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Summary The project of naturalized epistemology is that of identifying a substantial and constructive role for the sciences in epistemological theorizing. One popular way to think about the continuity between the sciences and epistemology is in terms of how normative questions about how we ought to form our beliefs cannot be answered independently of descriptive questions about how we do form beliefs. Understood thus, the challenge for the naturalized epistemologist is to spell out in more detail the respective contribution by (traditional) epistemology and the sciences, and in particular the extent to which the latter is to replace or simply complement the former.
Key works The contemporary discussion regarding naturalized epistemology goes back to Quine 1969. For discussions of Quine, see Foley 1994Kim 1988, and Stich 1993. Major contributions to the project of naturalizing epistemology can be found in Goldman 1986Goldman 1992, Kornblith 2002, and Bishop 2005. For a helpful anthology, see Kornblith 1994.
Introductions Kornblith 1994 is a helpful collection of essays on naturalized epistemology. For a more recent overview of developments since Quine 1969, see Kornblith 2007.
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  1. Jonathan E. Adler (1987). Exercises in Naturalistic Epistemology. Behaviorism 15 (2):161-164.
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  2. Kristoffer Ahlstrom (2008). Epistemology and Empirical Investigation. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):109-134.
    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will first show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds. Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, (...)
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  3. Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij, Klemens Kappel & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2013). The Epistemology of Inclusiveness. Synthese 190 (7):1185-1188.
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  4. Nicholas Unwin Alan Millar (2005). Epistemology. Philosophical Books 46 (2):167-170.
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  5. Javier Rodríguez Alcázar (1993). Epistemic Aims and Values in W.V. Quine's Naturalized Epistemology. Philosophical Issues 3:309-318.
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  6. María Caamaño Alegre (2013). Pragmatic Norms in Science: Making Them Explicit. Synthese 190 (15):3227-3246.
    The present work constitutes an attempt to make explicit those pragmatic norms successfully operating in empirical science. I will first comment on the initial presuppositions of the discussion, in particular, on those concerning the instrumental character of scientific practice and the nature of scientific goals. Then I will depict the moderately naturalistic frame in which, from this approach, the pragmatic norms make sense. Third, I will focus on the specificity of the pragmatic norms, making special emphasis on what I regard (...)
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  7. Barry Allen (2000). What Was Epistemology? In Robert Brandom (ed.), Rorty and His Critics. Blackwell Publishers.
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  8. Robert Almeder (1997). Carnap and Quine on Empiricism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 14 (3):349 - 364.
    In this paper I discuss the naturalism of Carnap and Quine. I examine Quine's naturalized epistemology and argue that Carnap's naturalism is considerably more attractive.
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  9. Robert Almeder (1994). Defining Justification and Naturalizing Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):669-681.
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  10. Robert Almeder (1990). On Naturalizing Epistemology. American Philosophical Quarterly 27 (4):263 - 279.
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  11. Ron Amundson (1983). The Epistemological Status of a Naturalized Epistemology. Inquiry 26 (3):333 – 344.
    Philosophically inclined psychologists and psychologically inclined philosophers often hold that the substantive discoveries of psychology can provide an empirical foundation for epistemology. In this paper it is argued that the ambition to found epistemology empirically faces certain unnoticed difficulties. Empirical theories concerned with knowledge?gaining abilities have been historically associated with specific epistemological views such that the epistemology gives preferential support to the substantive theory, while the theory empirically supports the epistemology. Theories attribute to the subject just those epistemic abilities which (...)
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  12. Elizabeth Anderson (1995). Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and a Defense. Hypatia 10 (3):50 - 84.
    Feminist epistemology has often been understood as the study of feminine "ways of knowing." But feminist epistemology is better understood as the branch of naturalized, social epistemology that studies the various influences of norms and conceptions of gender and gendered interests and experiences on the production of knowledge. This understanding avoids dubious claims about feminine cognitive differences and enables feminist research in various disciplines to pose deep internal critiques of mainstream research.
