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  1. Michael A. Arbib (ed.) (1995). Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. MIT Press.
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  2. F. Tito Arecchi (2003). Chaotic Neuron Dynamics, Synchronization, and Feature Binding: Quantum Aspects. Mind and Matter 1 (1):15-43.
    A central issue of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus localized at some input spreads over a large assembly of coupled neurons, building up a collective state univocally corresponding to the stimulus. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations of homoclinic chaotic systems and their synchronization, (...)
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  3. Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Emerging From an Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: Brain Plasticity has to Cross a Threshold Level. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (10):2721-2736.
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state) occurs after patients survive a severe brain injury. Patients suffering from UWS have lost awareness of themselves and of the external environment and do not retain any trace of their subjective experience. Current data demonstrate that neuronal functions subtending consciousness are not completely reset in UWS; however, they are reduced below the threshold required to experience consciousness. The critical factor that determines whether patients will recover consciousness is the distance of their (...)
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  4. J. Cornwell (ed.) (1998). Consciousness and Human Identity. Oxford University Press.
  5. Rodney M. J. Cotterill (ed.) (1989). Models of Brain Function. Cambridge University Press.
  6. Rodney M. J. Cotterill & C. Nielsen (1991). A Model for Cortical 40-Hertz Oscillations Invokes Inter-Area Interactions. Neuroreport 2:289-92.
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  7. Francis Crick & Christof Koch (1990). Toward a Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263-275.
  8. Antonio R. Damasio (1990). Synchronous Activation in Multiple Cortical Regions: A Mechanism for Recall. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:287-96.
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  9. Antonio R. Damasio (1989). The Brain Binds Entities and Events by Multiregional Activation From Convergence Zones. Neural Computation 1:123-32.
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  10. Antonio R. Damasio (1989). Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recognition and Recall. Cognition 3 (1-2):25-62.
  11. Sam M. Doesburg, Keiichi Kitajo & Lawrence M. Ward (2005). Increased Gamma-Band Synchrony Precedes Switching of Conscious Perceptual Objects in Binocular Rivalry. Neuroreport 16 (11):1139-1142.
  12. Reinhard Eckhorn, H. J. Reitbock, M. Arndt & P. Dicke (1989). A Neural Network for Feature Linking Via Synchronous Activity: Results From Cat Visual Cortex and From Simulations. In Rodney M. J. Cotterill (ed.), Models of Brain Function. Cambridge University Press
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  13. Andreas K. Engel (2003). Time and Conscious Visual Processing. In Hede Helfrich (ed.), Time and Mind II: Information Processing Perspectives. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers 141-159.
  14. Andreas K. Engel (2003). Temporal Binding and the Neural Correlates of Consciousness. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press
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  15. Andreas K. Engel, P. Fries, P. Kreiter Konig, M. Brecht & Wolf Singer (1999). Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):128-51.
    Cognitive functions like perception, memory, language, or consciousness are based on highly parallel and distributed information processing by the brain. One of the major unresolved questions is how information can be integrated and how coherent representational states can be established in the distributed neuronal systems subserving these functions. It has been suggested that this so-called ''binding problem'' may be solved in the temporal domain. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons into (...)
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  16. Andreas K. Engel, P. Fries, P. Kreiter Konig, M. Brecht & Wolf Singer (1999). Does Time Help to Understand Consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):260-68.
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  17. Andreas K. Engel, P. Kreiter Konig & Schillen A. K. (1992). Temporal Coding in the Visual Cortex: New Vistas on Integration in the Nervous System. Trends in Neurosciences 15:218-26.
  18. Andreas K. Engel, P. Kreiter Konig & Wolf Singer (1991). Direct Physiologic Evidence for Scene Segmentation by Temporal Coding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 88:1936-40.
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  19. Andreas K. Engel & Wolf Singer (2001). Temporal Binding and the Neural Correlates of Sensory Awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):16-25.
