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Summary The project of naturalized epistemology is that of identifying a substantial and constructive role for the sciences in epistemological theorizing. One popular way to think about the continuity between the sciences and epistemology is in terms of how normative questions about how we ought to form our beliefs cannot be answered independently of descriptive questions about how we do form beliefs. Understood thus, the challenge for the naturalized epistemologist is to spell out in more detail the respective contribution by (traditional) epistemology and the sciences, and in particular the extent to which the latter is to replace or simply complement the former.
Key works The contemporary discussion regarding naturalized epistemology goes back to Quine 1969. For discussions of Quine, see Foley 1994Kim 1988, and Stich 1993. Major contributions to the project of naturalizing epistemology can be found in Goldman 1986Goldman 1992, Kornblith 2002, and Bishop 2005. For a helpful anthology, see Kornblith 1994.
Introductions Kornblith 1994 is a helpful collection of essays on naturalized epistemology. For a more recent overview of developments since Quine 1969, see Kornblith 2007.
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  1. Kristoffer Ahlstrom (2008). Epistemology and Empirical Investigation. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):109-134.
    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will first show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds. Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, (...)
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  2. Javier Rodríguez Alcázar (1993). Epistemic Aims and Values in W.V. Quine's Naturalized Epistemology. Philosophical Issues 3:309-318.
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  3. Robert Almeder (1994). Defining Justification and Naturalizing Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):669-681.
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  4. Ron Amundson (1983). The Epistemological Status of a Naturalized Epistemology. Inquiry 26 (3):333 – 344.
    Philosophically inclined psychologists and psychologically inclined philosophers often hold that the substantive discoveries of psychology can provide an empirical foundation for epistemology. In this paper it is argued that the ambition to found epistemology empirically faces certain unnoticed difficulties. Empirical theories concerned with knowledge?gaining abilities have been historically associated with specific epistemological views such that the epistemology gives preferential support to the substantive theory, while the theory empirically supports the epistemology. Theories attribute to the subject just those epistemic abilities which (...)
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  5. Elizabeth Anderson (1995). Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and a Defense. Hypatia 10 (3):50 - 84.
    Feminist epistemology has often been understood as the study of feminine "ways of knowing." But feminist epistemology is better understood as the branch of naturalized, social epistemology that studies the various influences of norms and conceptions of gender and gendered interests and experiences on the production of knowledge. This understanding avoids dubious claims about feminine cognitive differences and enables feminist research in various disciplines to pose deep internal critiques of mainstream research.
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  6. Daniel Andler (2009). Naturalism and the Scientific Status of the Social Sciences. In M. Suarez, M. Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA: Epistemology and Methodology of Science: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer.
    situation in the sciences of man and show it to be fallacious. On the view to be 6 rejected, the sciences of man are undergoing the first serious attempt in history to 7 thoroughly naturalize their subject matter and thus to put an end to their separate sta- 8 tus. Progress has (on this view) been quite considerable in the disciplines in charge 9 of the individual, while in the social sciences the outcome of the process is moot: 10 the (...)
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  7. David B. Annis (1982). Epistemology Naturalized. Metaphilosophy 13 (3-4):201-208.
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  8. Louise Antony (2000). Naturalized Epistemology, Morality, and the Real World. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (Supplement):103-137.
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  9. D. M. Armstrong (1999). A Naturalist Program: Epistemology and Ontology. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 73 (2):77 - 89.
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  10. Robert Audi (2000). Philosophical Naturalism at the Turn of the Century. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:27-45.
    This paper examines the nature and varieties of philosophical naturalism. A central question it pursues is whether there is any unifying conception of naturalism and, if so, whether it is substantive or methodological. Another question addressed is the extent to which naturalism is motivated by or depends on empiricism. The paper explores the connection between naturalism and scientific method---often taken as central in defining it---and critically discusses naturalistic positions in metaphysics (including philosophical theology), epistemology, and ethics. Given the ambitions of (...)
