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  1. Steven Abney (1987). The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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  2. Mira Ariel (1990). Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents. Routledge.
    Introduction Introducing Accessibility theory 0.1 On the role of context Utterances cannot be processed and interpreted on their own. ...
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  3. Ash Asudeh (2005). Relational Nouns, Pronouns, and Resumption. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (4):375 - 446.
    This paper presents a variable-free analysis of relational nouns in Glue Semantics, within a Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) architecture. Relational nouns and resumptive pronouns are bound using the usual binding mechanisms of LFG. Special attention is paid to the bound readings of relational nouns, how these interact with genitives and obliques, and their behaviour with respect to scope, crossover and reconstruction. I consider a puzzle that arises regarding relational nouns and resumptive pronouns, given that relational nouns can have bound readings (...)
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  4. Amrei Bahr, Jan G. Miehel & Mareike Volta (2013). Refining Kitcher's Semantics for Kind Terms, Or: Cleaning Up the Mess. In Marie Kaiser & Ansgar Seide (eds.), Philip Kitcher. Pragmatic Naturalism. Ontos. 15--91.
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  5. Merrie Bergmann (1982). Cross-Categorial Semantics for Conjoined Common Nouns. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):399 - 401.
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  6. Jean-Yves Béziau (1999). A Logical Analysis Of Singular Terms. Sorites 10:6-14.
    We analyse the behaviour of definite descriptions and proper names terms in mathematical logic. We show that in formal arithmetic, wether some axioms are fixed or not, proper names cannot be considered rigid designators and have the same behaviour as definite descriptions. In set theory, sometimes two names for the same object are introduced. It seems that this can be explained by the notion of meaning. The meaning of such proper names can be considered as fuzzy sets of equivalent co-designative (...)
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  7. Alexander Bird (2012). Referring to Natural Kind Thingamajigs, and What They Are: A Reply to Needham. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):103 - 109.
    Natural kind terms appear to behave like singular terms. If they were genuine singular terms, appearing in true sentences, that would be some reason to believe that there are entities to which the terms refer, the natural kinds. Paul Needham has attacked my arguments that natural kind terms are singular, referring expressions. While conceding the correctness of some of his criticisms, I defend and expand on the underlying view in this paper. I also briefly sketch an account of what natural (...)
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  8. J. Brown (1998). Recognitional Capacities and Natural Kind Terms. In Daniel N. Robinson (ed.), The Mind. Oxford University Press. 107--275.
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  9. Tyler Burge (1975). Mass Terms, Count Nouns, and Change. Synthese 31 (3-4):459 - 478.
    The paper develops two approaches to mass term and count noun substantivals. One treats them on the model of adjectives, Designating phases of a more basic substratum. The other treats them in a more commonsense way, As multiply designating individuals. The two accounts are tested against two problems originally raised by aristotle and heraclitus respectively. The comparison is aimed at bringing out certain central features of one-Place predication, Or more materially, Features of the notion of kind.
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  10. Arnold H. Buss (1953). Rigidity as a Function of Absolute and Relational Shifts in the Learning of Successive Discriminations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (3):153.
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  11. Gennaro Chierchia (2010). Mass Nouns, Vagueness and Semantic Variation. Synthese 174 (1):99 - 149.
    The mass/count distinction attracts a lot of attention among cognitive scientists, possibly because it involves in fundamental ways the relation between language (i.e. grammar), thought (i.e. extralinguistic conceptual systems) and reality (i.e. the physical world). In the present paper, I explore the view that the mass/count distinction is a matter of vagueness. While every noun/concept may in a sense be vague, mass nouns/concepts are vague in a way that systematically impairs their use in counting. This idea has never been systematically (...)
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  12. Gennaro Chierchia (1998). Reference to Kinds Across Language. Natural Language Semantics 6 (4):339-405.
    This paper is devoted to the study of bare nominal arguments (i.e., determinerless NPs occurring in canonical argumental positions) from a crosslinguistic point of view. It is proposed that languages may vary in what they let their NPs denote. In some languages (like Chinese), NPs are argumental (names of kinds) and can thus occur freely without determiner in argument position; in others they are predicates (Romance), and this prevents NPs from occurring as arguments, unless the category D(eterminer) is projected. Finally, (...)
