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  1. Bertinetto Alessandro (2012). Paganini Does Not Repeat. Musical Improvisation and the Type/Token Ontology. Teorema (3):105-126.
    This paper explores the ontology of musical improvisation (MI). MI, as process in which creative and performing activities are one and the same generative occurrence, is contrasted with the most widespread conceptual resource used in inquiries about music ontology of the Western tradition: the type/token duality (TtD). TtD, which is used for explaining the relationship between musical works (MWs) and performances, does not fit for MI. Nonetheless MI can be ontologically related to MWs. A MW can ensue from MI and (...)
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  2. Christopher Bartel (2011). Music Without Metaphysics? British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (4):383-398.
    In a recent pair of articles, Aaron Ridley and Andrew Kania have debated the merits of the study of musical ontology. Ridley contends that the study of musical ontology is orthogonal to more pressing concerns over the value of music. Kania rejects this, arguing that a theory of the value of music must begin with an understanding of the ontology of music. In this essay, I will argue that, despite Kania's rejections, Ridley's criticism exposes a false methodological assumption that needs (...)
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  3. Christopher Bartel (2009). Works of Music – Julian Dodd. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):760-762.
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  4. Eliot Bates (2004). Glitches, Bugs, and Hisses : The Degeneration of Musical Recordings and the Contemporary Musical Work. In Christopher Washburne & Maiken Derno (eds.), Bad Music: The Music We Love to Hate. Routledge.
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  5. L. B. Brown (2011). Do Higher-Order Music Ontologies Rest on a Mistake? British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (2):169-184.
    Recent work in the ontology of music suggests that we will avoid confusion if we distinguish between two kinds of question that are typically posed in music ontology. Thus, a distinction has been made between fundamental ontology and higher-order ontology. The former addresses questions about the basic metaphysical options from which ontologists choose. For instance, are musical works types, indicated types, classes of particulars, or some other kind of entity? Higher-order ontology addresses the question of what lies ‘at the centre’ (...)
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  6. Lee B. Brown (2000). Phonography, Rock Records, and the Ontology of Recorded Music. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (4):361-372.
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  7. Otavio Bueno, Interpreting Music: Beyond Platonism.
    Central to the philosophical understanding of music is the status of musical works. According to the Platonist, musical works are abstract objects; that is, they are not located in space or time, and we have no causal access to them. Moreover, only a particular physical occurrence of these musical works is instantiated when a performance ofthe latter takes place. But even if no performance ever took place, the Platonist insists, the musical work would still exist, since its existence is not (...)
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  8. Ross Cameron (2008). There Are No Things That Are Musical Works. British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (3):295-314.
    Works of music do not appear to be concrete objects; but they do appear to be created by composers, and abstract objects do not seem to be the kind of things that can be created. In this paper I aim to develop an ontological position that lets us salvage the creativity intuition without either adopting an ontology of created abstracta or identifying musical works with concreta. I will argue that there are no musical works in our ontology, but nevertheless the (...)
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  9. Ben Caplan & Carl Matheson (2008). Modality, Individuation, and the Ontology of Art. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (4):491-517.
    In 1988, Michael Nyman composed the score for Peter Greenaway’s film Drowning by Numbers (or did something that we would ordinarily think of as composing that score). We can think of Nyman’s compositional activity as a “generative performance” and of the sound structure that Nyman indicated (or of some other abstract object that is appropriately related to that sound structure) as the product generated by that performance (ix).1 According to one view, Nyman’s score for Drowning by the Numbers—the musical work—is (...)
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  10. Ben Caplan & Carl Matheson (2006). Defending Musical Perdurantism. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (1):59-69.
    If musical works are abstract objects, which cannot enter into causal relations, then how can we refer to musical works or know anything about them? Worse, how can any of our musical experiences be experiences of musical works? It would be nice to be able to sidestep these questions altogether. One way to do that would be to take musical works to be concrete objects. In this paper, we defend a theory according to which musical works are concrete objects. In (...)
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  11. Ben Caplan & Carl Matheson (2004). Can a Musical Work Be Created? British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (2):113-134.
