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  1. Miguel Alzola (2013). The Empirics of Virtue Theory: What Can Psychology Tell Us About Moral Character? In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 89--107.
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  2. Miguel Alzola (2012). The Possibility of Virtue. Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):377-404.
    To have a virtue is to possess a certain kind of trait of character that is appropriate in pursuing the moral good at which the virtue aims. Human beings are assumed to be capable of attaining those traits. Yet, a number of scholars are skeptical about the very existence of such character traits. They claim a sizable amount of empirical evidence in their support. This paper is concerned with the existence and explanatory power of character as a way to assess (...)
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  3. Judith Andre (2013). Open Hope as a Civic Virtue. Social Philosophy Today 29:89-100.
    Hope as a virtue is an acquired disposition, shaped by reflection; as a civic virtue it must serve the good of the community. Ernst Bloch and Lord Buddha offer help in constructing such a virtue. Using a taxonomy developed by Darren Webb I distinguish open hope from goal-oriented hope, and use each thinker to develop the former. Bloch and Buddha are very different (and notoriously obscure; I do not attempt an exegesis). But they share a metaphysics of change, foundational for (...)
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  4. Judith Andre (2008). Burdened Virtues Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles (Review). Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 193-196.
  5. Julia Annas (1995). Reply to Commentators. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4):929 - 937.
    Response to Nancy Snow In Nancy’s impressive book she shows, through a thorough study of the philosophical debate about the position called ‘situationism’ and the psychological literature that supposedly based it, that there was a serious misconception right from the start among philosophers about the kind of disposition or trait which psychologists were concerned with. The kind of disposition the philosophers were rejecting was one taken to be expressed over a number of situations characterized from the outside, independently of the (...)
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  6. J. Arthur, T. Harrison, K. Kristjánsson, I. Davidson, D. Hayes & J. Higgins, My Character: Enhancing Future Mindedness in Young People: A Feasibility Study.
    The aim of the My Character project was to develop a better understanding of how interventions designed to develop character might enhance moral formation and futuremindedness in young people. Futuremindedness can be defined as an individual’s capacity to set goals and make plans to achieve them. Establishing goals requires considerable moral reflection, and the achievement of worthwhile aims requires character traits such as courage and the capacity to delay gratification. The research team developed two new educational interventions – a website (...)
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  7. Nafsika Athanassoulis, Virtue Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  8. Nafsika Athanassoulis (2000). A Response to Harman: Virtue Ethics and Character Traits: Discusions. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (2):215-221.
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  9. John C. Avise (1979). Considerations on the Evolution of Qualitative Multistate Traits. Acta Biotheoretica 28 (3):190-203.
    Simple models for the evolution of qualitative multistate traits are considered, in which the traits are permitted to evolve in time-dependent versus speciation-dependent fashion. Of particular interest are the means and variances of distances for these traits in evolutionary phylads characterized by different rates of speciation, when alternative characters are neutral with respect to fitness, and when the total number of observable characters is limited to small values. As attainable character states are increasingly restricted, mean distance (D) in a phylad (...)
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  10. Eugene Bagger (1949). Character and History. Thought 24 (2):216-224.
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  11. Kurt Baier (1988). Radical Virtue Ethics. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13 (1):126-135.
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  12. Stanley Bates (2009). Character. In Richard Eldridge (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature. Oup Usa.
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  13. Lewis White Beck (1947). The Distinctive Traits of an Empirical Method. Journal of Philosophy 44 (13):337-344.
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  14. Macalester Bell (2006). Review of Lisa Tessman, Burdened Virtues: Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (6).
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  15. Adam Benforado & Jon D. Hanson, Legal Academic Backlash: The Response of Legal Theorists to Situationist Insights.
