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  1. Susan Leigh Anderson (1995). Natural Rights and the Individualism Versus Collectivism Debate. Journal of Value Inquiry 29 (3):307-316.
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  2. Jeremy Bentham, Critique of the Doctrine of Inalienable, Natural Rights.
    The Declaration of Rights -- I mean the paper published under that name by the French National Assembly in 1791 -- assumes for its subject-matter a field of disquisition as unbounded in point of extent as it is important in its nature. But the more ample the extent given to any proposition or string of propositions, the more difficult it is to keep the import of it confined without deviation, within the bounds of truth and reason. If in the smallest (...)
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  3. Christopher Bertram, Natural Rights to Migration?
    It is often claimed that states enjoy, as a consequence of their sovereign status, the right to control the passage of outsiders through their territory and that they have a discretion to admit or to refuse to admit outsiders, whether those outsiders be tourists, business travelers, would-be economic migrants, or even refugees. Or, to be more exact, such limitations on that right to control are derived from the agreement of states to treaties and conventions, agreement which they could have withheld (...)
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  4. Larry Biesenthal (1978). Natural Rights and Natural Assets. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 8 (2):153-171.
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  5. Ralph Mason Blake (1925). On Natural Rights. International Journal of Ethics 36 (1):86-96.
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  6. Andrew Blom, Grotius, Hugo. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Hugo Grotius (1583—1645) Hugo Grotius was a Dutch humanist and jurist whose philosophy of natural law had a major impact on the development of seventeenth century political thought and on the moral theories of the Enlightenment. Valorized by contemporary international theorists as the father of international law, his work on sovereignty, international rights of commerce […].
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  7. Joseph M. Boyle Jr (1981). Natural Law and Natural Rights. New Scholasticism 55 (2):245-247.
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  8. Gershom Carmichael, James Moore & Michael Silverthorne (2002). Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment the Writings of Gershom Carmichael. Liberty Fund.
  9. John Christman (1986). Can Ownership Be Justified by Natural Rights? Philosophy and Public Affairs 15 (2):156-177.
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  10. Jonathan Crowe, Explaining Natural Rights: Ontological Freedom and the Foundations of Political Discourse.
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  11. Derrick Darby (1999). Are Worlds Without Natural Rights Morally Impoverished? Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):397-417.
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  12. Douglas J. den Uyl & Douglas B. Rasmussen (2001). Ethical Individualism, Natural Law, and the Primacy of Natural Rights. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):34-69.
    Whether or not Strauss's observation is historically accurate, it does suggest two sets of questions for philosophical examination. (1) Is Strauss correct to view natural duties and natural rights as the same type of ethical concept? Do they serve the same function? Do they work on the same level, and are they necessarily in competition with each other? (2) Does saying that the individual human being is the center of the moral world require that one reject the idea of a (...)
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  13. H. Dendy (1895). Book Review:Natural Rights. David G. Ritchie. [REVIEW] Ethics 5 (4):521-.
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  14. Robert Paul Finch (1975). Defining 'Natural Rights': A Problem and Solution Considered. Southern Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):287-295.
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  15. John Finnis (1980/1979). Natural Law and Natural Rights. Oxford University Press.
    This new edition includes a substantial postscript by the author, in which he responds to thirty years of discussion, criticism and further work in the field to ...
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  16. Samuel Gregg (2009). Metaphysics and Modernity: Natural Law and Natural Rights in Gershom Carmichael and Francis Hutcheson. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):87-102.
    This paper argues that the founding fathers of the tradition of Scottish Enlightenment natural jurisprudence, Gersholm Carmichael (1672–1729) and Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), articulated a view of rights that is pertinent to the contemporary dominance of the language of rights. Maintaining a metaphysical foundation for rights while drawing upon the early-modern Protestant natural law tradition, their conception of rights is more significantly indebted to the pre-modern scholastic natural law tradition than often realized. This is illustrated by exploring some of the background (...)