    Can a musical work be created? Some say ‘no’. But, we argue, there is no handbook of universally accepted metaphysical truths that they can use to justify their answer. Others say ‘yes’. They have to find abstract objects that can plausibly be identified with musical works, show that abstract objects of this sort can be created, and show that such abstract objects can persist. But, we argue, none of the standard views about what a musical work is allows musical works (...)
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  12. David Davies (2009). Works and Performances in the Performing Arts. Philosophy Compass 4 (5):744-755.
    The primary purpose of the performing arts is to prepare and present 'artistic performances', performances that either are themselves the appreciative focuses of works of art or are instances of other things that are works of art. In the latter case, we have performances of what may be termed 'performed works', as is generally taken to be so with performances of classical music and traditional theatrical performances. In the former case, we have what may be termed 'performance-works', as, for example, (...)
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  13. Stephen Davies (2007). Musical Ontology. Sounds, Instruments and Works of Music / Julian Dodd ; Doing Justice to Musical Works / Michael Morris ; Versions of Musical Works and Literary Translations. In Kathleen Stock (ed.), Philosophers on Music: Experience, Meaning, and Work. Oxford University Press.
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  14. Julian Dodd (2010). Confessions of an Unrepentant Timbral Sonicist. British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (1):33-52.
    Simplifying somewhat, sonicists believe that works of music are individuated purely in terms of how they sound. For them, exact sound-alikes are identical. Stephen Davies, in his ‘Musical Works and Orchestral Colour’ ( BJA 48 (2008), pp. 363–375) took me to task for defending a version of sonicism. In this paper I seek to explain why Davies's objections miss their mark. In the course of the discussion, I make some methodological remarks about the ontology of music.
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  15. Julian Dodd (2009). Teaching & Learning Guide For: Musical Works: Ontology and Meta-Ontology. Philosophy Compass 4 (6):1044-1048.
    A work of music is repeatable in the following sense: it can be multiply performed or played in different places at the same time, and each such datable, locatable performance or playing is an occurrence of it: an item in which the work itself is somehow present, and which thereby makes the work manifest to an audience. As I see it, the central challenge in the ontology of musical works is to come up with an ontological proposal (i.e. an account (...)
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  16. Julian Dodd (2008). Musical Works: Ontology and Meta-Ontology. Philosophy Compass 3 (6):1113-1134.
    The ontological nature of works of music has been a particularly lively area of philosophical debate during the past few years. This paper serves to introduce the reader to some of the most fertile and interesting issues. Starting by distinguishing three questions – the categorial question, the individuation question, and the persistence question – the article goes on to focus on the first: the question of which ontological category musical works fall under. The paper ends by introducing, and briefly considering, (...)
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  17. Julian Dodd (2007). Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- The type/token theory introduced -- Motivating the type/token theory : repeatability -- Nominalist approaches to the ontology of music -- Musical anti-realism -- The type/token theory elaborated -- Types I : abstract, unstructured, unchanging -- Types introduced and nominalism repelled -- Types as abstracta -- Types as unstructured entities -- Types as fixed and unchanging -- Types II : platonism -- Introduction : eternal existence and timelessness -- Types and properties -- The eternal existence of properties reconsidered -- (...)
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  18. Julian Dodd (2004). Types, Continuants, and the Ontology of Music. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (4):342-360.
    Are works of music types of performance or are they continuants? Types are unchanging entities that could not have been otherwise; continuants can undergo change through time and could have been different. Picking up on this distinction, Guy Rohrbaugh has recently argued that musical works are continuants rather than performance-types. This paper replies to his arguments and, in the course of so doing, elaborates and defends the conception of musical works as types of performance. I end the article by arguing (...)
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  19. Nikk Effingham, If All the Songs Were Sets.
    This paper argues that, if we believe both in works of music and sets, that the former are the latter. My argument is that such an ontology offers more explanatory power than the alternatives when it comes to explaining why works of music fall under the predicates that they do.
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  20. Simon J. Evnine (2009). Constitution and Qua Objects in the Ontology of Music. British Journal of Aesthetics 49 (3):203-217.