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  13. Sandra Chung (2000). On Reference to Kinds in Indonesian. Natural Language Semantics 8 (2):157-171.
    Chierchia's (1998) theory of noun denotations, formalized in the Nominal Mapping Parameter, makes the prediction that no language will have both a generalized classifier system and a singular – plural contrast in nouns. Evidence presented in this note suggests that Indonesian is just such a language. The evidence is used to raise the more general issue of the extent to which the morphosyntax of nouns can be reliably predicted from the routes by which they are mapped into their denotations (and (...)
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  14. Nino Cocchiarella (2009). Mass Nouns in a Logic of Classes as Many. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (3):343 - 361.
    A semantic analysis of mass nouns is given in terms of a logic of classes as many. In previous work it was shown that plural reference and predication for count nouns can be interpreted within this logic of classes as many in terms of the subclasses of the classes that are the extensions of those count nouns. A brief review of that account of plurals is given here and it is then shown how the same kind of interpretation can also (...)
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  15. Ariel Cohen & Nomi Erteschik-Shir (2002). Topic, Focus, and the Interpretation of Bare Plurals. Natural Language Semantics 10 (2):125-165.
    In this paper we show that focus structure determines the interpretation of bare plurals in English: topic bare plurals are interpreted generically, focused bare plurals are interpreted existentially. When bare plurals are topics they must be specific, i.e. they refer to kinds. After type-shifting they introduce variables which can be bound by the generic quantifier, yielding characterizing generics. Existentially interpreted bare plurals are not variables, but denote properties that are incorporated into the predicate.The type of predicate determines the interpretation of (...)
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  16. Finn Collin (2001). Faye on the Semantics of Natural Kind Terms. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):162-166.
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  17. Nicolas David, Mass Nouns and Non-Singular Logic.
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  18. Veneeta Dayal (2003). Bare Nominals: Non-Specific and Contrastive Readings Under Scrambling. In Simin Karimi (ed.), Word Order and Scrambling. Blackwell Pub.. 67--90.
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  19. Dan López de Sa (2008). Rigidity for Predicates and the Trivialization Problem. Philosophers' Imprint 8.
    According to the simple proposal about rigidity for predicates, a predicate is rigid if it signifies the same property across the relevant worlds. Recent critics claim that this suffers from a trivialization problem: any predicate whatsoever would turn out to be trivially rigid, according to the proposal. In this paper a corresponding "problem" for ordinary singular terms is considered. A natural solution is provided by intuitions concerning the actual truth-value of identity statements involving them. The simple proposal for predicates is (...)
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  20. Harry Deutsch (1993). Semantics for Natural Kind Terms. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):389 - 411.
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  21. Michael Devitt (2009). Buenos Aires Symposium on Rigidity: Responses. Análisis Filosófico 29 (2):239-251.
    In this article the following criticisms of the essentialist conception of general term rigidity presented in the previous papers are considered and responded: the identity of designation conception of rigidity can provide us with a better alternative account for general term rigidity , and the essentialist conception fails to meet the condition of extensional adequacy, both because it over -and undergeneralizes . Against , it is claimed that the proposed definition of general term rigidity cannot feature in lost rigidity arguments (...)
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  22. Michael Devitt (2005). Rigid Application. Philosophical Studies 125 (2):139--165.
    Kripke defines a rigid designator as one that designates the same object in every possible world in which that object exists. He argues that proper names are rigid. So also, he claims, are various natural kind terms. But we wonder how they could be. These terms are general and it is not obvious that they designate at all. It has been proposed that these kind terms rigidly designate abstract objects. This proposal has been criticized because all terms then seem to (...)
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  23. Umberto Eco, Gaston Bachelard, Mikhail Mikhaylovich Bakhtin, Georges Bataille, Simone de Beauvoir, Émile Benveniste, Frantz Fanon, Homi Bhabha, Stanley Fish & Maurice Blanchot (2006). Names and Terms. In Paul Wake & Simon Malpas (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Critical Theory. Routledge.
