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Nietzsche: Naturalism
  1. Christa Davis Acampora (2002/2013). Contesting Nietzsche. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 24 (1):1-4.
    Agon as analytic, diagnostic, and antidote -- Contesting Homer: the poiesis of value -- Contesting Socrates: Nietzsche's (artful) naturalism -- Contesting Paul: toward an ethos of agonism -- Contesting Wagner: how one becomes what one is.
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  2. Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Nietzsche, Naturalism, and the Tenacity of the Intentional. Journal of Nietzsche Studies.
    In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche demands that “psychology shall be<br>recognized again as the queen of the sciences.” While one might cast a dubious glance at the “again,” many of Nietzsche’s insights were indeed psychological, and many of his arguments invoke psychological premises. In Genealogy, he criticizes the “English psychologists” for the “inherent psychological absurdity” of their theory of the origin of good and bad, pointing out the implausibility of the claim that the utility of unegoistic<br>actions would be forgotten. Tabling (...)
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  3. Robert Burch (2002). Cox, Christoph. Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation. Review of Metaphysics 55 (4):850-852.
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  4. Christoph Cox (1995). Nietzsche, Naturalism, and Interpretation. International Studies in Philosophy 27 (3):3-18.
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  5. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Naturalism and Value in Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729–740.
  6. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Review: Naturalism and Value in Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729 - 740.
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  7. Marcella Tarozzi Goldsmith (2002). Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation. New Nietzsche Studies 5 (1/2):165-172.
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  8. Peter S. Groff (2003). Nietzsche: Naturalism and Interpretation (Review). Journal of Nietzsche Studies 25 (1):100-102.
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  9. Béatrice Han-Pile (2009). Transcendental Aspects, Ontological Commitments and Naturalistic Elements in Nietzsche's Thought. Inquiry 52 (2):179 – 214.
    Nietzsche's views on knowledge have been interpreted in at least three incompatible ways - as transcendental, naturalistic or proto-deconstructionist. While the first two share a commitment to the possibility of objective truth, the third reading denies this by highlighting Nietzsche's claims about the necessarily falsifying character of human knowledge (his so-called error theory). This paper examines the ways in which his work can be construed as seeking ways of overcoming the strict opposition between naturalism and transcendental philosophy whilst fully taking (...)
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  10. Nadeem J. Z. Hussain (2004). Nietzsche's Positivism. European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):326–368.
    Nietzsche’s favourable comments about science and the senses have recently been taken as evidence of naturalism. Others focus on his falsification thesis: our beliefs are falsifying interpretations of reality. Clark argues that Nietzsche eventually rejects this thesis. This article utilizes the multiple ways of being science friendly in Nietzsche’s context by focussing on Mach’s neutral monism. Mach’s positivism is a natural development of neo-Kantian positions Nietzsche was reacting to. Section 15 of Beyond Good and Evil is crucial to Clark’s interpretation. (...)
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  11. Nadeem J. Z. Hussain (2004). Reading Nietzsche Through Ernst Mach. In Gregory Moore & Thomas H. Brobjer (eds.), Nietzche and Science. Ashgate.
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  12. Lee F. Kerckhove (1994). Re-Thinking Ethical Naturalism: Nietzsche's ?Open Question? Argument. [REVIEW] Man and World 27 (2):149-159.
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  13. Imtiaz Moosa (2007). Naturalistic Explanations of Apodictic Moral Claims: Brentano's Ethical Intuitionism and Nietzsche's Naturalism. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):159 - 182.
    In this article (1) I extract from Brentano’s works (three) formal arguments against “genealogical explanations” of ethical claims. Such explanation can also be designated as “naturalism” (not his appellation); (2) I counter these arguments, by showing how genealogical explanations of even apodictic moral claims are logically possible (albeit only if certain unlikely, stringent conditions are met); (3) I show how Nietzsche’s ethics meets these stringent conditions, but evolutionary ethics does not. My more general thesis is that naturalism and intuitionism in (...)
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  14. Simon Robertson & Christopher Janaway (eds.) (2012). Nietzsche, Naturalism & Normativity. Oxford University Press.
    This volume comprises ten original essays on Nietzsche, one of the western canon's most controversial ethical thinkers. An international team of experts clarify Nietzsche's own views, both critical and positive, ethical and meta-ethical, and connect his philosophical concerns to contemporary debates in and about ethics, normativity, and value.