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  11. Michael G. Barnhart (1996). Is Naturalized Epistemology Experientially Vacuous? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 3 (2):1-5.
    By naturalized epistemology, I mean those views expressed by Nozick and Margolis among others who favor an evolutionary account of human rationality as an adaptive mechanism which is unlikely to provide the means for its own legitimation and therefore unlikely to produce a single set of rules or norms which are certifiably rational. Analyzing the likely relativism that stems from such a view, namely that there could be divergent standards of rationality under different historical or environmental conditions, I conclude that (...)
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  12. Jared Bates (2004). Reflective Equilibrium and Underdetermination in Epistemology. Acta Analytica 19 (32):45-64.
    The basic aim of Alvin Goldman’s approach to epistemology, and the tradition it represents, is naturalistic; that is, epistemological theories in this tradition aim to identify the naturalistic, nonnormative criteria on which justified belief supervenes (Goldman, 1986; Markie, 1997). The basic method of Goldman’s epistemology, and the tradition it represents, is the reflective equilibrium test; that is, epistemological theories in this tradition are tested against our intuitions about cases of justified and unjustified belief (Goldman, 1986; Markie, 1997). I will argue (...)
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  13. Benjamin Bayer, Varieties of Naturalized Epistemology: Criticisms and Alternatives.
    There is a widespread belief among intellectuals that the domain of philosophy shrinks as the domain of the special sciences expands, and that someday, science might swallow up philosophy entirely. Some philosophical naturalists think that this day may have already arrived. These naturalists believe that philosophy’s methodology should be the same as that of natural science; they imply that philosophy has no distinctive “armchair” methodology of its own.
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  14. Benjamin Bayer (2007). How Not to Refute Quine: Evaluating Kim's Alternatives to Naturalized Epistemology. Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):473-495.
    This paper offers an interpretation of Quine’s naturalized epistemology through the lens of Jaegwon Kim’s influential critique of the same. Kim argues that Quine forces a false choice between traditional deductivist foundationalism and naturalized epistemology and contends that there are viable alternative epistemological projects. However it is suggested that Quine would reject these alternatives by reference to the same fundamental principles (underdetermination, indeterminacy of translation, extensionalism) that led him to reject traditional epistemology and propose naturalism as an alternative. Given this (...)
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  15. Benjamin Bayer, Varieties of Naturalized Epistemology: Criticisms and Alternatives.
    <span class='Hi'>Naturalized</span> <span class='Hi'>epistemology</span>—the recent attempt to transform the theory of knowledge into a branch of natural science—is often criticized for dispensing with the distinctively philosophical content of <span class='Hi'>epistemology</span>. In this dissertation, I argue that epistemologists are correct to reject naturalism, but that new arguments are needed to show why this is so. I establish my thesis first by evaluating two prominent varieties of naturalism—optimistic and pessimistic—and then by offering a proposal for how a new version of non-naturalistic <span (...)
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  16. Guillaume Beaulac & Pierre Poirier (2009). Va Savoir! De la Connaissance En Général -- Pascal Engel. [REVIEW] Dialogue 48 (01):217-221.
  17. Alan Berger (2003). The Quinean Quandary and the Indispensability of Nonnaturalized Epistemology. Philosophical Forum 34 (3-4):367–382.
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  18. Lars Bergström (2008). A Defense of Quinean Naturalism. In Chase B. Wrenn (ed.), Naturalism, Reference, and Ontology. Peter Lang Publishing Group.
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  19. Lars Bergström (2006). Quine's Relativism. Theoria 72 (4):286-298.
  20. Lars Bergström (2004). Underdetermination of Physical Theory. In Roger F. Gibson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Cambridge University Press. 91--114.
  21. José Luis Bermúdez (2006). Knowledge, Naturalism, and Cognitive Ethology: Kornblith's Knowledge and its Place in Nature. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):299 - 316.