    Musical Platonists identify musical works with abstract sound structures but this implies that they are not created but only discovered. Jerrold Levinson adapts Platonism to allow for creation by identifying musical works with indicated sound structures. In this paper I explore the similarities between Levinson's view and Kit Fine's theory of qua objects. Fine offers the theory of qua objects as an account of constitution, as it obtains, for example, between a statue and the clay the statue is made out (...)
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  21. S. French & P. Vickers (2011). Are There No Things That Are Scientific Theories? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (4):771-804.
    The ontological status of theories themselves has recently re-emerged as a live topic in the philosophy of science. We consider whether a recent approach within the philosophy of art can shed some light on this issue. For many years philosophers of aesthetics have debated a paradox in the (meta)ontology of musical works (e.g. Levinson [1980]). Taken individually, there are good reasons to accept each of the following three propositions: (i) musical works are created; (ii) musical works are abstract objects; (iii) (...)
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  22. Garry Hagberg (2002). On Representing Jazz: An Art Form in Need of Understanding. Philosophy and Literature 26 (1):188-198.
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  23. Nurbay Irmak (2012). Software is an Abstract Artifact. Grazer Philosophische Studien 86 (1):55-72.
    Software is a ubiquitous artifact, yet not much has been done to understand its ontological nature. There are a few accounts offered so far about the nature of software. I argue that none of those accounts give a plausible picture of the nature of software. I draw attention to the striking similarities between software and musical works. These similarities motivate to look more closely on the discussions regarding the nature of the musical works. With the lessons drawn from the ontology (...)
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  24. Andrew Kania (2008). The Methodology of Musical Ontology: Descriptivism and its Implications. British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (4):426-444.
    I investigate the widely held view that fundamental musical ontology should be descriptivist rather than revisionary, that is, that it should describe how we think about musical works, rather than how they are independently of our thought about them. I argue that if we take descriptivism seriously then, first, we should be sceptical of art-ontological arguments that appeal to independent metaphysical respectability; and, second, we should give ‘fictionalism’ about musical works—the theory that they do not exist—more serious consideration than it (...)
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  25. Andrew Kania (2008). Piece for the End of Time: In Defence of Musical Ontology. British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (1):65-79.
    Aaron Ridley has recently attacked the study of musical ontology—an apparently fertile area in the philosophy of music. I argue here that Ridley's arguments are unsound. There are genuinely puzzling ontological questions about music, many of which are closely related to questions of musical value. While it is true that musical ontology must be descriptive of pre-existing musical practices and that some debates, such as that over the creatability of musical works, have little consequence for questions of musical value, none (...)
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  26. Andrew Kania (2008). Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology by Dodd, Julian. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (2):201–203.
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  27. Andrew Kania (2006). Making Tracks: The Ontology of Rock Music. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (4):401–414.
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  28. Božidar Kante (2004). Artworks, Context and Ontology. Acta Analytica 19 (33):209-219.
    Horgan believes that the truth of the statement “Beethoven’s fifth symphony has four movements” does not require that there be some “dedicated object” answering to the term “Beethoven’s fifth simphony”. To the contrary, the relevant language/world correspondence relation is less direct than this. Especially appropriate is the behavior by Beethoven that we would call “composing his fifth symphony”. Our objections go along two directions: (1) is the process ontology (a) really a right kind of ontology for artworks (symphonies, novels) and, (...)
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  29. Robert Kraut (2007/2010). Artworld Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    Artworld Metaphysics turns a critical eye upon aspects of the artworld, and articulates some of the problems, principles, and norms implicit in the actual practices of artistic creation, interpretation, evaluation, and commodification. Aesthetic theory is treated as descriptive and explanatory, rather than normative: a theory that relates to artworld realities as a semantic theory relates to the fragments of natural language it seeks to describe. Robert Kraut examines emotional expression, correct interpretation and objectivity in the context of artworld practice, the (...)
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  30. Jerrold Levinson (2011). Music, Art, and Metaphysics. OUP Oxford.
    This is a long-awaited reissue of Jerrold Levinson's 1990 book Music, Art, and Metaphysics, which gathers together the writings that made him a leading figure in contemporary aesthetics. Most of the essays are distinguished by a concern with metaphysical questions about artworks and their properties, but other essays address the problem of art's definition, the psychology of aesthetic response, and the logic of interpreting and evaluating works of art. The focus of about half of the essays is the art of (...)
