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  1. Laird Addis (1967). Particulars and Acquaintance. Philosophy of Science 34 (3):251-259.
    Philosophers who hold that the correct ontological analysis of things includes both properties and particulars have often been pressed to "show" the particular. If we are not acquainted with them, it is argued, then we should not suppose that they exist. I argue that, while we do have good and sufficient reasons for supposing there to be particulars, we are not acquainted with them. To suppose that we are acquainted with them is to treat particulars as if they were properties (...)
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  2. L. Angelone & G. Torrengo (2009). Bare Particulars and Persistence in Bergmann. In Langlet B. Monnoyer J.-M. (ed.), Gustav Bergmann : Phenomenological Realism and Dialectical Ontology. Ontos Verlag. 137--154.
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  3. Horacio Banega (2012). Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of Objecs of the Life-World: Stumpf, Husserl and Ingarden. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 16 (2):64-88.
    Formal ontology as it is presented in Husserl`s Third Logical Investigation can be interpreted as a fundamental tool to describe objects in a formal sense. It is presented one of the main sources: chapter five of Carl Stumpf`s Ûber den psycholoogischen Ursprung der Raumovorstellung (1873), and then it is described how Husserlian Formal Ontology is applied in Fifth Logical Investigation. Finally, it is applied to dramatic structures, in the spirit of Roman Ingarden.
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  4. Kenneth Barber (1967). Bare Particulars and Acquaintance. Dialogue 5 (4):580.
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  5. Dene Barnett (1974). A New Semantical Theory of Egocentric Particulars. Synthese 28 (3-4):533 - 547.
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  6. Jeffrey Barrett, The Bare Theory and How to Fix It.
    The bare theory is the standard von Neumann·Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics without the collapse postulate but with the eigenvalueeigenstate link. Albert (1992, 1i6-125) presented the bare theory as one way of understanding EverettRi7;s relative-state interpretation. At first glance, it looks as if the bare theory cannot possibly account for our experience. After all, at the end of a measurement an observer will typically be in a superposition of having recorded mutually incompatible results, which on the standard interpretation of states (...)
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  7. Gordon Becker (1974). Difficulties with Bare Preferences. Theory and Decision 5 (3):329-331.
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  8. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2009). A Spatio-Temporal Ontology for Geographic Information Integration. International Journal for Geographical Information Science 23 (6):765-798.
    This paper presents an axiomatic formalization of a theory of top-level relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the sub-universal relation among universals and the parthood relation among individuals, as well as cross-categorial relations such as instantiation and membership. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical for (...)
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  9. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski & Barry Smith (2004). Brentano’s Ontology: From Conceptualism to Reism. In Dale Jacquette (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Brentano. Cambridge University Press. 197--220.
    It is often claimed that the beginnings of Brentano’s ontology were Aristotelian in nature; but this claim is only partially true. Certainly the young Brentano adopted many elements of Aristotle’s metaphysics, and he was deeply influenced by the Aristotelian way of doing philosophy. But he always interpreted Aristotle’s ideas in his own fashion. He accepted them selectively, and he used them in the service of ends that would not have been welcomed by Aristotle himself. The present paper is an exposition (...)
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  10. James Van Cleve (1985). Three Versions of the Bundle Theory. Philosophical Studies 47 (1):95 - 107.
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  11. Niall Connolly (2015). Yes: Bare Particulars! Philosophical Studies 172 (5):1355-1370.
    What is the Bare Particular Theory? Is it committed, like the Bundle Theory, to a constituent ontology: according to which a substance’s qualities—and according to the Bare Particular Theory, its substratum also—are proper parts of the substance? I argue that Bare Particularists need not, should not, and—if a recent objection to ‘the Bare Particular Theory’ succeeds—cannot endorse a constituent ontology. There is nothing, I show, in the motivations for Bare Particularism or the principles that distinguish Bare Particularism from rival views (...)
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  12. Sam Cowling (2014). Instantiation as Location. Philosophical Studies 167 (3):667-682.
    Many familiar forms of property realism identify properties with sui generis ontological categories like universals or tropes and posit a fundamental instantiation relation that unifies objects with their properties. In this paper, I develop and defend locationism, which identifies properties with locations and holds that the occupation relation that unifies objects with their locations also unifies objects with their properties. Along with the theoretical parsimony that locationism enjoys, I argue that locationism resolves a puzzle for actualists regarding the ontological status (...)
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  13. M. J. Cresswell (1983). HITE, F. C.: "Plato's Theory of Particulars". [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61:323.
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  14. Javier Cumpa (2014). Is Exemplification Absurd? A Note on Lowe’s Criticism. In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter. 197-200.
