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  1. Jonas R. B. Arenhart (2012). Ontological Frameworks for Scientific Theories. Foundations of Science 17 (4):339-356.
    A close examination of the literature on ontology may strike one with roughly two distinct senses of this word. According to the first of them, which we shall call traditional ontology , ontology is characterized as the a priori study of various “ontological categories”. In a second sense, which may be called naturalized ontology , ontology relies on our best scientific theories and from them it tries to derive the ultimate furniture of the world. From a methodological point of view (...)
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  2. Robert Arp & Barry Smith, Function, Role and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology. Nature Precedings.
    Numerous research groups are now utilizing Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level framework to assist in the organization and integration of biomedical information. This paper provides elucidation of the three existing BFO subcategories of realizable entity, namely function, role, and disposition. It proposes one further sub-category of tendency, and considers the merits of recognizing two sub-categories of function for domain ontologies, namely, artifactual and biological function. The motivation is to help advance the coherent ontological treatment of functions, roles, and dispositions, (...)
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  3. Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear (2015). Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. MIT Press.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  4. F. G. Asenjo (1988). In-Between: An Essay on Categories. Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology & University Press of America.
    This book introduces a new category, in-between, that will have a far-reaching impact on classic ways of thinking. Husserl's description of consciousness and Whitehead's criticism of the prejudice of simple location are two starting points. Relativity theory's radical changes in the conception of space and time also motivate some of the lines of thought.
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  5. Edward G. Ballard (1956). Category and Paradox. Tulane Studies in Philosophy 5:5-16.
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  6. Monroe Beardsley (1954). Categories. Review of Metaphysics 8 (1):3 - 29.
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  7. Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate (2015). Un estudio acerca del cambio y el movimiento, a partir del pensamiento de Moisés Vincenzi. Humanidades 5 (2):1-22.
    Resumen La pesquisa procura el reconocimiento de los aportes filosóficos de Moisés Vincenzi Pacheco. Específicamente, se analizan los considerandos vincenzianos sobre la no existencia del cambio y de la reducción al absurdo como herramienta metodológica para el estudio de las nociones de cambio y movimiento. Vincenzi logra despuntar al término de su reflexión una mirada contestataria a la concepción de sincronía y presenta un esbozo hacia una filosofía del infinitismo. Moisés Vincenzi, un filósofo imprudente ante la nada y testigo de (...)
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  8. Gustav Bergmann (1978). Esbozo de un inventario ontológico. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):93.
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  9. Scott Berman (2006). Categories. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (4):503-504.
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  10. Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith (2004). Individuals, Universals, Collections: On the Foundational Relations of Ontology. In Achille Varzi Laure Vieu (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference. IOS Press 37–48.
    This paper provides an axiomatic formalization of a theory of foundational relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the is-a relation among universals and the part-of relation among individuals as well as cross-category relations such as instance-of, member-of, and partition-of. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical (...)
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  11. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2003). Granular Spatio-Temporal Ontologies. AAAI Symposium:12-17.
    We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes (occurrents) and the enduring entities (continuants) that participate therein. The theory is divided into two major categories of sub-theories: (sub-) theories of type SPAN and (sub-)theories of type SNAP. These theories represent two complementary perspectives on reality and result in distinct though compatible systems of categories. In SNAP we have enduring entities such as substances, qualities, roles, functions; in SPAN we have perduring entities such as (...)
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  12. Phillip Bricker (2009). Review of The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):675-678.
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  13. Michael Brodrick (2015). The Ethics of Detachment in Santayana's Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Knowing that we are finite, how can we live to the fullest? Spanish/American philosopher George Santayana described a special kind of transcendence or "spirituality" that enables us to fully enjoy the present moment, regardless of our limited existence. This book clarifies and extends Santayana's account of spirituality, while suggesting how the detachment of spirituality can relieve human suffering, enrich our lives, and make us better human beings.
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  14. Ada Bronowski (2013). Epicureans and Stoics on Universals. In Riccardo Chiaradonna Gabriele Galluzzo (ed.), Universals in Ancient Philosophy. Edizioni Della Normale 255-297.
    Epicureans and Stoics reject the independent existence of the Platonic Ideas. This paper assesses what both schools put forward as substitutes for universals. Both Epicureans and Stoics appeal to an a posteriori mental capacity for generalisation but that is where their shared commitments end. the divergences are mapped out, against a tendency in historiography to assimilate the two strategies, and both theories are then analysed independently.
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  15. Panayot Butchvarov (2007). Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance – Jan Westerhoff. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (227):301–303.
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  16. Francesco F. Calemi (ed.) (2016). Metaphysics and Scientific Realism: Essays in Honour of David Malet Armstrong. De Gruyter.
