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Normative Ethics

Edited by Jussi Suikkanen (University of Birmingham)
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  1. added 2014-10-01
    Aaron Smuts, How Much Should We Be Moved by the Fate of Anna Karenina?
    It is widely assumed that we can meaningfully talk about emotional reactions as being appropriate or inappropriate. Much of the discussion has focused on one kind of appropriateness, that of fittingness. An emotional response is appropriate only if it fits its object. For instance, fear only fits dangerous things. There is another dimension of appropriateness that has been relatively ignored — proportionality. For an emotional reaction to be appropriate not only must the object fit, the reaction should be of the (...)
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  2. added 2014-09-30
    Gunnar Björnsson (2014). Essentially Shared Obligations. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):103-120.
    This paper lists a number of puzzles for shared obligations – puzzles about the role of individual influence, individual reasons to contribute towards fulfilling the obligation, about what makes someone a member of a group sharing an obligation, and the relation between agency and obligation – and proposes to solve them based on a general analysis of obligations. On the resulting view, shared obligations do not presuppose joint agency.
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  3. added 2014-09-29
    Christian Barry & David Wiens (forthcoming). Benefiting From Wrongdoing and Sustaining Wrongful Harm. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
  4. added 2014-09-28
    Elijah Chudnoff (forthcoming). Moral Perception: High-Level Perception or Low-Level Intuition? In Thiemo Breyer & Christopher Gutland (eds.), Phenomenology of Thinking.
    Here are four examples of “seeing.” You see that something green is wriggling. You see that an iguana is in distress. You see that someone is wrongfully harming an iguana. You see that torturing animals is wrong. The first is an example of low-level perception. You visually represent color and motion. The second is an example of high-level perception. You visually represent kind properties and mental properties. The third is an example of moral perception. You have an impression of moral (...)
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  5. added 2014-09-28
    Vuko Andrić (2014). Ein Plädoyer für den Rechtsnormen-Konsequentialismus. Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 140:87-98.
  6. added 2014-09-27
    Robert William Fischer (forthcoming). Disgust and the Collection of Bovine Fetal Blood. In Elisa Aaltola & John Hadley (eds.), Animal Ethics and Philosophy: Questioning the Orthodoxy. Rowman & Littlefield International.
    At many slaughterhouses, if a pregnant cow is killed, then medical companies pay to harvest the fetus's blood. When you communicate the details of this process to people, many of them are disgusted. I submit that those who are repulsed thereby acquire a reason to believe that this practice is morally wrong. However, it is controversial to maintain that disgust can provide moral guidance. So, I develop a theory of disgust’s moral salience that fits with the empirical work that’s been (...)
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  7. added 2014-09-27
    Luc Faucher (2012). Tirer la responsabilité au clair : le cas des attitudes implicites et le révisionnisme. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (1):179-212.
    Dans cet article, je considère l’influence possible des recherches récentes sur les attitudes en psychologie sociale, principalement dans le paradigme des théories des processus duaux [dual process theories], sur notre compréhension de la responsabilité. La thèse que je soutiens est que certaines révisions à notre façon de comprendre la responsabilité et nos pratiques d’attribution de la responsabilité pourraient être justifiées par ces travaux. Avant de présenter les révisions que j’introduis, je décris les grandes lignes du paradigme que j’utiliserai, soit celui (...)
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  8. added 2014-09-27
    Mauro Rossi (2012). Normativity and Normative Psychology: Introduction. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (1):141-145.
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  9. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Relevance and Non-Consequentialist Aggregation. Utilitas.
    Interpersonal aggregation involves the combining and weighing of benefits and losses to multiple individuals in the course of determining what ought to be done. Most consequentialists embrace thoroughgoing interpersonal aggregation, the view that any large benefit to each of a few people can be morally outweighed by allocating any smaller benefit to each of many others, so long as this second group is sufficiently large. This would permit letting one person die in order to cure some number of mild headaches (...)
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  10. added 2014-09-22
    Kieran Setiya, The Ethics of Existence.
    Argues that inadvisable procreative acts should often be affirmed in retrospect. This shift is not explained by attachment or love but by the moral impact of existence.
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  11. added 2014-09-22
    Erich Hatala Matthes (forthcoming). Impersonal Value, Universal Value, and the Scope of Cultural Heritage. Ethics.