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  17. Robert Dennis Hall (1981). John Locke and Natural Human Rights: An Inconsistency Between His Metaphysical/Epistemological Positions and His Moral/Political Theories. Dissertation, St. John's University (New York)
    The author concentrates on John Locke's doctrine of natural rights, particularly in light of the latter's metaphysical views. Locke's denial of the objectivity of certain metaphysical principles, e.g., substance, and his polemics against the science of metaphysics itself, weaken his position as an advocate of natural rights. In the mind of the author, the negation of objective certitude concerning metaphysical principles of substance, formal causality, final causality, and so forth, erodes the basis, sufficient for a natural rights doctrine. The problem (...)
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  18. Arthur Leon Harding (1955). Natural Law and Natural Rights. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press.
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  19. James A. Harris (2003). :Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment: The Writings of Gershom Carmichael. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 1 (2):175-179.
  20. H. L. A. Hart (1955). Are There Any Natural Rights? Philosophical Review 64 (2):175-191.
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  21. John Hasnas (2005). Toward a Theory of Empirical Natural Rights. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):111-147.
    Natural rights theorists such as John Locke and Robert Nozick provide arguments for limited government that are grounded on the individual's possession of natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Resting on natural rights, such arguments can be no more persuasive than the underlying arguments for the existence of such rights, which are notoriously weak. In this article, John Hasnas offers an alternative conception of natural rights, “empirical natural rights,” that are not beset by the objections typically raised against traditional (...)
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  22. Thomas Hurka (1989). Sumner on Natural Rights. Dialogue 28 (01):117-.
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  23. Peter Ingram (1981). Natural Rights: A Reappraisal. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 15 (1):3-18.
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  24. J. J. Jenkins (1967). Locke and Natural Rights. Philosophy 42 (160):149 - 154.
  25. John Kilcullen, Medieval Theories of Natural Rights.
    From the 12 th century onwards, medieval canon lawyers and, from the early 14 th century, theologians and philosophers began to use ius to mean a right, and developed a theory of natural rights, the predecessor of modern theories of human rights. The main applications of this theory were in respect of property and government.
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  26. Richard Kraut (1996). Are There Natural Rights in Aristotle? Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):755 - 774.
  27. H. D. Lewis (1938). Some Observations on Natural Rights and the General Will (II.). Mind 47 (185):18-44.
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  28. H. D. Lewis (1937). Some Observations on Natural Rights and the General Will (I). Mind 46 (184):437-453.
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  29. Jon W. Lowry (1975). Natural Rights. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):109-122.
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  30. Neil Luebke (1970). Hart on Natural Rights. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):32-37.
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  31. Korey D. Maas (2011). Natural Science, Natural Rights, and Natural Law : Abortion in Historical Perspective. In Robert C. Baker & Roland Cap Ehlke (eds.), Natural Law: A Lutheran Reappraisal. Concordia Pub. House
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  32. Tibor R. Machan (1990). Natural Rights Liberalism. Philosophy and Theology 4 (3):253-265.
    Classical Iiberalism has at least two distinct strains. Its natural rights version requires extensive use of moral concepts. Some denigrate this tradition on grounds that it has been made obsolete by empiricist epistemology and materialist metaphysics. Since that tradition requires knowledge of moral truth and since empiricism precludes this, the tradition is hopeless. Since it also requires a teleological explanation of human action, and since mechanism precludes this, the hopelessness of the tradition is compounded. I argue that neither the empiricist (...)
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  33. Eric Mack (2012). Lysander Spooner: Nineteenth-Century America's Last Natural Rights Theorist. Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (2):139-176.
    The main purpose of this essay is to articulate the ideas of the last powerful advocate of natural rights in nineteenth-century America. That last powerful advocate was the Massachusetts-born radical libertarian Lysander Spooner. Besides his powerful antebellum attacks on slavery, Spooner developed forceful arguments on behalf of a strongly individualistic conception of natural law and private property rights and against coercive moralism, coercive paternalism, and state authority and legislation. This essay focuses on the theoretical core of Spoonera doctrine that is (...)
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  34. Eric Mack (2007). Scanlon as Natural Rights Theorist. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):45-73.