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  15. Richard Schacht (2012). Nietzsche's Naturalism. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 43 (2):185-212.
    A central thesis of my interpretation of Nietzsche has long been that he fundamentally was a naturalistic thinker, who had a significant philosophical agenda that is best understood accordingly.1 This is a characterization with which many—in the analytically minded part of the philosophical community, at any rate—have come to agree. But there are many kinds of things called "naturalism" in the philosophical literature; and it would be a mistake to suppose that any of them in particular is what Nietzsche espoused (...)
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  16. C. U. M. Smith (1987). “Clever Beasts Who Invented Knowing”: Nietzsche's Evolutionary Biology of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):65-91.
    Nietzsche was a philosopher, not a biologist, Nevertheless his philosophical thought was deeply influenced by ideas emerging from the evolutionary biology of the nineteenth century. His relationship to the Darwinism of his time is difficult to disentangle. It is argued that he was in a sense an unwitting Darwinist. It follows that his philosophical thought is of considerable interest to those concerned to develop an evolutionary biology of mankind. His approach can be likened to that of an extraterrestrial sociobiologist studying (...)
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  17. James J. Winchester (2000). Nietzsche, Naturalism and Interpretation (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (4):606-607.
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Nietzsche: Relativism
  1. Andrew Jason Cohen (1999). In Defense of Nietzschean Genealogy. Philosophical Forum 30 (4):269–288.
    Using Alasdair MacIntyre as a foil, I defend what I take to be a viable Nietzschean genealogical account, showing that a proper perspectivism is neither perniciously subjectivist nor absolutist. I begin by arguing against MacIntyre’s assertion that genealogists are committed to the view that rationality requires neutrality and that as there is no neutrality, there is no rationality. I then continue by offering something of a reconstruction of Nietzsche’s view, designed partly to clarify the error pinpointed in MacIntyre’s arguments, but (...)
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  2. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Naturalism and Value in Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729–740.
  3. Ted Sadler (1995). Nietzsche: Truth and Redemption: Critique of the Postmodernist Nietzsche. Athlone Press.
    This challenging new reading of Nietzsche counters the highly misleading interpretation of post-modern commentators.
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Nietzsche: Epistemology, Misc
  1. Panos D. Alexakos (1993). Nietzsche On Truth and Philosophy. International Philosophical Quarterly 33 (1):127-128.
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  2. Mark Alfano (2013). The Most Agreeable of All Vices: Nietzsche as Virtue Epistemologist. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (4):767-790.
    It’s been argued with some justice by commentators from Walter Kaufmann to Thomas Hurka that Nietzsche’s positive ethical position is best understood as a variety of virtue theory – in particular, as a brand of perfectionism. For Nietzsche, value flows from character. Less attention has been paid, however, to the details of the virtues he identifies for himself and his type. This neglect, along with Nietzsche’s frequent irony and non-standard usage, has obscured the fact that almost all the virtues he (...)
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  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2005). Nietzsche on Truth, Illusion, and Redemption. European Journal of Philosophy 13 (2):185–225.
  4. R. Lanier Anderson (1998). Truth and Objectivity in Perspectivism. Synthese 115 (1):1-32.
    I investigate the consequences of Nietzsche's perspectivism for notions of truth and objectivity, and show how the metaphor of visual perspective motivates an epistemology that avoids self-referential difficulties. Perspectivism's claim that every view is only one view, applied to itself, is often supposed to preclude the perspectivist's ability to offer reasons for her epistemology. Nietzsche's arguments for perspectivism depend on “internal reasons”, which have force not only in their own perspective, but also within the standards of alternative perspectives. Internal reasons (...)
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  5. John E. Atwell (1981). Nietzsche's Perspectivism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (2):157-170.
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  6. Luis M. Augusto (2005). Who's Afraid of Idealism? University Press of America.
    In Who's Afraid of Idealism? the philosophical concept of idealism, the extent to which reality is mind-made, is examined in new light. Author Luis M. Augusto explores epistemological idealism, at the source of all other kinds of idealism, from the viewpoints of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche, two philosophers who spent a large part of their lives denigrating the very concept. Working from Kant and Nietzsche's viewpoints that idealism was a scandal to philosophy and the cause of nihilism, Augusto evaluates (...)