    Philosophers have used the terms 'impersonal' and 'personal value' to refer to, among others things, whether something's value is universal or particular to an individual. In this paper, I propose an account of impersonal value that, I argue, better captures the intuitive distinction than potential alternatives, while providing conceptual resources for moving beyond the traditional stark dichotomy. I illustrate the practical importance of my theoretical account with reference to debate over the evaluative scope of cultural heritage.
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  12. added 2014-09-22
    Thomas Mulligan (forthcoming). The Limits of Liberal Tolerance. Public Affairs Quarterly.
    Political philosophy has seen vibrant debate over the connection, if any, between liberalism and pluralism. Some philosophers, following Isaiah Berlin, reckon a close connection between the two concepts. Others--most notably John Gray--believe that liberalism and pluralism are incompatible. In this essay, I argue that the puzzle can be solved by distinguishing the responsibilities of liberal states to their peoples from the responsibilities of liberal states to other states. There is an entailment from pluralism to liberalism, and it in turn implies (...)
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  13. added 2014-09-19
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Relational Ethics: An African Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
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  14. added 2014-09-13
    Shriniwas Hemade (2013). Master Day - Teachers Day. In Anil Jayabhaye Diapk Kasale (ed.), Shikshak Din - An anthology. Hariti Publications, Pune, India. 163-199.
    This article is bout the history of Masters Degree. It elaborates from the etymology of meaning of 'Master' to the honor of being the Degree.
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  15. added 2014-09-12
    Tim Henning (forthcoming). From Choice to Chance? Saving People, Fairness, and Lotteries. Philosophical Review.
    Many authors in ethics, economics and political science endorse the Lottery Requirement, i.e. the following thesis: Where different parties have equal moral claims to one indivisible good, it is morally obligatory to let a fair lottery decide which party is to receive the good. This article defends skepticism about the Lottery Requirement. Three broad strategies of defending such a requirement are distinguished: the surrogate satisfaction account, the procedural account and the ideal consent account. It is argued that none of these (...)
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  16. added 2014-09-11
    E. Sonny Elizondo (forthcoming). More Than a Feeling. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    According to rationalist conceptions of moral agency, the constitutive capacities of moral agency are rational capacities. So understood, rationalists are often thought to have a problem with feeling. For example, many believe that rationalists must reject the attractive Aristotelian thought that moral activity is by nature pleasant. I disagree. It is easy to go wrong here because it is easy to assume that pleasure is empirical rather than rational and so extrinsic rather than intrinsic to moral agency, rationalistically conceived. Drawing (...)
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  17. added 2014-09-11
    Rupert Brown, Jesse Allpress, Roger Giner Sorolla, Julien Deonna & Fabrice Teroni (2014). Two Faces of Shame: Moral Shame and Image Shame Differently Predict Positive and Negative Responses to Ingroup Wrongdoing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 40 (10):1270-1284.
    This article proposes distinctions between guilt and two forms of shame: Guilt arises from a violated norm and is characterized by a focus on specific behavior; shame can be characterized by a threatened social image (Image Shame) or a threatened moral essence (Moral Shame). Applying this analysis to group-based emotions, three correlational studies are reported, set in the context of atrocities committed by (British) ingroup members during the Iraq war (Ns = 147, 256, 399). Results showed that the two forms (...)
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  18. added 2014-09-10
    Johan E. Gustafsson (forthcoming). Sequential Dominance and the Anti-Aggregation Principle. Philosophical Studies:1-9.
    According to the widely held anti-aggregation principle, it is wrong to save a larger number of people from minor harms rather than a smaller number from much more serious harms. This principle is a central part of many influential and anti-utilitarian ethical theories. According to the sequential-dominance principle, one does something wrong if one knowingly performs a sequence of acts whose outcome would be worse for everyone than the outcome of an alternative sequence of acts. The intuitive appeal of the (...)
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  19. added 2014-09-10
    Nikil Mukerji (2014). Technological Progress and Responsibility. In Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.), Rethinking Responsibility in Science and Technology. Pisa University Press. 25-36.
    In this essay, I will examine how technological progress affects the responsibilities of human agents. To this end, I will distinguish between two interpretations of the concept of responsibility, viz. responsibility as attributability and substantive responsibility. On the former interpretation, responsibility has to do with the idea of authorship. When we say that a person is responsible for her actions we mean that she is to be seen as the author of these actions. They can be attributed to her, such (...)
