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  1. Russell L. Ackoff (1949). Book Review:The Scientific Attitude C. H. Waddington. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 16 (3):266-.
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  2. Garland E. Allen (1996). Science As Moral Economy. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):129 - 134.
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  3. Robert F. Almeder (1973). Science and Idealism. Philosophy of Science 40 (2):242-254.
    In this essay it is argued that (1) if the process of scientific inquiry were to continue foreever, then science would ultimately terminate in the acceptance of a single theoretical framework better than all conceivable others, and (2) there is some evidence in favor of the view that science will continue unto eternity but no evidence in favor of the contrary view. In arguing for claim (1) it is claimed that if we are to understand the sense in which science (...)
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  4. Roger Ariew (2008). Pierre Duhem. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  5. Karen Arnold, Evaluating Science on Epistemic and Moral Grounds (Formerly, Putting Anthropomorphism in Context).
    In recent years several philosophers of biology have proposed a pluralistic approach to science. In The Disorder of Things, John Dupré argues for a version of pluralism. Pluralists of all breeds must deal with a familiar class of worries that are routinely expressed at the suggestion of any move away from monism. One such worry is that pluralism is a relativistic position in which "anything goes" in science. In this paper I examine Dupré's proposals for saving his pluralism from the (...)
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  6. Gaston Bachelard (1984). The New Scientific Spirit.
  7. D. J. Balestra (1979). Non-Falsifiability: An Inductivist Perspective. International Logic Review 19:118.
  8. Sorin Bangu (2012). The Applicability of Mathematics in Science: Indispensability and Ontology. Palgrave Macmillan.
  9. Frederic L. Bender (1984). Heidegger's Hermeneutical Grounding of Science. Philosophy Research Archives 10:203-238.
    It is argued that, despite the neglect which Heidegger’s writings on science have generally received, the “fundamental ontology” of Being and Time reveals certain structures of experience crucial for our understanding of science; and that, as these insights cast considerable doubt upon the validity of the empiricist/positivist conception of science, Heidegger deserves considerably better treatment as an incipient philosopher of science than has been the case thus far. His arguments for the distortive effects of the alleged “change over” from praxis (...)
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  10. Russell Berg (2009). Evaluating Scientific Theories. Philosophy Now 74:14-17.
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  11. George A. Blair (1960). Science, Sufficient Ground, and the Possibility of Metaphysics. Dialectica 14 (1):53-79.
  12. Michel Blay (2007). Comte Et Duhem Ou la Construction d'Une Optique Positive. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 197 (4):493-504.
    Après avoir présenté les débats sur la nature de la lumière et corrélativement les critiques de Comte, on s'attache à dégager les principaux éléments dessinant le cadre épistémologique d'une science positive de la lumière. On présente ensuite les enjeux du travail développé par Duhem dans ses Fragments d'un cours d' optique. After having presented the debates on the nature of light and, correlatively Comte's criticisms, the author stresses the main elements delineating the epistemological framework of a positive science of light. (...)
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  13. Pierre Boutroux (1907). Review: « La Théorie Physique » de M. Duhem: Et Les Mathématiques. [REVIEW] Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 15 (3):363 - 376.
  14. Ingo Brigandt (2013). Intelligent Design and the Nature of Science: Philosophical and Pedagogical Points. In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer 205-238.
    This chapter offers a critique of intelligent design arguments against evolution and a philosophical discussion of the nature of science, drawing several lessons for the teaching of evolution and for science education in general. I discuss why Behe’s irreducible complexity argument fails, and why his portrayal of organismal systems as machines is detrimental to biology education and any under-standing of how organismal evolution is possible. The idea that the evolution of complex organismal features is too unlikely to have occurred by (...)
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  15. Harold I. Brown (1975). Problem Changes in Science and Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 6 (2):177–192.
  16. G. L. C. (1963). Intuition and Science. Review of Metaphysics 17 (1):143-143.
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  17. Charles Evan Cardwell (1972). Representation and Uncertainty: An Essay on Pierre Duhem's Philosophy of Science. Dissertation, The University of Rochester
  18. C. Carey & R. N. Giere (1992). Cognitive Models of Science. In R. Giere & H. Feigl (eds.), Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press
  19. Ernst Cassirer (1923). Substance and Function. Dover Publications.
    In this double-volume work, a great modern philosopher propounds a system of thought in which Einstein's theory of relativity represents only the latest (albeit the most radical) fulfillment of the motives inherent to mathematics and the physical sciences. In the course of its exposition, it touches upon such topics as the concept of number, space and time, geometry, and energy; Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry; traditional logic and scientific method; mechanism and motion; Mayer's methodology of natural science; Richter's definite proportions; relational (...)
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  20. Jordi Cat (2012). Essay Review: Scientific Pluralism. Philosophy of Science 79 (2):317-325.