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  7. Rebecca Bamford (2013). Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):138-140.
    Jessica Berry provides the first detailed analysis of whether, and in what sense, Nietzsche was a skeptic (5). Exploring the affinity between Nietzsche’s work and Pyrrhonism in six main chapters, Berry differentiates between modern skepticism, understood as epistemological pessimism or nihilism (33), and Pyrrhonian skepticism as a commitment to continuing inquiry, based on the equipollence of arguments, “roughly equal persuasive weight for and against just about any claim,” and epochē, suspension of judgment (36–37). Berry shows that Nietzsche appreciated this distinction (...)
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  8. Jessica Berry (2011). Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Oxford University Press.
    Introduction : reading Nietzsche skeptically -- Nietzsche and the Pyrrhonian tradition -- Skepticism in Nietzsche's early work : the case of "on truth and lie" -- The question of Nietzsche's "naturalism" -- Perspectivism and Ephexis in interpretation -- Skepticism and health -- Skepticism as immoralism.
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  9. Jessica N. Berry (2006). Skepticism in Nietzsche's Earliest Work. International Studies in Philosophy 38 (3):33-48.
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  10. Aryeh Botwinick (1997). Skepticism, Belief, and the Modern: Maimonides to Nietzsche. Cornell University Press.
  11. James P. Cadello (1991). Nietzsche's Radical Hermeneutical Epistemology. International Studies in Philosophy 23 (2):119-128.
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  12. Maudemarie Clark (1990). Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Friedrich Nietzsche haunts the modern world. His elusive writings with their characteristic combination of trenchant analysis of the modern predicament and suggestive but ambiguous proposals for dealing with it have fascinated generations of artists, scholars, critics, philosophers, and ordinary readers. Maudemarie Clark's highly original study gives a lucid and penetrating analytical account of all the central topics of Nietzsche's epistemology and metaphysics, including his views on truth and language, his perspectivism, and his doctrines of the will-to-power and the eternal recurrence. (...)
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  13. Maudemarie Clark (1986). Nietzsche's Perspectivist Rhetoric. International Studies in Philosophy 18 (2):35-43.
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  14. Daniel W. Conway (1992). Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 46 (1):146-148.
  15. Christoph Cox (1997). The "Subject" of Nietzsche's Perspectivism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (2):269-291.
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  16. Tsarina Doyle (2009). Nietzsche on Epistemology and Metaphysics: The World in View. Edinburgh University Press.
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  17. Tsarina Doyle (2001). Nietzsche's Perspectivism. International Philosophical Quarterly 41 (2):249-250.
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  18. Pietro Gori (2012). Nietzsche as Phenomenalist? In Marco Brusotti, Günter Abel & Helmut Heit (eds.), Nietzsches Wissenschaftsphilosophie. deGruyter.
    During the second decade of the 20th century Hans Kleinpeter, an Austrian scholar devoted to the development of the modern science, published some brief papers on Nietzsche’s thought. Kleinpeter has been one of the main upholders of Mach’s epistemology and probably the first who connected his ideas with the philosophy of Nietzsche. In his book on Der Phänomenalismus (1913) he described a new world view that arose in the 19th century, a perspective that ‒ according to him ‒ completely contrasted (...)
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  19. Pietro Gori (2009). The Usefulness of Substances. Knowledge, Science and Metaphysics in Nietzsche and Mach. Nietzsche Studien 38:111-155.
    In this paper I discuss the role played by Ernst Mach on Nietzsche’s thought. Starting from the contents of his Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen, I’ll show the close similarities between their view on both human knowledge and the scientific world description. In his writing on science Nietzsche shares Mach’s critique to the 19th century mechanism and its metaphysical ground, as much as his way of defining the substantial notions such as matter, ego and free will. Moreover, my investigation will (...)
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  20. Jean Grondin (2011). Must Nietzsche Be Incorporated Into Hermeneutics? Some Reasons for a Little Resistance. Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 2 (3):105-122.