    Theories of binding have recently come into the focus of the consciousness debate. In this review, we discuss the potential relevance of temporal binding mechanisms for sensory awareness. Specifically, we suggest that neural synchrony with a precision in the millisecond range may be crucial for conscious processing, and may be involved in arousal, perceptual integration, attentional selection and working memory. Recent evidence from both animal and human studies demonstrates that specific changes in neuronal synchrony occur during all of these processes (...)
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  20. Tomer Fekete (2010). Representational Systems. Minds and Machines 20 (1):69-101.
    The concept of representation has been a key element in the scientific study of mental processes, ever since such studies commenced. However, usage of the term has been all but too liberal—if one were to adhere to common use it remains unclear if there are examples of physical systems which cannot be construed in terms of representation. The problem is considered afresh, taking as the starting point the notion of activity spaces—spaces of spatiotemporal events produced by dynamical systems. It is (...)
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  21. Alexander A. Fingelkurts & ANdrew A. Fingelkurts (2014). Altered Structure of Dynamic Electroencephalogram Oscillatory Pattern in Major Depression. Biological Psychiatry:in press.
    Research on electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) has accumulated diverse neurophysiologic findings related to the content, topography, neurochemistry, and functions of EEG oscillations. Significant progress has been made since the first landmark EEG study on affective disorders by Davidson 35 years ago. A systematic account of these data is important and necessary for building a consistent neuropsychophysiologic model of MDD and other affective disorders. Given the extensive data on frequency-dependent functional significance of EEG oscillations, a frequency (...)
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  22. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2014). Present Moment, Past, and Future: Mental Kaleidoscope. Frontiers Psychology 5:395.
    It is the every person's daily phenomenal experience that conscious states represent their contents as occurring now. Following Droege (2009) we could state that consciousness has a peculiar affinity for presence. Some researchers even argue that conscious awareness necessarily demands that mental content is somehow held “frozen” within a discrete progressive present moment. Thus, phenomenal content seems to be minimally conscious if it is integrated into a single and coherent model of reality during a “virtual window” of presence.
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  23. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2013). Dissipative Many-Body Model and a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain. Physics of Life Reviews 10:103-105.
    This paper briefly review a current trend in neuroscience aiming to combine neurophysiological and physical concepts in order to understand the emergence of spatio-temporal patterns within brain activity by which brain constructs knowledge from multiple streams of information. The authors further suggest that the meanings, which subjectively are experienced as thoughts or perceptions can best be described objectively as created and carried by large fields of neural activity within the operational architectonics of brain functioning.
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  24. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2012). Mind as a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain. Physics of Life Reviews 9 (1):49-50.
    The target paper of Dr. Feinberg is a testimony to an admirable scholarship and deep thoughtfulness. This paper develops a general theoretical framework of nested hierarchy in the brain that allows production of mind with consciousness. The difference between non-nested and nested hierarchies is the following. In a non-nested hierarchy the entities at higher levels of the hierarchy are physically independent from the entities at lower levels and there is strong constraint of higher upon lower levels. In a nested hierarchy, (...)
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  25. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2004). Making Complexity Simpler: Multivariability and Metastability in the Brain. International Journal of Neuroscience 114 (7):843 - 862.
    This article provides a retrospective, current and prospective overview on developments in brain research and neuroscience. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered, with emphasis in the concept of multivariability and metastability in the brain. In this new view on the human brain, the potential multivariability of the neuronal networks appears to be far from continuous in time, but confined by the dynamics of short-term local and global metastable brain states. The article closes by suggesting some of the implications of (...)
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  26. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2001). Operational Architectonics of the Human Brain Biopotential Field: Toward Solving the Mind-Brain Problem. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 2 (3):261-296.
    The understanding of the interrelationship between brain and mind remains far from clear. It is well established that the brain's capacity to integrate information from numerous sources forms the basis for cognitive abilities. However, the core unresolved question is how information about the "objective" physical entities of the external world can be integrated, and how unifiedand coherent mental states (or Gestalts) can be established in the internal entities of distributed neuronal systems. The present paper offers a unified methodological and conceptual (...)