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  21. Alan Chalmers (2011). Understanding Science Through its History: A Response to Newman. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):150-153.
    The paper is a response to William Newman’s rebuttal of a critique of his account of the origins of modern chemistry by Alan Chalmers. A way in which the nature of science can be illuminated by history of science is identified and an account of how this can be achieved in the context of a study of the work of Boyle defended in the face of Newman’s criticism. Texts from the writings of Boyle that are cited by Newman as posing (...)
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  22. Mac Cormac & R. Earl (1986). Myths of Science and Technology. Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy, University of Madras.
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  23. Gustaaf C. Cornelis, Sonja Smets & Jean Paul van Bendegem (eds.) (1999). Metadebates on Science: The Blue Book of 'Einstein Meets Magritte'. Kluwer Academic.
    How do scientists approach science? Scientists, sociologists and philosophers were asked to write on this intriguing problem and to display their results at the International Congress `Einstein Meets Magritte'. The outcome of their effort can be found in this rather unique book, presenting all kinds of different views on science. Quantum mechanics is a discipline which deserves and receives special attention in this book, mainly because it is fascinating and, hence, appeals to the general public. This book not only contains (...)
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  24. F. Crispino, O. Ribaux, M. Houck & P. Margot, Forensic Science - A True Science ?
    While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom ? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and philosophical study will screen the relevance of the different logical epistemologies to recognize the scientific status of forensic science. As a (...)
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  25. Alan H. Cromer (1993). Uncommon Sense: The Heretical Nature of Science. Oxford University Press.
    Most people believe that science arose as a natural end-product of our innate intelligence and curiosity, as an inevitable stage in human intellectual development. But physicist and educator Alan Cromer disputes this belief. Cromer argues that science is not the natural unfolding of human potential, but the invention of a particular culture, Greece, in a particular historical period. Indeed, far from being natural, scientific thinking goes so far against the grain of conventional human thought that if it hadn't been discovered (...)
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  26. R. D. (1957). The Validation of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (4):718-718.
  27. Christian Damböck (2012). Theory Structuralism in a Rigid Framework. Synthese 187 (2):693-713.
    This paper develops the first parts of a logical framework for the empirical sciences, by means of a redefinition of theory structuralism as originally developed by Joseph Sneed, Wolfgang Stegmüller, and others, in the context of a ‘rigid’ logic as based on a fixed (therefore rigid) ontology. The paper defends a formal conception of the empirical sciences that has an irreducible ontological basis and is unable, in general, to provide purely structural characterizations of the domain of a theory. The extreme (...)
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  28. J. T. Davies (1965). The Scientific Approach. New York,Academic Press.
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  29. Todd Newman Davis (2001). Science and the Constitutive a Priori: Ian Hacking's Philosophy of Scientific Practice in the History of Philosophy of Science. Dissertation, Duke University
    In this dissertation, I consider the relations between the broadly Kantian idea of the constitutive a priori, understood as the conditions of the possibility for scientific judgement, and the appeal to actual scientific practice in recent history and philosophy of science. Philosophies of scientific practice, particularly Ian Hacking's, are critical of philosophy of science as the analysis of scientific theories. Using a reading of Hacking's philosophical interpretation of scientific practice to motivate the construction of a conceptual genealogy of the epistemological (...)
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  30. Wayne A. Davis (1983). The Science of Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 36 (4):929-930.
  31. Jude P. Dougherty (2004). The Science Before Science. Review of Metaphysics 58 (1):190-190.
  32. R. I. M. Dunbar (1996). The Trouble with Science. Harvard University Press.
    Science is not a great way to make money, or these days, even a job. But there are great riches in it, and in this book too. Tim Bradford, 'New Scientist'.
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  33. John Dupré (1993). The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science. Harvard University Press.
  34. John Dupré (1990). Scientific Pluralism and the Plurality of the Sciences: Comments on David Hull's Science as a Process. Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):61 - 76.
  35. Noah J. Efron & Menachem Fisch (1991). Science Naturalized, Science Denatured: An Evaluation of Ronald Giere's Cognitivist Approach to Explaining Science. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 13 (2):187 - 221.
    Ronald Giere and others aspire to 'naturalize science' by examining scientific activity as they would any other natural phenomenon — scientifically. Giere aims to fashion a theory of science that is naturalistic, realistic, and evolutionary, and to thus carve for himself a niche between foundationalist philosophies of science (positing abstract criteria of rationality) on the one hand, and relativist sociologies of science on the other. Giere's approach is appealing because it allows that science is a human endeavor pursued by humans (...)
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  36. Mark Erickson (2005). Science, Culture and Society: Understanding Science in the Twenty-First Century. Polity.
    The book addresses key questions of what science is and how it is carried out, what the relationship between science and society is, how science is represented ...
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  37. Robert L. Frazier (1996). Roger Trigg's Rationality And Science. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 37 (4):282-284.