    This paper explores Kornblith’s proposal in Knowledge and its Place in Nature that knowledge is a natural kind that can be elucidated and understood in scientific terms. Central to Kornblith’s development of this proposal is the claim that there is a single category of unreflective knowledge that is studied by cognitive ethologists and is the proper province of epistemology. This claim is challenged on the grounds that even unreflective knowledge in language-using humans reflects forms of logical reasoning that are in (...)
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  22. Michael Bishop (2009). Reflections on Cognitive and Epistemic Diversity : Can a Stich in Time Save Quine? In Dominic Murphy & Michael A. Bishop (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In “Epistemology Naturalized”, Quine famously suggests that epistemology, properly understood, “simply falls into place as a chapter of psychology and hence of natural science” (1969, 82). Since the appearance of Quine’s seminal article, virtually every epistemologist, including the later Quine (1986, 664), has repudiated the idea that a normative discipline like epistemology could be reduced to a purely descriptive discipline like psychology. Working epistemologists no longer take Quine’s vision in “Epistemology Naturalized” seriously. In this paper, I will explain why I (...)
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  23. Michael A. Bishop (2005). Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Oxford University Press.
    Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology (the theory of human knowledge and reasoning). Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop and Trout show how (...)
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  24. Michael Bishop & J. D. Trout (2005). The Pathologies of Standard Analytic Epistemology. Noûs 39 (4):696 - 714.
    Standard Analytic Epistemology (SAE) names a contingently clustered class of methods and theses that have dominated English-speaking epistemology for about the past half-century. The major contemporary theories of SAE include versions of foundationalism (Chisholm 1981, Pollock 1974), coherentism (Bonjour 1985, Lehrer 1974), reliabilism (Dretske 1981, Goldman 1986) and contextualism (DeRose 1995, Lewis 1996). While proponents of SAE don’t agree about how to define naturalized epistemology, most agree that a thoroughgoing naturalism in epistemology can’t work. For the purposes of this paper, (...)
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  25. Laurence Bonjour (2006). Kornblith on Knowledge and Epistemology. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):317 - 335.
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  26. Laurence Bonjour (1994). Against Naturalized Epistemology. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 19 (1):283-300.
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  27. Richard Boyd (1980). Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:613-662.
    A realistic and dialectical conception of the epistemology of science is advanced according to which the acquisition of instrumental knowledge is parasitic upon the acquisition, by successive approximation, of theoretical knowledge. This conception is extended to provide an epistemological characterization of reference and of natural kinds, and it is integrated into recent naturalistic treatments of knowledge. Implications for several current issues in the philosophy of science are explored.
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  28. Pascal Boyer (2000). Natural Epistemology or Evolved Metaphysics? Developmental Evidence for Early-Developed, Intuitive, Category-Specific, Incomplete, and Stubborn Metaphysical Presumptions. Philosophical Psychology 13 (3):277 – 297.
    Cognitive developmental evidence is sometimes conscripted to support ''naturalized epistemology'' arguments to the effect that a general epistemic stance leads children to build theory-like accounts of underlying properties of kinds. A review of the evidence suggests that what prompts conceptual acquisition is not a general epistemic stance but a series of category-specific intuitive principles that constitute an evolved ''natural metaphysics''. This consists in a system of categories and category-specific inferential processes founded on definite biases in prototype formation. Evidence for this (...)
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  29. Harold I. Brown (1988). Normative Epistemology and Naturalized Epistemology. Inquiry 31 (1):53 – 78.
    A number of philosophers have argued that a naturalized epistemology cannot be normative, and thus that the norms that govern science cannot themselves be established empirically. Three arguments for this conclusion are here developed and then responded to on behalf of naturalized epistemology. The response is developed in three stages. First, if we view human knowers as part of the natural world, then the attempt to establish epistemic norms that are immune to scientific evaluation faces difficulties that are at least (...)
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  30. Andrei A. Buckareff (2008). Strategic Reliabilism and the Replacement Thesis in Epistemology. Dialogue 47 (3-4):425-.