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  24. Lloyd Arthur Eggan (1975). On the Thesis That Common Nouns Are Names, and the Question of Extension Determination. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
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  25. Crawford L. Elder (1995). A Different Kind of Natural Kind. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (4):516 – 531.
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  26. George Englebretsen (1985). Negative Names. Philosophia 15 (1-2):133-136.
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  27. Luis Fernandez Moreno (2012). Natural Kind Terms, Rigidity and the Path Towards Necessity. Acta Philosophica 21 (2):337 - 350.
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  28. Brendan S. Gillon (1992). Towards a Common Semantics for English Count and Mass Nouns. Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (6):597 - 639.
    English mass noun phrases & count noun phrases differ only minimally grammatically. The basis for the difference is ascribed to a difference in the features +/-CT. These features serve the morphosyntactic function of determining the available options for the assigment of grammatical number, itself determined by the features +/-PL: +CT places no restriction on the available options, while -CT, in the unmarked case, restricts the available options to -PL. They also serve the semantic function of determining the sort of denotation (...)
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  29. Brendan S. Gillon (1990). Plural Noun Phrases and Their Readings: A Reply to Lasersohn. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (4):477 - 485.
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  30. Brendan S. Gillon (1987). The Readings of Plural Noun Phrases in English. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (2):199 - 219.
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  31. Mario Gómez-Torrente (2006). Rigidity and Essentiality. Mind 115 (458):227-260.
    Is there a theoretically interesting notion that is a natural extension of the concept of rigidity to general terms? Such a notion ought to satisfy two Kripkean conditions. First, it must apply to typical general terms for natural kinds, stuffs, and phenomena, and fail to apply to most other general terms. Second, true ‘identification sentences’ (such as ‘Cats are animals’) containing general terms that the notion applies to must be necessary. I explore a natural extension of the notion of rigidity (...)
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  32. D. A. Griffiths (1986). Reference, "De Re" Belief and Rigidity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16 (4):677 - 692.
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  33. Jane Grimshaw, Verbs, Nouns and Affixation∗∗∗.
    What explains the rich patterns of deverbal nominalization? Why do some nouns have argument structure, while others do not? We seek a solution in which properties of deverbal nouns are composed from properties of verbs, properties of nouns, and properties of the morphemes that relate them. The theory of each plus the theory of how they combine, should give the explanation. In exploring this, we investigate properties of two theories of nominalization. In one, the verb-like properties of deverbal nouns result (...)
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  34. Jussi Haukioja (2006). Proto-Rigidity. Synthese 150 (2):155 - 169.
    What is it for a predicate or a general term to be a rigid designator? Two strategies for answering this question can be found in the literature, but both run into severe difficulties. In this paper, it is suggested that proper names and the usual examples of rigid predicates share a semantic feature which does the theoretical work usually attributed to rigidity. This feature cannot be equated with rigidity, but in the case of singular terms this feature entails their rigidity, (...)
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  35. Elena Herburger (1997). Focus and Weak Noun Phrases. Natural Language Semantics 5 (1):53-78.
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  36. Richard Hudson (1994). About 37% of Word-Tokens Are Nouns. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press. 70--2.
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  37. Douglas Lee Huff (1974). General Terms. Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia
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  38. Jim Hurford, The Interaction Between Numerals and Nouns.
    This paper is a descriptive survey of the principal phenomena surrounding cardinal numerals in attribution to nouns, with some concentration on European languages, but within a world-wide perspective. The paper is focussed on describing the syntagmatic distribution and the internal structure of numerals. By contrast, the important topic of the paradigmatic context of numerals, that is how their structure and behavior related to those of quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, and nouns, does not receive systematic discussion here, although many relevant comments are (...)
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  39. John Hyman (2001). -Ings and -Ers. Ratio 14 (4):298–317.