    This article is the third of a multipart series. The first part, "The Great Attributional Divide," argues that a major rift runs across many of our major policy debates based on our attributional tendencies: the less accurate dispositionist approach, which explains outcomes and behavior with reference to people's dispositions (i.e., personalities, preferences, and the like), and the more accurate situationist approach, which bases attributions of causation and responsibility on unseen influences within us and around us. The second part, "Naive Cynicism," (...)
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  16. Lorraine Besser-Jones (2014). Eudaimonic Ethics: The Philosophy and Psychology of Living Well. Routledge.
    In this book , Lorraine Besser-Jones develops a eudaimonistic virtue ethics based on a psychological account of human nature. While her project maintains the fundamental features of the eudaimonistic virtue ethical framework—virtue, character, and well-being—she constructs these concepts from an empirical basis, drawing support from the psychological fields of self-determination and self-regulation theory. Besser-Jones’s resulting account of "eudaimonic ethics" presents a compelling normative theory and offers insight into what is involved in being a virtuous person and "acting well." This original (...)
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  17. S. Bolsin (2005). Practical Virtue Ethics: Healthcare Whistleblowing and Portable Digital Technology. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (10):612-618.
    Medical school curricula and postgraduate education programmes expend considerable resources teaching medical ethics. Simultaneously, whistleblowers’ agitation continues, at great personal cost, to prompt major intrainstitutional and public inquiries that reveal problems with the application of medical ethics at particular clinical “coalfaces”.Virtue ethics, emphasising techniques promoting an agent’s character and instructing their conscience, has become a significant mode of discourse in modern medical ethics. Healthcare whistleblowers, whose complaints are reasonable, made in good faith, in the public interest, and not vexatious, we (...)
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  18. Michael S. Brady (2004). Against Agent-Based Virtue Ethics. Philosophical Papers 33 (1):1-10.
    Abstract Agent-based virtue ethics is a unitary normative theory according to which the moral status of actions is entirely dependent upon the moral status of an agent's motives and character traits. One of the problems any such approach faces is to capture the common-sense distinction between an agent's doing the right thing, and her doing it for the right (or wrong) reason. In this paper I argue that agent-based virtue ethics ultimately fails to capture this kind of fine-grained distinction, and (...)
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  19. David Braun (2012). Character, and Beyond. In Gillian Russell Delia Graff Fara (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge. 9.
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  20. David Braun (1995). What is Character? Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (3):241--273.
  21. Kimberley Brownlee (2010). Moral Aspirations and Ideals. Utilitas 22 (3):241-257.
    My aim is to vindicate two distinct and important moral categories – ideals and aspirations – which have received modest, and sometimes negative, attention in recent normative debates. An ideal is a conception of perfection or model of excellence around which we can shape our thoughts and actions. An aspiration, by contrast, is an attitudinal position of steadfast commitment to, striving for, or deep desire or longing for, an ideal. I locate these two concepts in relation to more familiar moral (...)
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  22. J. Budziszewski (1991). The Pincovian Persuasion: Six Problems in Virtue Ethics (a Free Response to Seung). Social Theory and Practice 17 (2):251-271.
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  23. Philip Cafaro & Ronald L. Sandler (eds.) (2004). Environmental Virtue Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The first on the topic of environmental virtue ethics, this book seeks to provide the definitive anthology that will both establish the importance of environmental virtue in environmental discourse and advance the current research on environmental virtue in interesting and original ways. The selections in this collection, consisting of ten original and four reprinted essays by leading scholars in the field, discuss the role that virtue and character have traditionally played in environmental discourse, and reflect upon the role that it (...)
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  24. David Carr (2007). Review of Rebecca L. Walker, Philip J. Ivanhoe (Eds.), Working Virtue: Virtue Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (10).
  25. Michelle Ciurria (2012). A New Mixed View of Virtue Ethics, Based on Daniel Doviak's New Virtue Calculus. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):259-269.