    In their recent book, Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment, Michael Bishop and J.D. Trout have challenged Standard Analytic Epistemology (SAE) in all its guises and have endorsed a version of the "replacement thesis"--proponents of which aim at replacing the standard questions of SAE with psychological questions. In this article I argue that Bishop and Trout offer an incomplete epistemology that, as formulated, cannot address many of the core issues that motivate interest in epistemological questions to begin with, and (...)
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  31. Panayot Butchvarov (2008). Epistemology Dehumanized. In Quentin Smith (ed.), Epistemology: New Essays. Oxford University Press. 301.
    Fundamental disagreements in epistemology arise from legitimate differences of interest, not genuine conflict. It is because of such differences that there are three varieties of epistemology: naturalistic, subjective, and what I shall call epistemology-as-logic. All three have been with us at least since Socrates. My chief concern will be with the third, but I must begin with the first and second, which constitute standard epistemology.
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  32. Gregg Caruso (2007). Realism, Naturalism, and Pragmatism: A Closer Look at the Views of Quine and Devitt. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 21:64-83.
    Michael Devitt’s views on realism and naturalism have a lot in common with those of W.V. Quine. Both appear to be realists; both accept naturalized epistemology and abandon the old goal of first philosophy; both view philosophy as continuous with the empirical procedures of science and hence view metaphysics as similarly empirical; and both seem to view realism as following from naturalism. Although Quine and Devitt share quite a bit ideologically, I think there is a deeper, more fundamental dissimilarity between (...)
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  33. Quassim Cassam (2003). Can Transcendental Epistemology Be Naturalized? Philosophy 78 (2):181-203.
    Transcendental epistemology is an inquiry into conditions of human knowledge which reflect the structure of the human cognitive apparatus. The dependence thesis is the thesis that a proper investigation of such conditions must lean in important respects on the deliverances of science. I argue that Kant is right to object to the dependence thesis, but that the best objections to this thesis lead to the conclusion that the conditions of knowledge which Kant identifies are not, in any interesting sense, a (...)
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  34. Ron Chrisley & Andy Holland, Connectionist Synthetic Epistemology: Requirements for the Development of Objectivity.
    A connectionist system that is capable of learning about the spatial structure of a simple world is used for the purposes of synthetic epistemology: the creation and analysis of artificial systems in order to clarify philosophical issues that arise in the explanation of how agents, both natural and artificial, represent the world. In this case, the issues to be clarified focus on the content of representational states that exist prior to a fully objective understanding of a spatial domain. In particular, (...)
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  35. Wayne D. Christensen & Clifford A. Hooker (1999). The Organization of Knowledge: Beyond Campbell's Evolutionary Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):249.
    Donald Campbell has long advocated a naturalist epistemology based on a general selection theory, with the scope of knowledge restricted to vicarious adaptive processes. But being a vicariant is problematic because it involves an unexplained epistemic relation. We argue that this relation is to be explicated organizationally in terms of the regulation of behavior and internal state by the vicariant, but that Campbell's selectionist approach can give no satisfactory account of it because it is opaque to organization. We show how (...)
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  36. Patricia S. Churchland (1987). Epistemology in the Age of Neuroscience. Journal of Philosophy 84 (October):546-53.
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  37. Paul M. Churchland (2002). Outer Space and Inner Space: The New Epistemology. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 76 (2):25-48.
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  38. Murray Clarke (1988). Book Review:Naturalizing Epistemology Hilary Kornblith. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 55 (1):152-.
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  39. Lorraine Code (2006). Ecological Thinking: The Politics of Epistemic Location. OUP USA.
    How could ecological thinking animate an epistemology capable of addressing feminist, multicultural, and other post-colonial concerns? Starting from an epistemological approach implicit in Rachel Carson's scientific practice, Lorraine Code elaborates the creative, restructuring resources of ecology for a theory of knowledge. She critiques the instrumental rationality, abstract individualism, and exploitation of people and places that western epistemologies of mastery have legitimated, to propose a politics of epistemic location, sensitive to the interplay of particularity and diversity, and focused on responsible epistemic (...)
