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  1. Garland E. Allen (1996). Science As Moral Economy. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):129 - 134.
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  2. Karen Arnold, Evaluating Science on Epistemic and Moral Grounds (Formerly, Putting Anthropomorphism in Context).
    In recent years several philosophers of biology have proposed a pluralistic approach to science. In The Disorder of Things, John Dupré argues for a version of pluralism. Pluralists of all breeds must deal with a familiar class of worries that are routinely expressed at the suggestion of any move away from monism. One such worry is that pluralism is a relativistic position in which "anything goes" in science. In this paper I examine Dupré's proposals for saving his pluralism from the (...)
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  3. Frederic L. Bender (1984). Heidegger's Hermeneutical Grounding of Science. Philosophy Research Archives 10:203-238.
    It is argued that, despite the neglect which Heidegger’s writings on science have generally received, the “fundamental ontology” of Being and Time reveals certain structures of experience crucial for our understanding of science; and that, as these insights cast considerable doubt upon the validity of the empiricist/positivist conception of science, Heidegger deserves considerably better treatment as an incipient philosopher of science than has been the case thus far. His arguments for the distortive effects of the alleged “change over” from praxis (...)
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  4. Ingo Brigandt (2013). Intelligent Design and the Nature of Science: Philosophical and Pedagogical Points. In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    This chapter offers a critique of intelligent design arguments against evolution and a philosophical discussion of the nature of science, drawing several lessons for the teaching of evolution and for science education in general. I discuss why Behe’s irreducible complexity argument fails, and why his portrayal of organismal systems as machines is detrimental to biology education and any under-standing of how organismal evolution is possible. The idea that the evolution of complex organismal features is too unlikely to have occurred by (...)
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  5. Mac Cormac & R. Earl (1986). Myths of Science and Technology. Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy, University of Madras.
  6. Gustaaf C. Cornelis, Sonja Smets & Jean Paul van Bendegem (eds.) (1999). Metadebates on Science: The Blue Book of 'Einstein Meets Magritte'. Kluwer Academic.
    How do scientists approach science? Scientists, sociologists and philosophers were asked to write on this intriguing problem and to display their results at the International Congress `Einstein Meets Magritte'. The outcome of their effort can be found in this rather unique book, presenting all kinds of different views on science. Quantum mechanics is a discipline which deserves and receives special attention in this book, mainly because it is fascinating and, hence, appeals to the general public. This book not only contains (...)
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  7. Alan H. Cromer (1993). Uncommon Sense: The Heretical Nature of Science. Oxford University Press.
    Most people believe that science arose as a natural end-product of our innate intelligence and curiosity, as an inevitable stage in human intellectual development. But physicist and educator Alan Cromer disputes this belief. Cromer argues that science is not the natural unfolding of human potential, but the invention of a particular culture, Greece, in a particular historical period. Indeed, far from being natural, scientific thinking goes so far against the grain of conventional human thought that if it hadn't been discovered (...)
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  8. J. T. Davies (1965/1973). The Scientific Approach. New York,Academic Press.
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  9. John Dupré (1993). The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science. Harvard University Press.
  10. Noah J. Efron & Menachem Fisch (1991). Science Naturalized, Science Denatured: An Evaluation of Ronald Giere's Cognitivist Approach to Explaining Science. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 13 (2):187 - 221.
    Ronald Giere and others aspire to 'naturalize science' by examining scientific activity as they would any other natural phenomenon — scientifically. Giere aims to fashion a theory of science that is naturalistic, realistic, and evolutionary, and to thus carve for himself a niche between foundationalist philosophies of science (positing abstract criteria of rationality) on the one hand, and relativist sociologies of science on the other. Giere's approach is appealing because it allows that science is a human endeavor pursued by humans (...)
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  11. Mario Günther, A Defence of Falsificationism Against Feyerabend's Epistemological Anarchism Using the Example of Galilei's Observations with the Telescope.
    I confront Feyerabend's position and critical rationalism in order to have a foundation or starting point for my (historical) investigation. The main difference of his position towards falsificationism is the belief that different theories cannot be discussed rationally. Feyerabend is convinced that Galilei's observations with the telescope in the historical context of the Copernican revolution supports his criticism. In particular, he argues that the Copernican theory was supported by deficient hypotheses, and falsifications were disposed by ad hoc hypotheses and propaganda. (...)
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  12. Marsha P. Hanen, Margaret J. Osler & Robert G. Weyant (eds.) (1980). Science, Pseudo-Science, and Society. Published for the Calgary Institute for the Humanities by Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
    INTRODUCTORY REMARKS It is my lot, if not my duty, in presenting these opening remarks at our conference, to take the title of our meeting seriously. ...