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  15. Shamik Dasgupta (2011). The Bare Necessities. Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):115-160.
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  16. Richard Davis, On Individuators.
    My gratitude to Timothy Pickavance for his provocative remarks; they take the discussion of individuation and individuators into interesting areas, far more in fact than I have the space to deal with here.1 In my response, therefore, I do not propose to stubbornly defend myself in line-by-line fashion; rather, I shall take up the topics I consider to be of greatest interest and importance, hopefully nudging the discussion forward.
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  17. Imogen Dickie (2003). Referring to Real Particulars.
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  18. Diane Enns (2004). Bare Life and the Occupied Body. Theory and Event 7 (3).
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  19. Yehudah Freundlich (1974). Objects and Their Attributes: A Physicist's Point of View. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 4 (1):1-8.
    We treat some puzzling aspects of the notions of objects and attributes by presenting a mathematical model which exhibits these very same, seemingly perplexing, features.
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  20. Michel Ghins (2013). Semirealism, Concrete Structures and Theory Change. Erkenntnis 78 (1):19 - 27.
    After a presentation of some relevant aspects of Chakravartty's semi-realism (A Metaphysics for scientific realism. Knowing the unobservable. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), this paper addresses two difficulties that appear to be inherent to important components of his proposed metaphysics for scientific realism. First, if particulars and laws are concrete structures, namely actual groupings of causal properties as the semirealist contends, the relation between particulars and laws becomes also a relation between particulars with some annoying consequences. This worry—and some others—are (...)
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  21. Michael Gorman (2014). Ujvári, Márta., The Trope Bundle Theory of Substance: Change, Individuation and Individual Essence. Review of Metaphysics 67 (4):890-891.
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  22. Philip Hardie (1997). Bare Ruined Choirs. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 47 (1):37-38.
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  23. D. Holdcroft (1971). Talking About Particulars. Philosophical Books 12 (2):18-20.
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  24. Ronald C. Hoy (1998). Object and Property. Dialogue 37 (3):613-614.
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  25. Lloyd Humberstone & Aubrey Townsend (1994). Co-Instantiation and Identity. Philosophical Studies 74 (2):243 - 272.
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  26. Mark Johnston (1984). Particulars and Persistence. Dissertation, Princeton University
    The thesis is concerned with the outline of an ontology which admits only particulars and with the persistence of particulars through time. In Chapter 1 it is argued that a neglected class of particulars--the cases--have to be employed in order to solve the problem of universals, i.e., to give a satisfactory account of properties and kinds. In Chapter 2, two ways in which particulars could persist though time are distinguished. Difficulties are raised for the view that everything perdures through time, (...)
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  27. Margaret Kohn (2006). Bare Life and the Limits of the Law. Theory and Event 9 (2).
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  28. J. D. Lafrance (2015). A Bundle of Universals Theory of Material Objects. Philosophical Quarterly 65 (259):202-219.
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  29. Donald C. Lindenmuth (1986). How Things Are. Review of Metaphysics 39 (4):757-758.
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  30. Douglas C. Long (1968). Particulars and Their Qualities. Philosophical Quarterly 18 (72):193-206.
    Berkeley, Hume, and Russell rejected the traditional analysis of substances in terms of qualities which are supported by an "unknowable substratum." To them the proper alternative seemed obvious. Eliminate the substratum in which qualities are alleged to inhere, leaving a bundle of coexisting qualities--a view that we may call the Bundle Theory or BT. I examine two major types of BT developed by Russell and by G. F. Stout with the intention of showing that (1) the seemingly innocuous concept of (...)
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  31. Kuno Lorenz (1977). On the Relation Between the Partition of a Whole Into Parts and the Attribution of Properties to an Object. Studia Logica 36 (4):351-362.
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  32. Michael Loux (1997). Beyond Substrata and Bundles. In Macdonald Laurence (ed.), Contemporary Readings in the Foundations of Metaphysics. Blackwell.
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  33. P. D. Magnus (2004). The Price of Insisting That Quantum Mechanics is Complete. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2):257-267.
    The Bare Theory was offered by David Albert as a way of standing by the completeness of quantum mechanics in the face of the measurement problem. This paper surveys objections to the Bare Theory that recur in the literature: what will here be called the oddity objection, the coherence objection, and the context-of-the-universe objection. Critics usually take the Bare Theory to have unacceptably bizarre consequences, but to be free from internal contradiction. Bizarre consequences need not be decisive against the Bare (...)
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  34. Douglas Mao (2008). The Particulars of Rapture: An Aesthetics of the Affects. Common Knowledge 14 (1):173-173.
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  35. D. W. Mertz (2003). Against Bare Particulars A Response to Moreland and Pickavance. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):14-20.