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  31. Jerrold Levinson (2011). What a Musical Work Is, Again. In Music, Art and Metaphysics. 215-263.
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  32. Jerrold Levinson (1980). What a Musical Work Is. Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):5-28.
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  33. P. D. Magnus (2013). Anas Platyrhynchos and 'Classical Gas'. In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press. 108.
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  34. P. D. Magnus, Cristyn Magnus & Christy Mag Uidhir (2013). Judging Covers. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 71 (4):361-370.
    Cover versions form a loose but identifiable category of tracks and performances. We distinguish four kinds of covers and argue that they mark important differences in the modes of evaluation that are possible or appropriate for each: mimic covers, which aim merely to echo the canonical track; rendition covers, which change the sound of the canonical track; transformative covers, which diverge so much as to instantiate a distinct, albeit derivative song; and referential covers, which not only instantiate a distinct song, (...)
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  35. Jonathan Mckeown-Green (2008). Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology - by Julian Dodd. Philosophical Books 49 (4):394-396.
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  36. Michael Morris (2010). Reviews Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology . By Julian Dodd. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, Pp. XI+286, £55. Philosophy 85 (3):419-424.
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  37. Charles Nussbaum (2003). Kinds, Types, and Musical Ontology. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (3):273–291.
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  38. Gary Ostertag (2012). Critical Study Julian Dodd. Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). Noûs 46 (2):355-374.
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  39. S. Predelli (2008). Review: Julian Dodd: Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology. [REVIEW] Mind 117 (467):685-690.
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  40. Stefano Predelli (2006). The Sound of the Concerto. Against the Invariantist Approach to Musical Ontology. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (2):144-162.
    According to a popular approach to the ontology of music, the identity conditions for a musical work include the specification of properties of sound, which constrain the class of its correct performances. This essay argues that the resulting invariantist view of the work–performance relation is inadequate and defends a contextualist alternative.
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  41. Stefano Predelli (2001). Musical Ontology and the Argument From Creation. British Journal of Aesthetics 41 (3):279-292.
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  42. Aaron Ridley (2003). Against Musical Ontology. Journal of Philosophy 100 (4):203 - 220.
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  43. C. Tillman & J. Spencer (2012). Musical Materialism and the Inheritance Problem. Analysis 72 (2):252-259.
    Some hold that musical works are fusions of, or coincide with, their performances. But if performances contain wrong notes, won't works inherit that property? We say ‘no’.
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  44. Leo Treitler (1993). History and the Ontology of the Musical Work. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51 (3):483-497.
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  45. Saam Trivedi (2008). Music and Metaphysics. Metaphilosophy 39 (1):124–143.
    In this article, I assume that musical works are abstract types, and I raise and address a new question concerning musical ontology that may take the types view at least a step further: When do musical works cease to exist? I then propound my view about musical works as types, which is somewhat like the Aristotelian Realist position concerning universals. Next, I address some objections to that view. Finally, I provide some grounds for rejecting alternative views that see Western classical (...)
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  46. Lee Walters (2013). Repeatable Artworks as Created Types. British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (4):461-477.
    I sketch here an intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as created types, which are individuated in part by historical paths (re)production. Although attractive, this view has been rejected by a number of authors on the basis of general claims about abstract objects. On consideration, however, these general claims are overgeneralizations, which whilst true of some abstracta, are not true of all abstract objects, and in particular, are not true of created types. The intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as created types (...)
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  47. James Young (2011). The Ontology of Musical Works: A Philosophical Pseudo-Problem. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):284-297.
    A bewildering array of accounts of the ontology of musical works is available. Philosophers have held that works of music are sets of performances, abstract, eternal sound-event types, initiated types, compositional action types, compositional action tokens, ideas in a composer’s mind and continuants that perdure. This paper maintains that questions in the ontology of music are, in Rudolf Carnap’s sense of the term, pseudo-problems. That is, there is no alethic basis for choosing between rival musical ontologies. While we have (...)
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  48. James O. Young & Carl Matheson (2000). The Metaphysics of Jazz. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (2):125-133.
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