    This paper is about the semantic structure of verbal and deverbal noun phrases. The focus is on noun phrases which describe actions, perceptions, sensations and beliefs. It is commonly thought that actions are movements of parts of the agent’s body which we typically describe in terms of their effects, and that perceptions are slices of sensible experience which we typically describe in terms of their causes. And many philosophers hold that sensations and beliefs are states of the central nervous system (...)
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  40. Kent Johnson (2003). Are There Semantic Natural Kinds of Words? Mind and Language 18 (2):175–193.
    Gareth Evans proposes that there are semantic natural kinds of words. In his development of this theory,he argues for two constraints on the identification of these kinds. I argue that neither of these constraints are justified. Furthermore,my argument against Evans' second constraint constitutes a direct argument for the existence of semantic natural kinds,something Evans himself never offers. I conclude by sketching some positive details of a more plausible theory of semantic natural kinds.
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  41. Frank C. Keil (1986). The Acquisition of Natural Kind and Artifact Terms. In William Demopoulos (ed.), Language Learning and Concept Acquisition. Ablex. 133--153.
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  42. Paul Kiparsky, Finnish Noun Inflection.
    Inflected words in Finnish show a range of interdependent stem and suffix alternations which are conditioned by syllable structure and stress. In a penetrating study, Anttila (1997) shows how the statistical preferences among optional alternants of the Genitive Plural can be derived from free constraint ranking. I propose an analysis which covers the rest of the nominal morphology and spells out the phonological constraints that interact to produce the alternations, and show how it supports a stratal version of OT phonology.
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  43. Manfred Krifka, Counting Configurations.
    The sentence With these three shirts and four pairs of pants, one can make twelve different outfits does not entail that one can dress twelve persons. The article proposes an analysis of “configurational” entities like outfits as individual concepts. It investigates the interaction of noun phrases based on such nouns with temporal and modal operators and in collective and cumulative interpretations. It also discusses a generalization from tokens to types, as in with the seven pieces of a tan- gram set, (...)
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  44. Victor Kumar (2014). 'Knowledge' as a Natural Kind Term. Synthese 191 (3):439-457.
    Naturalists who conceive of knowledge as a natural kind are led to treat ‘knowledge’ as a natural kind term. ‘Knowledge,’ then, must behave semantically in the ways that seem to support a direct reference theory for other natural kind terms. A direct reference theory for ‘knowledge,’ however, appears to leave open too many possibilities about the identity of knowledge. Intuitively, states of belief count as knowledge only if they meet epistemic criteria, not merely if they bear a causal/historical relation to (...)
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  45. Fred Landman (2000). Events and Plurality. Kluwer Academic Publisher.
    The main claim of this book is that the very same distinction between semantic singularity and plurality that is fundamental to the semantics of nouns in the nominal domain is operative and fundamental in the verbal domain as well, applying ...
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  46. J. LaPorte (2000). Kind and Rigidity. Philosophical Studies 97:293 - 316.
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  47. Peter Lasersohn (1989). On the Readings of Plural Noun Phrases. Linguistic Inquiry 20 (1):130-134.
    Argues against a Gillon-style covers-based analysis of plural noun phrases.
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  48. Bernard Linsky (1984). General Terms as Designators. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 65 (3):259.
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  49. Bernard Linsky (1977). Putnam on the Meaning of Natural Kind Terms. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):819 - 828.
    In "the meaning of 'meaning'," hilary putnam uses three "twin earth" examples to argue that natural kind terms do not have a sense. I argue that the first two only show that kind terms are like indexicals and that they are rigid designators but that this is compatible with having a sense. The third argument relies on a theory about the epistemological role of kind terms and the claim that there are no analytic truths about kinds that could arise from (...)
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  50. Dan López de Sa (2006). Flexible Property Designators. Grazer Philosophische Studien 73 (1):221-230.
    Th e simple proposal about rigidity for predicates can be stated thus: a predicate is rigid if its canonical nominalization signifi es the same property across the different possible worlds. I have tried elsewhere to defend such a proposal from the trivialization problem, according to which any predicate whatsoever would turn out to be rigid. Benjamin Schnieder (2005) aims fi rst to rebut my argument that some canonical nominalizations can be fl exible, then to provide fi ve arguments to the (...)
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