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  36. Alexander Miller, Bare Functional Desire.
    But this changes nothing. The decisive claim is that in assessing the counterfactuals implicit in (A) we do not have to take sceptical worlds into the reckoning, whereas we must do that in assessing (B) because (B) explicitly speaks of them. Accept, provisionally, what is here said about (B) and focus on the claim about (A). Nobody should make it unless they are already in a position to assert that the actual world is not a sceptical world. And with that (...)
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  37. Barry Miller (1990). Individuals and Individuality. Grazer Philosophische Studien 37:75-91.
    The most basic requirement of any theory of concrete individuals is that it do justice to the fact that, unlike universals, individuals are non-instantiable. The bundle theories of Russell and Goodman, the Guise Theory of Castaneda and the Trope Theory of D.C.Williams each breach this requirement by implicity allowing an individual to be instantiable either after it has ceased to exist or both before and after it has ceased to exist. Underlying this flaw in all four theories is the tacit (...)
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  38. P. J. Moreland (1998). Theories of Individuation: A Reconsideration of Bare Particulars. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):251-263.
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  39. J. P. T. MorelandPickavance (2003). Bare Particulars and Individuation Reply to Mertz. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):1-13.
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  40. L. Nathan Oaklander (1977). Particulars, Positional Qualities, and Individuation. Philosophy of Science 44 (3):478-490.
    In this paper I attempt to show that an argument offered by Bergmann and Hausman against positional qualities and for bare particulars as individuators is unsound. I proceed by giving two ontological assays of an ordinary thing and showing that the entity that individuates on one assay--a bare particular--does not provide deeper ontological ground of individuation than the entity that individuates on the other assay--a positional quality. Since the argument for particulars is based on the premise that only particulars can (...)
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  41. L. Nathan Oaklander & Alicia Rothstein (2000). Loux on Particulars: Bare and Concrete. Modern Schoolman 78 (1):97-102.
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  42. L. Nathan Oaklander & Alicia Rothstein (2000). Loux on Particulars: Bare and Concrete. Modern Schoolman 78 (1):97-102.
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  43. Francesco Orilia, Van Cleve, The Bundle Theory and Guise Theory.
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  44. Aaron Preston (2005). Quality Instances and the Structure of the Concrete Particular. Axiomathes 15 (2):267-292.
    In this paper, I examine a puzzle that emerges from what J. P. Moreland has called the traditional realist view of quality instances. Briefly put, the puzzle is to figure out how quality instances fit into the overall structure of a concrete particular, given that the traditional realist view of quality instances prima facie seems incompatible with what might be called the traditional realist view of concrete particulars. After having discussed the traditional realist views involved and the puzzle that emerges (...)
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  45. Jiří Raclavský (2008). Reformulating Tichý's Conception of Bare Individuals. Organon F 15 (2):143-167.
    A bare individual was conceived by Tichý as an individual such as if the property the individual instantiates is non-trivial , it is possible for the individual to lack it ; and for any trivial property that it cannot lack this kind of property. The exact readings of Tichý’s original formulations of bare individuals are subjected to a detailed analysis to reveal that any of them is refutable by means of Cmorejian objection that there exist contingent properties which are partly (...)
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  46. M. Schmidt (2005). Can Bundle Theory Explain Individuation? Organon F 12 (1):62-71.
    Bundle theory reduces particulars to bundles of properties. Bundle theorists have been working to explain individuation within an ontology of repeatable properties, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Even the trope approach toward properties is not capable of establishing individuation. This article argues that bundle theorists are wrong in searching for individuators within the bundles of properties. Rather, indi­viduation should be established within ontologically more fundamental level of events. Events, with their spatial and temporal character, enable us to individuate the (...)
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  47. Johanna Seibt (2004). III. Process and Particulars. In Michel Weber (ed.), After Whitehead: Rescher on Process Metaphysics. Ontos Verlag. 1--111.
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  48. Wilfrid Sellars (1952). Particulars. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 13 (2):184-199.
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  49. Kevin W. Sharpe (2012). Structural Properties and Parthood. Southwest Philosophy Review 28 (1):111-120.
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  50. Anthony Shiver (2013). Mereological Bundle Theory and the Identity of Indiscernibles. Synthese:1-13.
    Paul (Noûs 36:578–596, 2002; Noûs 40:623–659, 2006, The Handbook of Mereology, forthcoming) has argued for a bundle theory of objects that analyzes the bundling relation between properties and objects in terms of parthood relations. In this paper I argue that any mereological bundle theory with the explanatory power of Paul’s theory will entail the principle of the identity of indiscernibles (PII). This is problematic, since similar bundle theories seem to fall to Max Black’s two sphere counterexample to (PII). I argue, (...)
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