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  20. added 2014-09-10
    Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.) (2014). Rethinking Responsibility in Science and Technology. Pisa University Press.
    The idea of responsibility is deeply embedded into the “lifeworld” of human beings and not subject to change. However, the empirical circumstances in which we act and ascribe responsibility to one another are subject to change. Science and technology play a great part in this transformation process. Therefore, it is important for us to rethink the idea, the role and the normative standards behind responsibility in a world that is constantly being transformed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. (...)
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  21. added 2014-09-10
    Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno (2008). Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior. Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
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  22. added 2014-09-06
    Michael Cholbi (forthcoming). Kant on Euthanasia and the Duty to Die: Clearing the Air. Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Thanks to recent scholarship, Kant is no longer seen as the dogmatic opponent of suicide he appears at first glance. However, some interpreters have recently argued for a Kantian view of the morality of suicide with surprising, even radical, implications. More specifically, they have argued that Kantianism (a) requires that those with dementia or other rationality-eroding conditions end their lives before their condition results in their loss of identity as moral agents, and (b) requires subjecting the fully demented or those (...)
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  23. added 2014-09-06
    Michael Baurmann (2014). Meinungsdynamiken in fundamentalistischen Gruppen: Erklärungshypothesen auf der Basis von Simulationsmodellen. Analyse Und Kritik 36:61-102.
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  24. added 2014-09-02
    T. Parent, The Empirical Case Against Infallibilism.
    Philosophers and psychologists generally hold that, in light of the empirical data, a subject lacks infallible access to her own mental states. However, while subjects certainly are fallible in some ways, I show that the data fails to discredit that a subject has infallible access to her own occurrent thoughts and judgments. This is argued, first, by revisiting the empirical studies, and carefully scrutinizing what is shown exactly. Second, I argue that if the data were interpreted to rule out all (...)
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  25. added 2014-09-02
    Amber Griffioen (2014). Regaining the 'Lost Self': A Philosophical Analysis of Survivor's Guilt. In Altered Self and Altered Self Experience. 43-57.
  26. added 2014-09-02
    Eric S. Nelson (2014). 非对称伦理学与世界公民主义宽容悖论. 吉林大学社会科学学报 54 (3):101-107.
  27. added 2014-09-01
    Andreas Elpidorou (forthcoming). The Significance of Boredom: A Sartrean Reading. In Daniel Dahlstrom, Andreas Elpidorou & Walter Hopp (eds.), Philosophy of Mind and Phenomenology: Conceptual and Empirical Approaches. Routledge.
  28. added 2014-08-30
    Michaela Rehm (2012). Vertrag und Vertrauen: Lockes Legitimation von Herrschaft. In Michaela Rehm & Bernd Ludwig (eds.), John Locke: „Zwei Abhandlungen über die Regierung“. Akademie-Verlag. 95-114.
    The paper discusses the foundation and genesis of the political society according to Locke, elaborating why the relationship between the civil society and the government is not defined in contractual terms, but by the notion of “trust”. Rehm argues against the view that Locke supports a liberal proceduralism, stressing that consent for him is indeed the necessary, but not the sufficient condition of legitimate political power: what needs to be added is action in accordance with the law of nature.
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  29. added 2014-08-29
    Jonny Anomaly & Geoffrey Brennan (forthcoming). Social Norms, The Invisible Hand, and the Law. University of Queensland Law Journal 33.
  30. added 2014-08-29
    Bas Olthof, Anco Peeters, Kimberly Schelle & Pim Haselager (2013). If You're Smart, We'll Make You Smarter. Applying the Reasoning Behind the Development of Honours Programmes to Other Forms of Cognitive Enhancement. In Federica Lucivero & Anton Vedder (eds.), Beyond Therapy v. Enhancement? Multidisciplinary analyses of a heated debate. Pisa University Press. 117-142.
    Students using Ritalin in preparation for their exams is a hotly debated issue, while meditating or drinking coffee before those same exams is deemed uncontroversial. However, taking Ritalin, meditating and drinking coffee or even education in general, can all be considered forms of cognitive enhancement. Although social acceptance might change in the future, it is interesting to examine the current reasons that are used to distinguish cases deemed problematic or unproblematic. Why are some forms of cognitive enhancement considered problematic, while (...)
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  31. added 2014-08-28
    Anthony Skelton (forthcoming). Review of Terence Irwin, The Development of Ethics: A Historical and Critical Study. Volume III: From Kant To Rawls. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review.