  38. Christian Fuchs, Science as a Self-Organizing Meta-Information System.
    Four basic problems that a theory of science has to deal with concern epistemology, structure, causality, and dynamics of science. These problems deal with the relationship of induction/deduction, actors/structures, internal/external factors, and continuity/discontinuity. Traditionally they have been solved one-sidedly. Considering science as a self-organizing system allows a more integrative approach. Science is a complex, nonlinear system that is made up of two moments: scientific actors and scientific structures. Scientific self-organization operates synchronously and diachronically. Synchronous scientific self-organization is a mutual production (...)
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  39. Stephen Gaukroger (2002). The Historical Aims of Science. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (2):277 – 288.
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  40. R. Giere & H. Feigl (eds.) (1992). Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press.
    Cognitive Models of Science resulted from a workshop on the implications of the cognitive sciences for the philosophy of science held in October 1989 under the ...
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  41. Ian Glynn (2010). Elegance in Science: The Beauty of Simplicity. Oxford University Press.
    The meaning of elegance -- Celestial mechanics : the route to Newton -- Bringing the heavens down to earth -- So what is heat? -- Elegance and electricity -- Throwing light on light : with the story of Thomas Young -- How do nerves work? -- Information handling in the brain -- The genetic code -- Epilogue : a cautionary tale.
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  42. Wenceslao J. González (2005). The Philosophical Approach to Science, Technology and Society. In Science, Technology and Society: A Philosophical Perspective. Netbiblo 3--49.
  43. Mario Günther, A Defence of Falsificationism Against Feyerabend's Epistemological Anarchism Using the Example of Galilei's Observations with the Telescope.
    I confront Feyerabend's position and critical rationalism in order to have a foundation or starting point for my (historical) investigation. The main difference of his position towards falsificationism is the belief that different theories cannot be discussed rationally. Feyerabend is convinced that Galilei's observations with the telescope in the historical context of the Copernican revolution supports his criticism. In particular, he argues that the Copernican theory was supported by deficient hypotheses, and falsifications were disposed by ad hoc hypotheses and propaganda. (...)
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  44. Ian Hacking (2000). How Inevitable Are the Results of Successful Science? Philosophy of Science 67 (3):71.
    Obviously we could have failed to be successful scientists. But a serious question lurks beneath the banal one stated in my title. If the results of a scientific investigation are correct, would any investigation of roughly the same subject matter, if successful, at least implicitly contain or imply the same results? Using examples ranging from immunology to high-energy physics, the paper presents the cases for both positive and negative answers. The paper is deliberately non-conclusive, arguing that the question is one (...)
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  45. Colin Hales (2009). Dual Aspect Science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (2-3):30-73..
    Our chronically impoverished explanatory capacity in respect of P-consciousness is highly suggestive of a problem with science itself, rather than its lack of acquisition of some particular knowledge. The hidden assumption built into science is that science itself is a completed human behaviour. Removal of this assumption is achieved through a simple revision to our science model which is constructed, outlined and named ‘dual aspect science’ (DAS). It is constructed with reference to existing science being ‘single aspect science’. DAS is (...)
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  46. George Bruce Halsted (1910). The Unverifiable Hypotheses of Science. The Monist 20 (4):563-573.
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  47. Marsha P. Hanen, Margaret J. Osler & Robert G. Weyant (eds.) (1980). Science, Pseudo-Science, and Society. Published for the Calgary Institute for the Humanities by Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
    INTRODUCTORY REMARKS It is my lot, if not my duty, in presenting these opening remarks at our conference, to take the title of our meeting seriously. ...
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  48. Joseph F. Hanna (2004). The Scope and Limits of Scientific Objectivity. Philosophy of Science 71 (3):339-361.
    The aim of this paper is twofold: first to sketch a framework for classifying a wide range of conceptions of scientific objectivity and second to present and defend a conception of scientific objectivity that fills a neglected niche in the resulting hierarchy of viewpoints. Roughly speaking, the proposed ideal of scientific objectivity is effectiveness in the informal but technical sense of an effective method. Science progresses when "higher levels of communicative discourse" are reached by transforming subjective judgments regarding the generation (...)
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  49. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1999). Scientific Papers Have Various Structures. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):415-439.
    Fred Suppe claims that the refereed journal article is an appropriate unit of scientific debate for philosophical analysis. He also claims that when we regiment scientific papers correctly, we can see that the hypothetico-deductive method, Baysian induction, and inference to the best explanation fail to capture the structure of scientific articles adequately. In what follows I demonstrate that the coding scheme Suppe used for uncovering the structure of a scientific paper is not appropriate under all circumstances, illustrate alternative structures found (...)
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  50. Ernst Harms (1939). The Problem of a Fundamental Science. Philosophical Review 48 (1):46-56.
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