    In A New Form of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics , Daniel Doviak develops a novel agent-based theory of right action that treats the rightness (or deontic status) of an action as a matter of the action’s net intrinsic virtue value (net-IVV)—that is, its balance of virtue over vice. This view is designed to accommodate three basic tenets of commonsense morality: (i) the maxim that “ought” implies “can,” (ii) the idea that a person can do the right thing for the wrong reason, (...)
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  26. S. Clarke (2007). The Fundamental Attribution Error and Harman's Case Against Character Traits. South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):350-368.
    Gilbert Harman argues that the warrant for the lay attribution of character traits is completely undermined by the “fundamental attribution error” (FAE). He takes it to have been established by social psychologists, that the FAE pervades ordinary instances of lay person perception. However, examination of recent work in psychology reveals that there are good reasons to doubt that the effects observed in experimental settings, which ground the case for the FAE, pervade ordinary instances of person perception. Furthermore, it is possible (...)
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  27. Christopher Miles Coope (2006). Modern Virtue Ethics. In T. D. J. Chappell (ed.), Values and Virtues: Aristotelianism in Contemporary Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  28. David Copp & David Sobel (2004). Morality and Virtue: An Assessment of Some Recent Work in Virtue Ethics. Ethics 114 (3):514-554.
    This essay focuses on three recent books on morality and virtue, Michael Slote's 'Morals from Motives', Rosalind Hursthouse's 'On Virtue Ethics', and Philippa Foot's 'Natural Goodness'. Slote proposes an "agent-based" ethical theory according to which the ethical status of acts is derivative from assessments of virtue. Following Foot's lead, Hursthouse aims to vindicate an ethical naturalism that explains human goodness on the basis of views about human nature. Both Hursthouse and Slote take virtue to be morally basic in a way (...)
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  29. Roger Crisp (2010). Virtue Ethics and Virtue Epistemology. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):22-40.
    The aim of this essay is to test the claim that epistemologists—virtue epistemologists in particular—have much to learn from virtue ethics. The essay begins with an outline of virtue ethics itself. This section concludes that a pure form of virtue ethics is likely to be unattractive, so the virtue epistemologist should examine the "impure" views of real philosophers. Aristotle is usually held up as the paradigm virtue ethicist. His doctrine of the mean is described, and it is explained how that (...)
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  30. Roger Crisp & Michael A. Slote (eds.) (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together much of the most influential work undertaken in the field of virtue ethics over the last four decades. The ethics of virtue predominated in the ancient world, and recent moral philosophy has seen a revival of interest in virtue ethics as a rival to Kantian and utilitarian approaches to morality. Divided into four sections, the collection includes articles critical of other traditions; early attempts to offer a positive vision of virtue ethics; some later criticisms of the (...)
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  31. Gerard J. Dalcourt (1976). The Pragmatist and Situationist Approach to Ethics. Thought 51 (2):135-146.
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  32. Stephen Darwall (2005). Virtue Ethics. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (4):589 – 597.
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  33. Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) (2003). Virtue Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    "Virtue Ethics" is a major approach to normative ethical theory that takes the consideration of character as fundamental to ethical reflection.
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  34. John Michael Doris (1996). People Like Us: Morality, Psychology, and the Fragmentation of Character. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Reflection on a 70-year "situationist" tradition in social psychology indicates that the characterological moral psychology typical of Aristotelian virtue ethics is empirically inadequate: it cannot account for important behaviors in experimental settings and the variability of moral behavior in naturalistic contexts. In response, the virtue theorist may insist that she is not proposing a descriptive psychology, but a normative theory, or a system of regulative ideals. If so, the virtue theorist owes some argument concerning the advantages of her approach relative (...)
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  35. Daniel Doviak (2011). A New Form of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3):259-272.
    In Morals From Motives, Michael Slote defends an agent-based theory of right action according to which right acts are those that express virtuous motives like benevolence or care. Critics have claimed that Slote’s view— and agent-based views more generally— cannot account for several basic tenets of commonsense morality. In particular, the critics maintain that agent-based theories: (i) violate the deontic axiom that ought implies can , (ii) cannot allow for a person’s doing the right thing for the wrong reason, and (...)