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  40. Lorraine Code (1996). What Is Natural About Epistemology Naturalized? American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (1):1 - 22.
    I evaluate post-Quinean naturalized epistemology as a resource for postcolonial and feminist epistemology. I argue that naturalistic inquiry into material conditions and institutions of knowledge production has most to offer epistemologists committed to maintaining continuity with the knowledge production of specifically located knowers. Yet naturalistic denigrations of folk epistemic practices and stereotyped, hence often oppressive, readings of human nature challenge the naturalness of the nature they claim to study. I outline an ecologically modelled epistemology that focuses on questions of epistemic (...)
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  41. Timothy R. Colburn (1995). Heuristics, Justification, and Defeasible Reasoning. Minds and Machines 5 (4):467-487.
    Heuristics can be regarded as justifying the actions and beliefs of problem-solving agents. I use an analysis of heuristics to argue that a symbiotic relationship exists between traditional epistemology and contemporary artificial intelligence. On one hand, the study of models of problem-solving agents usingquantitative heuristics, for example computer programs, can reveal insight into the understanding of human patterns of epistemic justification by evaluating these models'' performance against human problem-solving. On the other hand,qualitative heuristics embody the justifying ability of defeasible rules, (...)
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  42. Jules L. Coleman (2001). Naturalized Jurisprudence and Naturalized Epistemology. Philosophical Topics 29 (1/2):113-126.
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  43. Mark Colyvan (2006). Naturalism and the Paradox of Revisability. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):1–11.
    This paper examines the paradox of revisability. This paradox was proposed by Jerrold Katz as a problem for Quinean naturalised epistemology. Katz employs diagonalisation to demonstrate what he takes to be an inconsistency in the constitutive principles of Quine's epistemology. Specifically, the problem seems to rest with the principle of universal revisability which states that no statement is immune to revision. In this paper it is argued that although there is something odd about employing universal revisability to revise itself, there (...)
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  44. Earl Conee (2008). Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):837-840.
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  45. Earl Conee (2008). Critical Notices: Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):837-840.
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  46. Hangqing Cong & Xiaodong Cheng (2006). Pragmatic Commitments to Naturalized Epistemology. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):477-490.
    This essay explores numerous and complicated naturalized epistemology against the background of pragmatism. We distinguish three programmes of naturalized epistemology: strong, moderate, and weak. By considering commitments of pragmatism on which different programmes depend, we point out the close-knit relationship between pragmatism and naturalized epistemology. We also illustrate the essential origin of today's controversy over naturalized epistemology and predict the uptrend of naturalized epistemology.
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  47. William Lane Craig & James Porter Moreland (eds.) (2000/2002). Naturalism: A Critical Analysis. Routledge.
    Craig and Moreland present a rigorous analysis and critique of the major varieties of contemporary philosophical naturalism and advocate that it should be abandoned in light of the serious difficulties raised against it. The contributors draw on a wide range of topics including: epistemology, philosophy of science, value theory to basic analytic ontology, philosophy of mind and agency, and natural theology.
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  48. M. J. Cresswell (1978). Can Epistemology Be Naturalized? Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):109-118.
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  49. Fred D'Agostino (2010). Naturalizing Epistemology: Thomas Kuhn and the 'Essential Tension'. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  50. Donald Davidson (1982). Empirical Content. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:471-489.
    The dispute between Schlick and Neurath over het foundations of empirical knowledge illustrates the difficulties m trymg to draw epistemological conclusions from a verificationist theory of meaning. It also shows how assummg the general correctness of science does not automatically avoid, or provide an easy answer to, skepticism. But while neither Schlick nor Neurath arrived at a satisfactory account of empüical knowledge, there are promising hmts of a better theory m their writmgs. Following up these hints, and drawing on further (...)
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