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  1. Matthias Adam (2007). Theoriebeladenheit und Objektivität. Zur Rolle von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. Reihe Epistemische Studien, Schriften zur Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
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  2. Jim Bogen (2009). Theory and Observation in Science. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientists obtain a great deal of the evidence they use by observingnatural and experimentally generated objects and effects. Much of thestandard philosophical literature on this subject comes from20th century logical positivists and empiricists, theirfollowers, and critics who embraced their issues and accepted some oftheir assumptions even as they objected to specific views. Theirdiscussions of observational evidence tend to focus on epistemologicalquestions about its role in theory testing. This entry follows theirlead even though observational evidence also plays important andphilosophically interesting roles (...)
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  3. Brian Joseph Brinkworth (1968). An Introduction to Experimentation. New York, American Elsevier Pub. Co..
  4. Harold I. Brown (1993). A Theory-Laden Observation Can Test the Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):555-559.
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  5. Harold I. Brown (1987). Observation And Objectivity. Oxford University Press.
    This book develops an explanation for the roles of observation and theory in scientific endeavor that occupies the middle ground between empiricism and rationalism, and captures the strengths of both approaches. Brown argues that philosophical theories have the same epistemological status as scientific theories and constructs an epistemological theory that provides an account of the role that theory and instruments play in scientific observation. His theory of perception yields a new analysis of objectivity that combines the traditional view of observation (...)
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  6. Marco Buzzoni (1997). Erkenntnistheoretische Und Ontologische Probleme der Theoretischen Begriffe. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (1):19-53.
    Operationalism and theoretical entities. The thesis of the“theory ladenness” of observation leads to an antinomy. In order to solve this antinomy a technical operationalism is sketched, according to which theories should in principle not contain anything that cannot be reduced to technical procedures. This implies the rejection of Quine's underdeterminacy thesis and of many views about the theoretical-observational distinction, e.g. neopositivistic views, van Fraassen's view, Sneed-Stegmüller's view. Then I argue for the following theses: 1. All scientific concepts are theory laden (...)
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  7. James Child (1971). On the Theoretical Dependence of Correspondence Postulates. Philosophy of Science 38 (2):170-177.
    The nature of the connection between theory and observation has been a major source of difficulty for philosophers of science. It is most vexing for those who would reduce the terms of a theory to those of an observation language, e.g. Carnap, Braithwaite, and Nagel. Carnap's work, particularly his treatment of physical theories as partially interpreted formalisms, forms the point of focus of this paper. Carnap attempted to make the connection between theory and observation through correspondence postulates. It is pointed (...)
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  8. P. Costabel (1975). The Coming of Precision to Scientific Observation. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 29 (114):447-452.
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  9. Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. The University of Chicago Press.
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  10. Michael Dickson (1999). The Light at the End of the Tunneling: Observation and Underdetermination. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):58.
    If observation is 'theory-laden', how can there be 'observationally equivalent theories'? How can the observations 'laden' by one theory be 'the same as' those 'laden' by another? The answer might lie in the expressibility of observationally equivalent theories in a common mathematical formalism.
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  11. Fred Dretske (1964). Observational Terms. Philosophical Review 73 (January):25-42.
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  12. A. Franklin, M. Anderson, D. Brock, S. Coleman, J. Downing, A. Gruvander, J. Lilly, J. Neal, D. Peterson, M. Price, R. Rice, L. Smith, S. Speirer & D. Toering (1989). Can a Theory-Laden Observation Test the Theory? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (2):229-231.
  13. Martin Frické (1983). On the Theory Dependance of Observation. Philosophica 31.
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  14. Michael Friedman (2008). Wissenschaftslogik : The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science. Synthese 164 (3):385 - 400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  15. William Herbert George (1975). The Scientist in Action: A Scientific Study of His Methods. Arno Press.
    THE SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK "It was a great step in science when men became convinced that, in order to understand the nature of things, they must begin by ...
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  16. William Herbert George (1936). The Scientist in Action. London, Williams & Norgate, Ltd..
    It seems that the only scientific device which is not widely applicable is the special experimental technique necessary to establish the cause-and-effect ...
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  17. Wenceslao González (ed.) (2010). New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science. Netbiblo.
    New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles.
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  18. James G. Greeno (1970). Theoretical Entities in Statistical Explanation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970:3 - 26.
  19. Norwood Russell Hanson (1971). Observation and Explanation a Guide to Philosophy of Science. Pref. By Stephen Toulmin. --. Harper & Row.