    This is a critical review of Terence Irwin's The Development of Ethics: A Historical and Critical Study. Volume III: From Kant to Rawls.
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  32. added 2014-08-28
    Anthony Skelton (2014). On Henry Sidgwick's 'My Station and its Duties'. Ethics 125 (1):586-591.
    This is a retrospective essay on Henry Sidgwick's "My Station and Its Duties" written to mark the 125th anniversary of Ethics.
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  33. added 2014-08-28
    Anthony Cunningham (2005). Great Anger. The Dalhousie Review 85 (3).
    Anger has an undeniable hand in human suffering and horrific deeds. Various schools of thought call for eliminating or moderating the capacity for anger. I argue that the capacity for anger, like the capacity for grief, is at the heart of our humanity.
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  34. added 2014-08-28
    Anthony Cunningham (2001). Modesty. The Dalhousie Review 81 (3).
    Modesty is sometimes understood in terms of ignorance and underestimation (one simply doesn't realize how good one really is), a keen awareness of one's relative imperfections (one can always be better), a preoccupation with moral equality (our humanity matters most), or a disinterest in any personal credit for one's attributes or accomplishments (only the work or the cause matters). I point to serious problems with each of these accounts of modesty and I suggest a different understanding of modesty as a (...)
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  35. added 2014-08-26
    Carla Bagnoli (forthcoming). Moral Objectivity: A Kantian Illusion? Journal of Value Inquiry:1-15.
    Some moral claims strike us as objective. It is often argued that this shows morality to be objective. Moral experience – broadly construed – is invoked as the strongest argument for moral realism, the thesis that there are moral facts or properties.See e.g. Jonathan Dancy, “Two conceptions of Moral Realism,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60 (1986): 167–187. Realists, however, cannot appropriate the argument from moral experience. In fact, constructivists argue that to validate the ways we experience the objectivity of (...)
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  36. added 2014-08-26
    Friderik Klampfer (2014). Consequentializing Moral Responsibility. Croatian Journal of Philosophy (40):121-150.
    In the paper, I try to cast some doubt on traditional attempts to define, or explicate, moral responsibility in terms of deserved praise and blame. Desert-based accounts of moral responsibility, though no doubt more faithful to our ordinary notion of moral responsibility, tend to run into trouble in the face of challenges posed by a deterministic picture of the world on the one hand and the impact of moral luck on human action on the other. Besides, grounding responsibility in desert (...)
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  37. added 2014-08-22
    Theron Pummer, The Priority Monster.
    The Priority View implies that we sometimes have nontrivially stronger reason to benefit a person, the worse off in absolute terms this person would be if she did not receive the benefit in question. This view seems plausible. Nonetheless I will argue that it is inconsistent with the conjunction of a number of independently intuitively plausible claims. One such claim is that we should spare a very badly off person from many years of intense pain rather than spare someone else (...)
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  38. added 2014-08-22
    Selim Berker, The Unity of Grounding.
    I argue that there is only one grounding/in-virtue-of relation, and that it is indispensable for normative inquiry.
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  39. added 2014-08-22
    David Brink (1993). The Separateness of Persons, Distributive Norms, and Moral Theory. In R. G. Frey & Christopher Morris (eds.), Value, Welfare, and Morality. Cambridge University Press. 252-289.
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  40. added 2014-08-21
    Richard Rowland (2014). Dissolving the Wrong Kind of Reason Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    According to fitting-attitude (FA) accounts of value, X is of final value if and only if there are reasons for us to have a certain pro-attitude towards it. FA accounts supposedly face the wrong kind of reason (WKR) problem. The WKR problem is the problem of revising FA accounts to exclude so called wrong kind of reasons. And wrong kind of reasons are reasons for us to have certain pro-attitudes towards things that are not of value. I argue that the (...)
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  41. added 2014-08-20
    Daniel Nica (2011). Originile Disputei Etice Dintre Particularism Şi Generalism: Platon Şi Aristotel. Annals of Philosophy. University of Bucharest:51-63.
    This paper is a critical investigation about the historical origins of two contemporary approaches in ethics: moral particularism and moral generalism. Moral particularism states that there are no defensible moral principles and that moral thought doesn’t consist in the application of moral principles to cases, but in understanding the morally relevant features of an action, which vary from case to case. In opposition, moral generalism is the traditional claim that moral decisions are made by applying general rules to particular actions. (...)