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  13. Hugh Lacey (2010). On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science. Principia 11 (1):45-62.
    I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.
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  14. Thomas C. Leonard (2002). Reflection on Rules in Science: An Invisible-Hand Perspective. Journal of Economic Methodology 9 (2):141-168.
    Can successful science accommodate a realistic view of scientific motivation? The Received View in theory of science has a theory of scientific success but no theory of scientific motivation. Critical Science Studies has a theory of scientific motivation but denies any prospect for (epistemologically meaningful) scientific success. Neither can answer the question because both regard the question as immaterial. Arguing from the premise that an adequate theory of science needs both a theory of scientific motivation, and a theory of scientific (...)
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  15. Ralph Levinson & Jeff Thomas (eds.) (1997). Science Today: Problem or Crisis? Routledge.
    What is science? What is the purpose of science education? Should we be training scientists, or looking towards a greater public understanding of science? In this exciting text, some of the key figures in the fields of science and science education address this debate. Their contributions form an original dialogue on science education and the general public awareness of science, tackling both formal and informal aspects of science learning. the editors argue that a greater knowledge of science can lead to (...)
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  16. Arkadiy Lipkin (2007). The “Object Theoretic Operational” View of Natural Science. SATS 8 (1):5-26.
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  17. Nicholas Maxwell (2001). Weinert's Review of ‘the Comprehensibility of the Universe’. Philosophy 76 (2):297-303.
    In my book The Comprehensibility of the Universe (OUP, 1998), I argue for a new conception of science that construes science as adopting a hierarchy of increasingly contentless cosmological assumptions about the comprehensibility and knowability of the universe. This view, I argue, solves outstanding problems about science, such as problems of induction, simplicity and verisimilitude. In his essay review of my book (Philosophy 75, 2000, 296–309) Friedel Weinert criticizes me for defending a number of views about science. But, as I (...)
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  18. Nicholas Maxwell (1998). The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science. Oxford University Press.
    This book puts forth a radically new conception of science. Maxwell argues that the prevailing view of the relation between scientific theory and evidence is untenable; he calls for a new orthodoxy that sees science as making a hierarchy of assumptions about the comprehensibility of the universe. This new conception has significant implications for both philosophy and science, promises to heal the rift between the two, and will be essential reading for people working in both fields.
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  19. Mary Midgley (1992). Science as Salvation: A Modern Myth and its Meaning. Routledge.
    Science as Salvation discusses the high spiritual ambitions which tend to gather round the notion of science. Officially, science claims only the modest function of establishing facts. Yet people still hope for something much grander from it--namely, the myths by which to shape and support life in an increasingly confusing age. Our faith in science is abused by some scientists whose adolescent fantasies have spilled over into their professional lives. Salvation, immortality, mastery of the universe, humans without bodies, and intelligent (...)
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  20. David Miller (2007). The Objectives of Science. Philosophia Scientiæ 11 (1):21-43.
    Contestant l’opinion commune selon laquelle le problème de la démarcation, contrairement au problème de l’induction, est relativement anecdotique, l’article soutient que le critère poppérien de falsifiabilité donne une réponse irrésistible à la question de savoir ce qui peut être appris d’une investigation empirique. Tout découle du rejet de la logique inductive, joint à la reconnaissance du fait que, avant d’être investiguée, une hypothèse doit être formulée et acceptée. Les hypothèses scientifiques n’émergent ni a posteriori comme les inductivistes le soutiennent, ni (...)
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  21. Hans J. Morgenthau (1972). Science: Servant or Master? New York,New American Library; Distributed by Norton.
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  22. Arne Næss (1972). The Pluralist and Possibilist Aspect of the Scientific Enterprise. Oslo,Universitetsforlaget.
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  23. Richard Olson (1971). Science as Metaphor. Belmont, Calif.,Wadsworth Pub. Co..
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  24. Andrew Pickering (ed.) (1992). Science as Practice and Culture. University of Chicago Press.
    Science as Practice and Culture explores one of the newest and most controversial developments within the rapidly changing field of science studies: the move toward studying scientific practice--the work of doing science--and the associated move toward studying scientific culture, understood as the field of resources that practice operates in and on. Andrew Pickering has invited leading historians, philosophers, sociologists, and anthropologists of science to prepare original essays for this volume. The essays range over the physical and biological sciences and mathematics, (...)
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  25. Andrew Pickering & Keith Guzik (eds.) (2008). The Mangle in Practice: Science, Society, and Becoming. Duke University Press.