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  13. Daniel Andler (2009). Naturalism and the Scientific Status of the Social Sciences. In M. Suarez, M. Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA: Epistemology and Methodology of Science: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer.
    situation in the sciences of man and show it to be fallacious. On the view to be 6 rejected, the sciences of man are undergoing the first serious attempt in history to 7 thoroughly naturalize their subject matter and thus to put an end to their separate sta- 8 tus. Progress has (on this view) been quite considerable in the disciplines in charge 9 of the individual, while in the social sciences the outcome of the process is moot: 10 the (...)
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  14. David B. Annis (1982). Epistemology Naturalized. Metaphilosophy 13 (3-4):201-208.
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  15. Lm Antony (1987). Naturalized Epistemology and the Study of Language in Naturalistic Epistemology: A Symposium of Two Decades. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 100:235-257.
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  16. Louise Antony (2004). A Naturalized Approach to the a Priori. Philosophical Issues 14 (1):1–17.
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  17. Louise Antony (2000). Naturalized Epistemology, Morality, and the Real World. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (Supplement):103-137.
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  18. D. M. Armstrong (1999). A Naturalist Program: Epistemology and Ontology. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 73 (2):77 - 89.
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  19. P. Artuso (1989). Is Quine Naturalistic Epistemology Plausible. Filosofia 40 (3):255-279.
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  20. Robert Audi (2013). Knowledge, Justification, and the Normativity of Epistemology. Res Philosophica 90 (2):127-145.
    Epistemology is sometimes said to be a normative discipline, but what this characterization means is often left unclear. This paper distinguishes two kindsof normativity and thereby provides a new way of understanding attributions of normativity. Associated with this distinction are two kinds of epistemological reflection. These are shown to be parallel to two kinds of ethical reflection. In the light of what emerges in showing these points, the paper clarifies the requirements for naturalizing epistemology, the place normativity might have, given (...)
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  21. Robert Audi (2000). Philosophical Naturalism at the Turn of the Century. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:27-45.
    This paper examines the nature and varieties of philosophical naturalism. A central question it pursues is whether there is any unifying conception of naturalism and, if so, whether it is substantive or methodological. Another question addressed is the extent to which naturalism is motivated by or depends on empiricism. The paper explores the connection between naturalism and scientific method---often taken as central in defining it---and critically discusses naturalistic positions in metaphysics (including philosophical theology), epistemology, and ethics. Given the ambitions of (...)
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  22. Robert Audi (1989). "Epistemology and Cognition" by Alvin I. Goldman. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (4):733.
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  23. Randall E. Auxier (2007). On Mark McEvoy's “Should Analytic Epistemology Be Replaced by Ameliorative Psychology?”. Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (2):47-49.
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  24. Ralph Baergen (2010). The a to Z of Epistemology. Scarecrow Press.
    The A to Z of Epistemology provides an overview of this field of study and of the theories, concepts, and personalities through the use of a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and more than 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries, covering notable concepts, theories, arguments, publications, issues, and philosophers. Students and others who wish to acquaint themselves with epistemology will be greatly aided by this reference.
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  25. Lynne Rudder Baker (2003). Part IV Must Science Validate All Knowledge? In A. J. Sanford & P. N. Johnson-Laird (eds.), The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding. T & T Clark.
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  26. Mark Bandas (1992). Panentheizing Epistemology. Semiotics:83-90.
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  27. Mark Bandas (1992). Panentheizing Epistemology. Semiotics:83-90.
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  28. Michael G. Barnhart (1996). Is Naturalized Epistemology Experientially Vacuous? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 3 (2):1-5.
    By naturalized epistemology, I mean those views expressed by Nozick and Margolis among others who favor an evolutionary account of human rationality as an adaptive mechanism which is unlikely to provide the means for its own legitimation and therefore unlikely to produce a single set of rules or norms which are certifiably rational. Analyzing the likely relativism that stems from such a view, namely that there could be divergent standards of rationality under different historical or environmental conditions, I conclude that (...)
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  29. Jared Bates (2004). Reflective Equilibrium and Underdetermination in Epistemology. Acta Analytica 19 (32):45-64.