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  27. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi (2016). Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could Be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study. The Open Neuroimaging Journal 10:69-79.
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered (...)
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  28. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi (2016). The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness From the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports. The Open Neuroimaging Journal 10:41-51.
    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of ‘I’ experience (including autobiographical (...)
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  29. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Prognostic Value of Resting-State EEG Structure in Disentangling Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States: A Preliminary Study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 27 (4):345-354.
    Background: Patients in a vegetative state pose problems in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Currently, no prognostic markers predict the chance of recovery, which has serious consequences, especially in end-of-life decision-making. -/- Objective: We aimed to assess an objective measurement of prognosis using advanced electroencephalography (EEG). -/- Methods: EEG data (19 channels) were collected in 14 patients who were diagnosed to be persistently vegetative based on repeated clinical evaluations at 3 months following brain damage. EEG structure parameters (amplitude, duration and variability (...)
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  30. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sakari Kallio & Antti Revonsuo (2007). Cortex Functional Connectivity as a Neurophysiological Correlate of Hypnosis: An EEG Case Study. Neuropsychologia 45 (7):14521462.
    Cortex functional connectivity associated with hypnosis was investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject in a normal baseline condition and under neutral hypnosis during two sessions separated by a year. After the hypnotic induction, but without further suggestions as compared to the baseline condition, all studied parameters of local and remote functional connectivity were significantly changed. The significant differences between hypnosis and the baseline condition were observable (to different extent) in five studied independent frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and (...)
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  31. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Tarja Kallio-Tamminen (2016). Trait Lasting Alteration of the Brain Default Mode Network in Experienced Meditators and the Experiential Selfhood. Self and Identity 15 (4):381-393.
    Based on the finding in novices that four months of meditation training significantly increases frontal default mode network (DMN) module/subnet synchrony while decreasing left and right posterior DMN modules synchrony, the current study tested the prediction whether experienced meditators (those who are practising meditation intensively for several years) had a change in the DMN “trinity” of modules as a baseline trait characteristic and whether this change is in a similar direction as in the novice trainees who practised meditation for only (...)
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  32. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves (2013). Consciousness as a Phenomenon in the Operational Architectonics of Brain Organization: Criticality and Self-Organization Considerations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 55:13-31.
    In this paper we aim to show that phenomenal consciousness is realized by a particular level of brain operational organization and that understanding human consciousness requires a description of the laws of the immediately underlying neural collective phenomena, the nested hierarchy of electromagnetic fields of brain activity – operational architectonics. We argue that the subjective mental reality and the objective neurobiological reality, although seemingly worlds apart, are intimately connected along a unified metastable continuum and are both guided by the universal (...)
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  33. Pascal Fries, Pieter R. Roelfsema, Andreas K. Engel & Wolf Singer (1997). Synchronization of Oscillatory Responses in Visual Cortex Correlates with Perception in Interocular Rivalry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 94:12699-12704.
  34. James W. Garson (2001). (Dis)Solving the Binding Problem. Philosophical Psychology 14 (4):381 – 392.
    The binding problem is to explain how information processed by different sensory systems is brought together to unify perception. The problem has two sides. First, we want to explain phenomenal binding: the fact that we experience a single world rather than separate perceptual fields for each sensory modality. Second, we must solve a functional problem: to explain how a neural net like the brain links instances to types. I argue that phenomenal binding and functional binding require very different treatments. The (...)
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  35. Ian Gold (1999). Does 40-Hz Oscillation Play a Role in Visual Consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):186-95.
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  36. H. D. R. Golledge, C. C. Hilgetag & M. J. Tovee (1996). Information Processing: A Solution to the Binding Problem. Current Biology 6:1092-95.
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  37. Cynthia A. Graham (1991). Menstrual Synchrony. Human Nature 2 (4):293-311.