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  20. Robert G. Hudson (1991). Why is Observation Important to Science? Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    I believe observation is valued by scientists because it is an objective source of information. Objective here can mean two things. First, observation could be objective in that it is an assured source of truths about the world, truths whose meaning is the same for everyone regardless of their personal theoretical vantage points. I criticize this construal of observational objectivity in chapter one. The guilty doctrine, which I entitle 'empiricistic epistemological foundationalism', is shown to be untenable on, in part, historical (...)
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  21. Erica Jen (forthcoming). Interactions Between Theory, Models, and Observation. Complexity.
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  22. L. O. Kattsoff (1947). Observation and Interpretation in Science. Philosophical Review 56 (6):682-689.
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  23. S. Körner (1967). Some Relations Between Philosophical and Scientific Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17 (4):265-278.
    Since the question of the relations between philosophy and science is never very far from the minds of philosophers of science, an occasional attempt at answering it seems permissible and may even be useful. The paper is divided into three parts. First, philosophical and scientific theories are compared by reference to commonsense thought. Secondly, some of the reasonable and unreasonable constraints will bediscussed which philosophical theories may impose upon scientific ones, and scientific theories upon philosophical ones. In the third part (...)
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  24. Sachiko Kusukawa (2014). Observation Observed. Metascience 23 (2):347-352.
    This is an important volume of seventeen essays that historicizes observation as a practice, concept and ideal. It belongs to the historiographical tradition of scrutinizing central aspects of the scientific enterprise such as experiments and objectivity that once appeared too self-evident to be probed. The challenge of historicizing such a significant idea is that it has to be a collective enterprise.The volume starts with three essays that provide a chronological survey of the period from 500 to 1800. Katherine Park, covering (...)
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  25. Ervin Laszlo (1996). Science and Hypotheses on Unobservable Domains of Nature. Philosophia Scientiae 1 (S1):177-186.
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  26. Toby Linden (1992). Shapere on Observation. Philosophy of Science 59 (2):293-299.
    In his article "The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy" (1982), Dudley Shapere argues for an analysis of what it is for an object to be directly observed (observable). He does so by presenting two contrasting ways of observing the center of the sun. However, his examples, which are probabilistic in nature, are at odds with his analysis, which is absolute. I argue that of the three features of the examples which could serve as the basis for the analysis (...)
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  27. Michael E. Malone (1978). Is Scientific Observation Seeing As? Philosophical Investigations 1 (4):23-38.
  28. Neil Manson (2003). Review of Nick Bostrom, Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (2).
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  29. I. N. Marshall (1995). Some Phenomenological Implications of a Quantum Model of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 5 (4):609-20.
    We contrast person-centered categories with objective categories related to physics: consciousness vs. mechanism, observer vs. observed, agency vs. event causation. semantics vs. syntax, beliefs and desires vs. dispositions. How are these two sets of categories related? This talk will discuss just one such dichotomy: consciousness vs. mechanism. Two extreme views are dualism and reductionism. An intermediate view is emergence. Here, consciousness is part of the natural order (as against dualism), but consciousness is not definable only in terms of physical mass, (...)
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  30. Grover Maxwell (1974). Some Current Trends in Philosophy of Science: With Special Attention to Confirmation, Theoretical Entities, and Mind-Body. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:565 - 584.
  31. D. Mayr (1981). Comment on Putnam's 'Quantum Mechanics and the Observer'. Erkenntnis 16 (2):221 - 225.
  32. James W. McAllister (2010). The Ontology of Patterns in Empirical Data. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):804-814.
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  33. Robert Nola (1986). Observation and Growth in Scientific Knowledge. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:245 - 257.
    In the writings of scientists we find claim to the effect that we can observe items such as pulsars, gravity waves, quarks, electrons, etc. An epistemological theory, originally developed by Dretske and modified by Jackson, is used to give an account of such claims and the extent to which they may be deemed correct. The theory eschews talk of the theory-ladenness of observation while giving an account of how our observation reports may evolve with growth in scientific knowledge. The theory (...)
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  34. Kathleen Okruhlik (1978). The Interplay Between Theory and Observation in the Solar Model of Hipparchus and Ptolemy. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:73 - 82.
    Attempts by twentieth-century historians to account for the successes and failures of the Hipparchian-Ptolemaic solar model provide valuable case studies for philosophers who are studying the relationship between observational data and theoretical constructs. A brief survey of recent literature on the solar model reveals that in some cases results which appear to be the product of highly accurate observation are, in fact, based on rather crude observations aided by a large measure of theoretical presupposition. On the other hand, mistaken results, (...)
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  35. Michael Polanyi (forthcoming). Science: Observation and Belief. Humanitas.
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  36. Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner (2002). The Observer in the Quantum Experiment. Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1273-1293.