    The basic aim of Alvin Goldman’s approach to epistemology, and the tradition it represents, is naturalistic; that is, epistemological theories in this tradition aim to identify the naturalistic, nonnormative criteria on which justified belief supervenes (Goldman, 1986; Markie, 1997). The basic method of Goldman’s epistemology, and the tradition it represents, is the reflective equilibrium test; that is, epistemological theories in this tradition are tested against our intuitions about cases of justified and unjustified belief (Goldman, 1986; Markie, 1997). I will argue (...)
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  30. Benjamin Bayer, Varieties of Naturalized Epistemology: Criticisms and Alternatives.
    There is a widespread belief among intellectuals that the domain of philosophy shrinks as the domain of the special sciences expands, and that someday, science might swallow up philosophy entirely. Some philosophical naturalists think that this day may have already arrived. These naturalists believe that philosophy’s methodology should be the same as that of natural science; they imply that philosophy has no distinctive “armchair” methodology of its own.
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  31. Benjamin Bayer (2007). How Not to Refute Quine: Evaluating Kim's Alternatives to Naturalized Epistemology. Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):473-495.
    This paper offers an interpretation of Quine’s naturalized epistemology through the lens of Jaegwon Kim’s influential critique of the same. Kim argues that Quine forces a false choice between traditional deductivist foundationalism and naturalized epistemology and contends that there are viable alternative epistemological projects. However it is suggested that Quine would reject these alternatives by reference to the same fundamental principles (underdetermination, indeterminacy of translation, extensionalism) that led him to reject traditional epistemology and propose naturalism as an alternative. Given this (...)
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  32. Benjamin Bayer, Varieties of Naturalized Epistemology: Criticisms and Alternatives.
    <span class='Hi'>Naturalized</span> <span class='Hi'>epistemology</span>—the recent attempt to transform the theory of knowledge into a branch of natural science—is often criticized for dispensing with the distinctively philosophical content of <span class='Hi'>epistemology</span>. In this dissertation, I argue that epistemologists are correct to reject naturalism, but that new arguments are needed to show why this is so. I establish my thesis first by evaluating two prominent varieties of naturalism—optimistic and pessimistic—and then by offering a proposal for how a new version of non-naturalistic <span (...)
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  33. Guillaume Beaulac & Pierre Poirier (2009). Va Savoir! De la Connaissance En Général -- Pascal Engel. [REVIEW] Dialogue 48 (01):217-221.
  34. Alan Berger (2003). The Quinean Quandary and the Indispensability of Nonnaturalized Epistemology. Philosophical Forum 34 (3-4):367–382.
  35. Lars Bergström (2014). Quine and the A Priori. In Gilbert Harman & Ernie Lepore (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley Blackwell. 38–53.
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  36. Lars Bergström (2008). A Defense of Quinean Naturalism. In Chase B. Wrenn (ed.), Naturalism, Reference, and Ontology. Peter Lang Publishing Group.
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  37. Lars Bergström (2006). Quine's Relativism. Theoria 72 (4):286-298.
  38. Lars Bergström (2004). Underdetermination of Physical Theory. In Roger F. Gibson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Cambridge University Press. 91--114.
  39. José Luis Bermúdez (2006). Knowledge, Naturalism, and Cognitive Ethology: Kornblith's Knowledge and its Place in Nature. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):299 - 316.
    This paper explores Kornblith’s proposal in Knowledge and its Place in Nature that knowledge is a natural kind that can be elucidated and understood in scientific terms. Central to Kornblith’s development of this proposal is the claim that there is a single category of unreflective knowledge that is studied by cognitive ethologists and is the proper province of epistemology. This claim is challenged on the grounds that even unreflective knowledge in language-using humans reflects forms of logical reasoning that are in (...)
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  40. Svvami Bhaktavatsaldas (1981). Epistemology of Swaminarayan. In Sahajānanda (ed.), New Dimensions in Vedanta Philosophy. Bochasanwasi Shri Aksharpurushottam Sanstha. 1--176.
