standard of sound doctrine in a way that does not square well with (...)
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  48. Rodney L. Taylor (1979). Religion and Utilitarianism: Mo Tzu on Spirits and Funerals. Philosophy East and West 29 (3):337-346.
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  49. Bryan van Norden (2003). A Response to the Mohist Arguments in "Impartial Caring". In Kim Chong Chong, Sor-Hoon Tan & C. L. Ten (eds.), The Moral Circle and the Self: Chinese and Western Approaches. Open Court.
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  50. Helmolt Vittinghoff (2001). Chapter 6: Mohists (Mojia) and Mohist Teachings. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (1&2):160–164.
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