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  36. J. Driver (2002). On Virtue Ethics. Philosophical Review 111 (1):122-127.
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  37. Julia Driver (1995). Monkeying with Motives: Agent-Basing Virtue Ethics. Utilitas 7 (02):281-.
    Virtue ethics has generated a great deal of excitement among ethicists largely because it is seen as an alternative to the traditional theories – utilitarianism and Kantian ethics – which have come under considerable scrutiny and criticism in the past 30 years. Rather than give up the enterprise of doing moral theory altogether, as some have suggested, others have opted to develop an alternative that would hopefully avoid the shortcomings of both utilitarianism and Kantian ethics. Several writers, such as Jorge (...)
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  38. Marcia M. Eaton (1976). On Being a Character. British Journal of Aesthetics 16 (1):24-31.
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  39. Irwin Edman (1921). Human Traits and Their Social Significance. Journal of Philosophy 18 (22):609-612.
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  40. Ralph Waldo [Single Works] Emerson (1905). Character.
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  41. Robert Epstein (1982). A Note On The Mythological Character Of Categorization Research In Psychology. Journal of Mind and Behavior 3 (2).
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  42. Andreas Esheté (1982). Character, Virtue and Freedom. Philosophy 57 (222):495 - 513.
    In recent years, much uncertainty and outright scepticism surrounds the notion of character. In the arts—painting, the novel, drama, film—the notion of character has receded into the background. The loss of character is especially conspicuous in those artistic forms in which it traditionally occupied centre-stage: drama, the novel, films. The withdrawal of character from the arts has in fact become a topic of debate in the theory and criticism of the arts. In the arts themselves, the difficulty, if not the (...)
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  43. S. F. (2003). Christine Swanton Virtue Ethics: A Pluralistic View. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Pp. XI+312. £35.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0 119 9253888. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 39 (4):502-503.
  44. John Davis Freeman (1944). Time's Character Gauge. Nashville, Broadman Press.
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  45. James Clerk Maxwell Garnett (1939). Knowledge & Character. Cambridge, the University Press.
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  46. W. R. Boyce Gibson (1916). The Foundations of Character. Mind 25 (97):25-41.
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  47. Qun Gong (2010). Virtue Ethics and Modern Society—a Response to the Thesis of the Modern Predicament of Virtue Ethics. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):255-265.
    The revival of modern Western virtue ethics presents the question of whether or not virtue ethics is appropriate for modern society. Ethicists believe that virtue ethics came from traditional society, to which it conforms so well. The appearance of the market economy and a utilitarian spirit, together with society’s diversification, is a sign that modern society has arrived. This also indicates a transformation in the moral spirit. But modern society has not made virtues less important, and even as modern life (...)
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  48. Pamela M. Hall (2008). Virtue Ethics Old and New (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 332-332.
    Anyone paying the least attention to philosophy in the last four decades cannot fail to have noticed the revival of virtue ethics in Anglo-American moral philosophy. This revival, with its roots in post-war Oxford and Cambridge, has sought to reconnect ethics with the vocabulary and concepts of the ancient Greeks. By recourse to its vocabulary of virtue, moral theorists have sought a richer and deeper moral psychology as well as consideration of nature and teleology. The movement has bred some of (...)
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  49. Raja Halwani (2003). Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics. Hypatia 18 (3):161-192.
    : The paper argues that care ethics should be subsumed under virtue ethics by construing care as an important virtue. Doing so allows us to achieve two desirable goals. First, we preserve what is important about care ethics (for example, its insistence on particularity, partiality, emotional engagement, and the importance of care to our moral lives). Second, we avoid two important objections to care ethics, namely, that it neglects justice, and that it contains no mechanism by which care can be (...)
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  50. William Hare (1971). A Mixed Form of the Summary Theory of Character-Traits Defenced. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):750.
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