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  41. Michael Bishop (2009). Reflections on Cognitive and Epistemic Diversity : Can a Stich in Time Save Quine? In Dominic Murphy & Michael A. Bishop (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In “Epistemology Naturalized”, Quine famously suggests that epistemology, properly understood, “simply falls into place as a chapter of psychology and hence of natural science” (1969, 82). Since the appearance of Quine’s seminal article, virtually every epistemologist, including the later Quine (1986, 664), has repudiated the idea that a normative discipline like epistemology could be reduced to a purely descriptive discipline like psychology. Working epistemologists no longer take Quine’s vision in “Epistemology Naturalized” seriously. In this paper, I will explain why I (...)
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  42. Michael A. Bishop (2005). Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Oxford University Press.
    Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology (the theory of human knowledge and reasoning). Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop and Trout show how (...)
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  43. Michael A. Bishop (1990). Naturalizing the Philosophy of Science. Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    Normative apriorist philosophers of science build purely normative a priori reconstructions of science, whereas descriptive naturalists eliminate the normative elements of the philosophy of science in favor of purely descriptive endeavors. I hope to exhibit the virtues of an alternative approach that appreciates both the normative and the natural in the philosophy of science. ;Theory ladenness. Some philosophers claim that a plausible view about how our visual systems work either undermines or facilitates our ability to rationally adjudicate between competing theories (...)
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  44. Michael Bishop & J. D. Trout (2005). The Pathologies of Standard Analytic Epistemology. Noûs 39 (4):696 - 714.
    Standard Analytic Epistemology (SAE) names a contingently clustered class of methods and theses that have dominated English-speaking epistemology for about the past half-century. The major contemporary theories of SAE include versions of foundationalism (Chisholm 1981, Pollock 1974), coherentism (Bonjour 1985, Lehrer 1974), reliabilism (Dretske 1981, Goldman 1986) and contextualism (DeRose 1995, Lewis 1996). While proponents of SAE don’t agree about how to define naturalized epistemology, most agree that a thoroughgoing naturalism in epistemology can’t work. For the purposes of this paper, (...)
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  45. Jerzy Bobryk (2007). Antypsychologizm, prowincjonalizm i kognitywizm. Filozofia Nauki 3.
    The article is devoted to an evaluation of contemporary cognitive psychology which draws inspirations from current naturalistic epistemology. The author's conclusion is that the philosophical background of some modern psychological theories and conceptions is in midway position between naturalistic and non-naturalistic (anti-psychologistic) epistemology.
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  46. James Bogen (1985). Traditional Epistemology and Naturalistic Replies to its Skeptical Critics. Synthese 64 (2):195 - 224.
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  47. Laurence Bonjour (2006). Kornblith on Knowledge and Epistemology. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):317 - 335.
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  48. Laurence Bonjour (1994). Against Naturalized Epistemology. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 19 (1):283-300.
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  49. Richard Boyd (1980). Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:613-662.
    A realistic and dialectical conception of the epistemology of science is advanced according to which the acquisition of instrumental knowledge is parasitic upon the acquisition, by successive approximation, of theoretical knowledge. This conception is extended to provide an epistemological characterization of reference and of natural kinds, and it is integrated into recent naturalistic treatments of knowledge. Implications for several current issues in the philosophy of science are explored.
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  50. Pascal Boyer (2000). Natural Epistemology or Evolved Metaphysics? Developmental Evidence for Early-Developed, Intuitive, Category-Specific, Incomplete, and Stubborn Metaphysical Presumptions. Philosophical Psychology 13 (3):277 – 297.
    Cognitive developmental evidence is sometimes conscripted to support ''naturalized epistemology'' arguments to the effect that a general epistemic stance leads children to build theory-like accounts of underlying properties of kinds. A review of the evidence suggests that what prompts conceptual acquisition is not a general epistemic stance but a series of category-specific intuitive principles that constitute an evolved ''natural metaphysics''. This consists in a system of categories and category-specific inferential processes founded on definite biases in prototype formation. Evidence for this (...)
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