    This article examines the character of Scanlon’s contractualism as presented in What We Owe to Each Other . I offer a range of reasons for thinking of Scanlon’s contractualism as a species of natural rights theorizing. I argue that to affirm the principle that actions are wrongful if and only if they are disallowed by principles that people could not reasonably reject is equivalent to affirming a natural right (of an admittedly non-standard sort) against being subject to such reasonably disallowed (...)
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  35. Eric Mack (1980). Locke's Arguments for Natural Rights. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):51-60.
  36. Virpi Mäkinen (2010). Self-Preservation and Natural Rights in Late Medieval and Early Modern Political Thought. In The Nature of Rights: Moral and Political Aspects of Rights in Late Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. The Philosophical Society of Finland
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  37. Peter J. Markie (1978). Mack on Promises and Natural Rights. Ethics 88 (3):263-265.
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  38. Thomas Mautner (1981). Natural Rights in Locke. Philosophical Topics 12 (3):73-77.
  39. A. S. McGrade (1996). Aristotle's Place in the History of Natural Rights. Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):803 - 829.
  40. George H. Mead (1915). Natural Rights and the Theory of the Political Institution. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 12 (6):141-155.
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  41. Moorhouse F. X. Millar (1937). The Natural Law and Bills of Rights. Modern Schoolman 14 (2):32-35.
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  42. Fred D. Miller Jr (1996). Aristotle and the Origins of Natural Rights. Review of Metaphysics 49 (4):873-907.
  43. Phillip Mitsis (2006). The Stoic Origin of Natural Rights. Philosophical Inquiry 28 (1-2):159-178.
  44. Gregory I. Molivas (1997). Richard Price, the Debate on Free Will, and Natural Rights. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1):105-123.
  45. Gregory I. Molivas (1997). The Influence of Utilitarianism on Natural Rights Doctrines. Utilitas 9 (02):183-.
    This paper shows that the perceived difference between utilitarianism and natural rights theories in the eighteenth century was much less sharp than that in the twentieth century. This is demonstrated by exploring Josiah Tucker's critique of Locke and his disciples and the way in which the latter responded to it. Tucker's critique of Locke was based on a sharp distinction between a conception of natural rights as individual entitlements and the conception of the public good. The disciples of Locke did (...)
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  46. Christopher W. Morris (2005). Natural Rights and Political Legitimacy. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):314-329.
    If we have a natural right to liberty, it is hard to see how a state could be legitimate without first obtaining the (genuine) consent of the governed. I consider the threat natural rights pose to state legitimacy. I distinguish minimal from full legitimacy and explore different understandings of the nature of our natural rights. Even though I conclude that natural rights do threaten the full legitimacy of states, I suggest that understanding our natural right to liberty to be grounded (...)
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  47. J. H. Muirhead (1934). Liberty and Natural Rights. By W. R. Inge, Dean of St. Paul's. The Herbert Spencer Lecture Delivered at Oxford, 05 9, 1934. (London: Oxford Clarendon Press, Humphrey Milford. 1934. Pp. 38. Price Is. 6d. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 9 (36):483.
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  48. Jeffrie G. Murphy (1969). A Paradox in Locke's Theory of Natural Rights. Dialogue 8 (02):256-271.
  49. J. L. O'Donovan (1999). Book Reviews : The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law and Church Law, 1150-1625, by Brian Tierney. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997. 380 Pp. Pb. No Price. ISBN 0-7885-0355-. [REVIEW] Studies in Christian Ethics 12 (2):102-109.
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  50. Anthony Pagden (2003). Human Rights, Natural Rights, and Europe's Imperial Legacy. Political Theory 31 (2):171-199.
    The author argues the concept of human rights is a development of the older notion of natural rights and that the modern understanding of natural rights evolved in the context of the European struggle to legitimate its overseas empires. The French Revolution changed this by, in effect, linking human rights to the idea of citizenship. Human rights were thus tied not only to a specific ethical-legal code but also implicitly to a particular kind of political system, both of inescapably European (...)
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