    A goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. Such intrusion is usually seen to arise because observation somehow selects a single actuality from among the many possibilities represented by the wavefunction. The issue is typically treated in terms of the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory. We attempt to address a different manifestation of the quantum measurement problem in a theory-neutral manner. With a version of the two-slit (...)
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  37. Joseph Rychlak (1992). A Teleologist's Reactions To "on Private Events And Theoretical Terms". Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (4):347-358.
    This paper examines the theoretical differences obtaining between a mechanist like Moore and a teleologist like Rychlak. It is shown that mechanistic formulations invariably reduce the account to material and efficient causation, whereas teleologists want to bring in formal-final cause descriptions as well. Mechanists frame their explanations in third-person terms whereas teleologists often seek a first-person formulation of behavior. Moore's references to "private events" are shown to be extraspectively understood. A major theme of this paper is that Skinner actually capitalized (...)
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  38. Jutta Schickore (1999). Sehen, Sichtbarkeit Und Empirische Forschung. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):273-287.
    Vision, Visibility, and Empirical Research. In general, natural scientists use the concept of observation in a liberal way: they talk of observing electrons, DNA, or distant quasars. Several philosophers of science have recently argued for a similar use of the concept of observation: they have claimed that the important aspects of scientific research can only be properly reconstructed in accordance with how this term is actually used in science. With reference to an example from astronomy, I point out that the (...)
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  39. Dudley Shapere (1982). The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 49 (4):485-525.
    Through a study of a sophisticated contemporary scientific experiment, it is shown how and why use of the term 'observation' in reference to that experiment departs from ordinary and philosophical usages which associate observation epistemically with perception. The role of "background information" is examined, and general conclusions are arrived at regarding the use of descriptive language in and in talking about science. These conclusions bring out the reasoning by which science builds on what it has learned, and, further, how that (...)
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  40. Abner Shimony (1993). Search for a Naturalistic Worldview, Volume 2: Natural Science and Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    Table of Contents: Acknowledgements; Preface; 1. Integral epistemology; 2. Reality, causality and closing the circle; 3. Search for a world view that can accommodate our knowledge of microphysics; 4. Perception from an evolutionary point of view; 5. Is observation theory-laden? A problem in naturalistic epistemology; 6. Coherence and the axioms of confirmation; 7. An adamite derivation of the principles of the calculus of probability; 8. The status of the principle of maximum entropy; 9. Scientific inference; 10. Reconsiderations on inductive logic; (...)
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  41. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1982). Quark Quantum Numbers and the Problem of Microphysical Observation. Synthese 50 (1):125 - 145.
    The main question addressed in this essay is whether quarks have been observed in any sense and, if so, what might be meant by this use of the term, observation. In the first (or introductory) section of the paper, I explain that well-known researchers are divided on the answers to these important questions. In the second section, I investigate microphysical observation in general. Here I argue that Wilson's analogy between observation by means of high-energy accelerators and observation by means of (...)
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  42. E. E. Sleinis (1973). Hanson on Observation and Explanation. Philosophical Papers 2 (2):73-83.
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  43. Paul Sonenthal, The Role of the Observer in Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.
    Although quantum mechanics has significantly advanced our understanding of the physical world, it has also been a source of great confusion. Myriad interpretations, and interpretations of interpretations, have been proposed to try and explain away the seeming inconsistencies which lie at the heart of quantum mechanics. All of these attempts at interpretation center on the seemingly intractable measurement problem. In this essay I argue that a number of interpretations of quantum mechanics are plagued by inadequate and misleading assumptions about the (...)
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  44. Marshall Spector (1966). Theory and Observation (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17 (1):1-20.
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  45. Marshall Spector (1966). Theory and Observation (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17 (2):89-104.
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  46. Ping-Kwan Tham & 譚秉鈞, A Critical Examination of the Problem of Theoretical Terms.
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  47. D. W. Theobald (1967). Observation and Reality. Mind 76 (302):198-207.
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  48. Jeremy Vetter (2011). Introduction: Lay Participation in the History of Scientific Observation. Science in Context 24 (2):127-141.
Observables
  1. Alberto C. De la Torre (2007). Observables Have No Value: A No-Go Theorem for Position and Momentum Observables. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 37 (8):1243-1252.
    The Bell–Kochen–Specker contradiction is presented using continuous observables in infinite dimensional Hilbert space. It is shown that the assumption of the existence of putative values for position and momentum observables for one single particle is incompatible with quantum mechanics.
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  2. Zoltan Domotor (1972). Species of Measurement Structures. Theoria 38 (1-2):64-81.
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