    Several studies have now documented menstrual synchrony in human females. There is a broad consensus that the phenomenon mainly occurs in women who spend a significant amount of time together, such as close friends and coworkers, and that social contact rather than a similar environment plays an important role in mediating the effect. However, the mechanisms involved and the adaptive function of menstrual synchrony are not understood. There is some evidence that olfactory cues between females might underlie the effect. More (...)
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  38. Charles M. Gray (1994). Synchronous Oscillations in Neuronal Systems: Mechanisms and Functions. Journal of Computational Neuroscience 1:11-38.
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  39. Charles M. Gray, P. Kreiter Konig, Andreas K. Engel & Wolf Singer (1992). Oscillatory Responses in Cat Visual Cortex Exhibit Inter-Columnar Synchronization Which Reflects Global Stimulus Properties. Nature 338:334-7.
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  40. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1997). Consciousness and the Neurobiology of Perceptual Binding. Seminars in Neurology 17:163-70.
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  41. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1996). The Binding Problem and Neurobiological Oscillations. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press
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  42. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1996). How We Get There From Here: Dissolution of the Binding Problem. Journal of Mind and Behavior 17 (3):251-66.
    On the one hand, we think that our conscious perceptions are tied to some stage of whatever processing stream we have. On the other hand, we think that our conscious experiences have to resemble the computational states that instantiate them. However, nothing in our alleged stream resembles our experienced perceptions. Hence, a conflict. The question is: How can we go from what we know about neurons, their connections, and firing patterns, to explaining what conscious perceptual experiences are like? No intuitive (...)
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  43. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1994). Psychology's "Binding Problem" and Possible Neurobiological Solutions. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (1):66-90.
    Given what we know about the segregated nature of the brain and the relative absence of multi-modal association areas in the cortex, how percepts become unified is not clear. However, if we could work out how and where the brain joins together segregated outputs, we would have a start in localizing the neuronal processes that correlate with conscious perceptual experiences. In this essay, I critically examine data relevant for understanding the neurophysiological underpinnings of perception. In particular, I examine the possibility (...)
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  44. S. A. Helekar (1999). In Defense of Experience-Coding Nonarbitrary Temporal Neural Activity Patterns. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):455-461.
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  45. Hede Helfrich (ed.) (2003). Time and Mind II: Information Processing Perspectives. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
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  46. William Hirstein (2013). Conscious States: Where Are They in the Brain and What Are Their Necessary Ingredients? Mens Sana Monographs 11 (1):230.
    One of the final obstacles to understanding consciousness in physical terms concerns the question of whether conscious states can exist in posterior regions of the brain without active connections to the brain's prefrontal lobes. If they can, difficult issues concerning our knowledge of our conscious states can be resolved. This paper contains a list of types of conscious states that may meet this criterion, including states of coma, states in which subjects are absorbed in a perceptual task, states in brains (...)
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  47. A. Hobson (1956). A Binding For Geoffroy Granger. Bibliothèque d'Humanisme Et Renaissance 18 (2):280-281.
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  48. John E. Hummel, Keith J. Holyoak, Collin Green, Leonidas Aa Doumas, Derek Devnich, Aniket Kittur & Donald J. Kalar (2004). A Solution to the Binding Problem for Compositional Connectionism. In Simon D. Levy & Ross Gayler (eds.), Compositional Connectionism in Cognitive Science. Aaai Press
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  49. Glyn W. Humphreys (2003). Conscious Visual Representations Built From Multiple Binding Processes: Evidence From Neuropsychology. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press
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  50. Mostyn W. Jones (2013). Electromagnetic-Field Theories of Mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (11-12).
    Neuroscience investigates how neuronal processing circuits work, but it has problems explaining experiences this way. For example, it hasn’t explained how colour and shape circuits bind together in visual processing, nor why colours and other qualia are experienced so differently yet processed by circuits so similarly, nor how to get from processing circuits to pictorial images spread across inner space. Some theorists turn from these circuits to their electromagnetic fields to deal with such difficulties concerning the mind’s qualia, unity, privacy, (...)
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