    An examination, by a diverse field of experts, of Pickering's mangle theory and its applicability (or lack thereof) beyond the limited cases he presented in the ...
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  26. Karl R. Popper (1993/1988). Realism and the Aim of Science. Routledge.
    Popper formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge. Science--empirical science--aims at true explanatory theories, yet it can never prove, finally establish, or justify any of its theories as true, not even if it is in fact a true theory. Science must continue to question and criticize all its theories, even those which happen to be true.
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  27. Chet Raymo (1991). The Virgin and the Mousetrap: Essays in Search of the Soul of Science. Viking.
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  28. Geert Reuten (1997). What About Falsifiability? Further Notes on Hausman's Revision of the Neoclassical Economic Methodology. Journal of Economic Methodology 4 (2):297-302.
    Even if falsificationism in the strict Popper-Lakatos sense may be too harsh for economics, falsifiability and refutability are eminent criteria for theory appraisal. Hausman's (1997) revision of his (1992) methodology of economics does not come sufficiently close to meeting such a methodological requirement and risks allowing the prioritising of irrefutable theories over empirical phenomena. It therefore needs further advancement.
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  29. Sheldon Richmond (2013). Vasso Kindi and Arabatzis, Eds. , Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited . Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 33 (3):203–207.
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  30. Wesley C. Salmon (2005). Reality and Rationality. Oxford University Press.
    This volume of articles (most published, some new) is a follow-up to the late Wesley C. Salmon's widely read collection Causality And Explanation (OUP 1998). It contains both published and unpublished articles, and focuses on two related areas of inquiry: First, is science a rational enterprise? Secondly, does science yield objective information about our world, even the aspects that we cannot observe directly? Salmon's own take is that objective knowledge of the world is possible, and his work in these articles (...)
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  31. Michael J. Shaffer (2007). Bealer on the Autonomy of Philosophical and Scientific Knowledge. Metaphilosophy 38 (1):44–54.
    In a series of influential articles, George Bealer argues for the autonomy of philosophical knowledge on the basis that philosophically known truths must be necessary truths. The main point of his argument is that the truths investigated by the sciences are contingent truths to be discovered a posteriori by observation, while the truths of philosophy are necessary truths to be discovered a priori by intuition. The project of assimilating philosophy to the sciences is supposed to be rendered illegitimate by the (...)
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  32. D. C. Stove (1982). Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists. Pergamon Press.
  33. David Tribe (2013). More on Science. Australian Humanist, The 109 (109):17.
    Tribe, David I was disappointed, but not surprised, by criticisms of my 'On science, good, bad and ugly' (AH, Summer 2012), which may also have prompted the appearance in the same issue of other articles confirming points in mine. While I don't agree with many details, Massimo Pigliucci's 'Science needs philosophy' directs timely attention to 'an over-enthusiastic embrace of science' and a scientism which 'leads to nihilism'.
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  34. R. Stephen White (1999). Why Science? Kroshka.
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  35. Richard Whitley (2000). The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. Oxford University Press.
    Increasing attention is paid in the social sciences and management studies to the constitution and claims of different theories, perspectives, and "paradigms." This book is one of the most respected and robust analyses of these issues. For this new paperback edition Richard Whitley--a leading figure in European business education--has written a new introduction which addresses the particular epistemological issues of business management studies.
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  36. Richard Whitley (ed.) (1974). Social Processes of Scientific Development. Routlege & K. Paul.
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  37. Torsten Wilholt (2006). Design Rules: Industrial Research and Epistemic Merit. Philosophy of Science 73 (1):66-89.
    A common complaint against the increasing privatization of research is that research that is conducted with the immediate purpose of producing applicable knowledge will not yield knowledge as valuable as that generated in more curiosity‐driven, academic settings. In this paper, I make this concern precise and reconstruct the rationale behind it. Subsequently, I examine the case of industry research on the giant magnetoresistance effect in the 1990s as a characteristic example of research undertaken under considerable pressure to produce applicable results. (...)
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  38. Richard Dien Winfield (2013). The Logic of Nature. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 27 (2):172-187.
    The philosophy of nature has become virtually an oxymoron for the prevailing philosophical consensus. Reason, we are told, is powerless to conceive what nature is in itself but must instead hand over all understanding of physical reality to empirical science. Philosophy may reflect upon how natural science models its data, scrutinizing the consistency of scientific theories and the way research projects are framed, but reason must never go beyond its frail limits to provide a priori ampliative, synthetic knowledge of what (...)
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  39. L. Wolpert (1992/1993). The Unnatural Nature of Science. Harvard University Press.