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  42. added 2014-08-18
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Review of Meaning In Life: An Analytic Study by Thaddeus Metz. [REVIEW] Ethics 125 (2).
  43. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2009). Rousseau médiateur: la religion et les Lumières. Études Rousseau 17:151-165.
    It appears that Rousseau has annulled the dichotomy between man and citizen for the benefit of the citizen – after all, the social contract implies the “total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community”. Does this not mean the individual is completely absorbed by the collectivity? The paper takes up the role of religion for politics in Rousseau’s work to show that even civil religion cannot help to re-establish the lost unity between man and (...)
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  44. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2008). Keine Politik ohne Moral, keine Moral ohne Religion? In Mathias Hildebrandt & Manfred Brocker (eds.), Der Begriff der Religion. VS Verlag. 59-80.
    The paper offers a systematic analysis of the phenomenon of civil religion. It reconstructs its historical preconditions and explains that civil religion is advocated when a pluralist society seems about to lose a traditional religion or ideology perceived as former guarantor of social stability. Civil religion is then propagated as a means to create a new equilibrium. The text aims to clarify that this notion is based on the idea that morality depends on religion. The conclusion is that the morality (...)
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  45. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2000). „Ein rein bürgerliches Glaubensbekenntnis“: Zivilreligion als Vollendung des Politischen? In Reinhard Brandt & Karlfriedrich Herb (eds.), Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag oder Prinzipien des Staatsrechts. Akademie-Verlag. 213-240.
    The author offers a critical commentary on Rousseau’s chapter on civil religion in the “Social Contract”, book 4, chapter 8. It investigates Rousseau’s attempt to overcome the conflict between politics and religion by merging a civil religion that creates an emotional bond to the particular state without fostering superstition and intolerance, and it shows that this attempt fails. It is demonstrated that Rousseau’s concept of civil religion neither offers any doctrine of salvation transcending this life nor prescribes any content going (...)
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  46. added 2014-08-14
    Travis Timmerman (forthcoming). Does Scrupulous Securitism Stand-Up to Scrutiny? Two Problems for Moral Securitism and How We Might Fix Them. Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    A relatively new debate in ethics concerns the relationship between one's present obligations and how one would act in the future. One popular view is actualism, which holds that what an agent would do in the future affects her present obligations. Agent's future behavior is held fixed and the agent's present obligations are determined by what would be best to do now in light of how the agent would act in the future. Doug Portmore defends a new view he calls (...)
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  47. added 2014-08-12
    Joshua May (2014). Review of Just Babies by Paul Bloom. [REVIEW] Metapsychology 18 (33).
    The scientific study of moral thought and action is flourishing, even if still in its infancy. In his recent book, Just Babies, Paul Bloom provides a valuable contribution to this movement with a focus on, well, infants (and other young children). I anxiously awaited this next installment from one of my favorite psychologists, and it met my high expectations. This should be unsurprising given the quality of his other books that popularize fascinating research on the mind, including Descartes' Baby and (...)
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  48. added 2014-08-11
    Alfred Archer & Michael Ridge (forthcoming). The Heroism Paradox: Another Paradox of Supererogation. Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    Philosophers are by now familiar with “the” paradox of supererogation. This paradox arises out of the idea that it can never be permissible to do something morally inferior to another available option, yet acts of supererogation seem to presuppose this. This paradox is not our topic in this paper. We mention it only to set it to one side and explain our subtitle. In this paper we introduce and explore another paradox of supererogation, one which also deserves serious philosophical attention. (...)
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  49. added 2014-08-11
    Lei Zhong (forthcoming). A Confucian Virtue Theory of Supererogation. Philosophy East and West 66 (4).
    Contemporary virtue ethicists have attempted to offer a virtue-based account of right action. However, such an account is faced by a daunting challenge, the ‘supererogation problem’ as I call it. Since what a virtuous person would characteristically do is often beyond the scope of moral duty, virtue ethics seems to have difficulty in accommodating the distinction between obligation and supererogation. In the paper, I aim to meet this challenge by recommending a Confucian virtue theory of supererogation.
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  50. added 2014-08-09
    Eric S. Nelson (2014). 科技和道: 布伯, 海德格尔和道家. 长白学刊 2014 (1):9-16.
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