    The question of Nietzsche's place in hermeneutics raises many questions: can Nietzsche's thought itself be characterized as "hermeneutical" and to what extent, given that hermeneutics was only developed as such after him? Can and should hermeneutics, which until recently did not take his thought much into account, incorporate Nietzsche's thought as a whole? Whereas a mutual fecundation will always be fruitful, this paper argues that one should resist a simple integration of Nietzsche into hermeneutics in light of their different understandings (...)
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  21. Steven D. Hales & Rex Welshon (2000). Nietzsche's Perspectivism. University of Illinois Press.
    In "Nietzsche's Perspectivism", Steven Hales and Rex Welshon offer an analytic approach to Nietzsche's important idea that truth is perspectival. Drawing on Nietzsche's entire published corpus, along with manuscripts he never saw to press, they assess the different perspectivisms at work in Nietzsche's views with regard to truth, logic, causality, knowledge, consciousness, and the self. They also examine Nietzsche's perspectivist ontology of power and the attendant claims that substances and subjects are illusory while forces and alliances of power constitute the (...)
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  22. Steven D. Hales & Rex Welshon (1999). Nietzsche, Perspectivism, and Mental Health. Philosophy, Psychiatry, Psychology 6 (3):173-177.
    This paper is a response to Ronald Lehrer's "Perspectivism and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy". Lehrer treats Nietzsche as promoting only a modest perspectivism according to which different cognitive strategies triangulate the truth. We argue that Nietzsche's perspectivism is much more radical, and defensible, than Lehrer admits. We also suggest that Nietzsche's bundle theory of the self has important implications for psychotherapy and the concept of mental health. According to this theory, the self is an aggregate of ever-changing drives and affects. The conditions (...)
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  23. Steven D. Hales & Rex Welshon (1994). Truth, Paradox, and Nietzschean Perspectivism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (1):101-119.
    We argue that Nietzsche's interest in truth is more than merely a critical one. He criticizes one historically prominent conception of truth while proposing his own theory, called "perspectivism". However, Nietzsche's truth perspectivism appears to face a self-referential paradox, which is explored in detail. We argue that no commentator has yet solved this puzzle, and then provide our own solution. This solution, which depends upon distinguishing between weak and strong perspectivism while promoting the former, supplies Nietzsche with a consistent truth (...)
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  24. Michael Hodges (1986). Comments on “Nietzsche's Perspectivist Rhetoric”. International Studies in Philosophy 18 (2):45-48.
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  25. Philip J. Kain (1983). Nietzsche, Skepticism, and Eternal Recurrence. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):365 - 387.
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  26. Paul Katsafanas (2012). Nietzsche on Agency and Self-Ignorance. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 43 (1):5-17.
    Nietzsche frequently claims that agents are in some sense ignorant of their own actions. In this conference paper, I ask two questions: what exactly does Nietzsche mean by this claim, and how would the truth of this claim affect philosophical models of agency? I argue that Nietzsche's claim about self-ignorance is intended to draw attention to the fact that there are influences upon reflective episodes of choice that have three features. First, these influences are pervasive, occurring in every episode of (...)
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  27. Cynthia Kaufman (1998). Knowledge as Masculine Heroism or Embodied Perception: Knowledge, Will, and Desire in Nietzsche. Hypatia 13 (4):63 - 87.
    Two distinct doctrines of the will operate in Nietzsche. On one, each person has a will that grows out of their engagement with life. This view can be the basis for a feminist epistemology. On the other, the will must be stimulated through the creation of unattainable goals and games of seduction. This view of the will is misogynist, as it posits a self that must constitute for itself a dominated and silenced other.
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  28. Wayne Klein (1993). Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy, by Maudemarie Clark. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 16 (1):259-275.
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  29. Brian Leiter (1993). Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (1):148-150.
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  30. Brian Lightbody (2010). Nietzsche, Perspectivism, Anti-Realism: An Inconsistent Triad. The European Legacy 15 (4):425-438.
    “Philosophical perspectivism” is surely one of Nietzsche's most important insights regarding the limits of human knowledge. However, the perspectivist thesis combined with a minimal realist metaphysical position produces what Brian Leiter calls the 'Received View': an epistemologically incoherent misinterpretation of Nietzsche which pervades the secondary literature. In order to salvage the thesis of perspectivism, Leiter argues that we must commit Nietzsche to an anti-realist metaphysical position. I argue that Leiter's proposed solution is (1) epistemically weak, and (2) inconsistent with much (...)
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