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  40. Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla (1999). The Elementary Economics of Scientific Consensus. Theoria 14 (3):461-488.
    The scientist’s decision of accepting a given proposition is assumed to be dependent on two factors: the scientist’s ‘private’ information about the value of that statement and the proportion of colleagues who also accept it. This interdependence is modelled in an economic fashion, and it is shown that it may lead to multiple equilibria. The main conclusions are that the evolution of scientific knowledge can be path-dependent, that scientific revolutions can be due to very small changes in the empirical evidence, (...)
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  41. J. M. Ziman (2000). Real Science: What It is, and What It Means. Cambridge University Press.
    Scientists and 'anti-scientists' alike need a more realistic image of science. The traditional mode of research, academic science, is not just a 'method': it is a distinctive culture, whose members win esteem and employment by making public their findings. Fierce competition for credibility is strictly regulated by established practices such as peer review. Highly specialized international communities of independent experts form spontaneously and generate the type of knowledge we call 'scientific' - systematic, theoretical, empirically-tested, quantitative, and so on. Ziman shows (...)
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Nature of Science, Misc
  1. Theodore J. Everett (2001). The Rationality of Science and the Rationality of Faith. Journal of Philosophy 98 (1):19-42.
    Why is science so rare and faith so common in human history? Traditional cultures persist because it is subjectively rational for each maturing child to defer to the unanimous beliefs of his elders, regardless of any personal doubts. Science is possible only when individuals promote new theories (which will probably be proven false) and forgo the epistemic advantages of accepting established views (which are more likely to be true). Hence, progressive science progress must rely upon the epistemic altruism of experimental (...)
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  2. James Franklin (2009). What Science Knows: And How It Knows It. Encounter Books.
    In What Science Knows, the Australian philosopher and mathematician James Franklin explains in captivating and straightforward prose how science works its magic ...
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  3. Jeff Kochan (2012). Review of Dimitri Ginev, The Tenets of Cognitive Existentialism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews (2012.04.23).
    Review of: Dimitri Ginev (2011), The Tenets of Cognitive Existentialism (Athens: Ohio University Press).
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  4. Jeff Kochan (2011). Getting Real with Rouse and Heidegger. Perspectives on Science 19 (1):81-115.
    Joseph Rouse has drawn from Heidegger’s early philosophy to develop what he calls a “practical hermeneutics of science.” With this, he has not only become an important player in the recent trend towards practice-based conceptualisations of science, he has also emerged as the predominant expositor of Heidegger’s philosophy of science. Yet, there are serious shortcomings in both Rouse’s theory of science and his interpretation of Heidegger. In the first instance, Rouse’s practical hermeneutics appears confused on the topic of realism. In (...)
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  5. Jeff Kochan (2010). Latour's Heidegger. Social Studies of Science 40 (4):579-598.
    Bruno Latour has had a tremendous impact on the field of science studies. Yet, it is not always easy to say what he stands for. Indeed, Latour has often claimed that his work lacks any overall unity. In this essay, I suggest that at least one concept remains constant throughout Latour’s diverse studies of modern science and technology, namely, mediation. I try to make good this claim by focussing on Latour’s numerous attempts over the years to distance himself from, so (...)
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  6. Jeff Kochan (2006). Rescuing the Gorgias From Latour. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (4):395-422.
    Bruno Latour has been attempting to transform his sociological account of science into an ambitious theory of democracy. In a key early moment in this project, Latour alleges that Plato’s Gorgias introduces an impossibly ratio-nalistic and deeply anti-democratic philosophy which continues to this day to distort our understandings of science and democracy. Latour reckons that if he can successfully refute the Gorgias , then he will have opened up a space in which to authorize his own theory of democracy. I (...)
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  7. H. P. P. Lotter (1999). The Complexity of Science. Koers 64 (4):499-520.
    In this article I present an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems. As a result of the spectacular expansion in scientific disciplines, the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what counts as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can give an (...)
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  8. Nicholas Maxwell, What’s Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?
    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for (...)
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  9. Nicholas Maxwell (2014). Unification and Revolution: A Paradigm for Paradigms. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45 (1):133-149.
    Incommensurability was Kuhn’s worst mistake. If it is to be found anywhere in science, it would be in physics. But revolutions in theoretical physics all embody theoretical unification. Far from obliterating the idea that there is a persisting theoretical idea in physics, revolutions do just the opposite: they all actually exemplify the persisting idea of underlying unity. Furthermore, persistent acceptance of unifying theories in physics when empirically more successful disunified rivals can always be concocted means that physics makes a persistent (...)
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