  17. Stéphane Chauvier (2009). Modes d’être. Cahiers de Philosophie de L’Université de Caen 46:111.
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  18. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2011). Realistyczne teorie uniwersaliów (realist theories of universals). In Sebastian Kołodziejczyk (ed.), Przewodnik po Metafizyce. WAM
    This is a general introduction to the metaphysics o universals.
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  19. Michael Clark (1990). Fact and Fiction. In Alan Malachowski (ed.), Reading Rorty. Blackwell
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  20. S. Marc Cohen (2009). Substances. In Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.), A Companion to Aristotle. Blackwell-Wiley
    This is a survey of Aristotle's development of the concept of substance in the Categories and Book VII (Zeta) of the Metaphysics. We begin with the Categories conception of a primary substance as that which is not "in a subject" -- i.e., not ontologically dependent on anything else -- and also not "said of a subject" -- i.e., not predicated of any item beneath it in its categorial tree. This gives us the idea of primary substances as ontologically basic individuals, (...)
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  21. Max Colodro (ed.) (2013). Ontologia de la ausencia. La metáfora en el horizonte de la desconstruccion. Editorial Cuarto Propio.
    Metaphor as a central key to understand The metaphisic into The order of language. Deconstruction is a very important process and instrument to iluminate de position of writing for discloseing a New concept of reality.
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  22. Max Colodro (ed.) (2002). El silencio en la palabra. Editorial Siglo XII.
    Silent and language in The horizonts of decline of metaphisics.
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  23. Gabriele Contessa (2013). Does Your Metaphysics Need Structure? Analysis 73 (4):715-721.
    This paper is part of a book symposium on Theodore Sider's Writing the Book of the World.
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  24. John Corcoran (2008). Meanings of Form. Manuscrito 31 (1):223-266.
    The expressions ‘form’, ‘structure’, ‘schema’, ‘shape’, ‘pattern’, ‘figure’, ‘mold’, and related locutions are used in logic both as technical terms and in metaphors. This paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyses uses of [FOR these PUT such] expressions by logicians. No [FOR such PUT similar] project has been attempted previously. After establishing general terminology, we present a variant of traditional usage of the expression ‘logical form’ followed by a discussion of the usage found in the two-volume Chateaubriand book Logical Forms (2001 and (...)
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  25. Phil Corkum (2013). Substance and Independence in Aristotle. In B. Schnieder, A. Steinberg & M. Hoeltje (eds.), Varieties of Dependence: Ontological Dependence, Supervenience, and Response-Dependence. Basic Philosophical Concepts Series, Philosophia Verlag 36-67.
    Individual substances are the ground of Aristotle’s ontology. Taking a liberal approach to existence, Aristotle accepts among existents entities in such categories other than substance as quality, quantity and relation; and, within each category, individuals and universals. As I will argue, individual substances are ontologically independent from all these other entities, while all other entities are ontologically dependent on individual substances. The association of substance with independence has a long history and several contemporary metaphysicians have pursued the connection. In this (...)
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  26. Gabriel Ferreira da Silva (forthcoming). "O que a nossa época mais precisa": Kierkegaard e o Problema das Categorias na filosofia do XIX. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia.
    In recent years, secondary literature about 19th Century philosophy has shown a reassessment of both its problems and movements, as well as the role of some philosophers within that scenario. In order to make explicit the contribution undertaken by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) to the general context of the anti-Hegelian turn in the middle of that century, this article analyzes the problems concerning categories as the loci of idealistic thesis of unity between logic and ontology as from Kierkegaard’s (...)
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  27. Frank Darwiche (2014). vers le dieu: le soufisme d’Ibn Arabi et la pensée de Heidegger. Hawliyat (15).
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  28. Frank Darwiche (2014). vers le dieu: le soufisme d’Ibn Arabi et la pensée de Heidegger. Hawliyat (15).
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  29. Frank Darwiche (2014). vers le dieu: le soufisme d’Ibn Arabi et la pensée de Heidegger. Hawliyat (15).
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  30. Frank Darwiche (2014). vers le dieu: le soufisme d’Ibn Arabi et la pensée de Heidegger. Hawliyat (15).
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  31. Raphael Demos (1953). Nature. Mind and Death. Review of Metaphysics 6 (4):563 - 582.
  32. Karl Egerton (2015). Existence: Essays in Ontology. By Peter van Inwagen. Cambridge University Press, 2014, Pp. 261, £18.99 ISBN: 9781107625266. [REVIEW] Philosophy 90 (3):519-524.
  33. Joshua Ryan Farris (2013). Pure or Compound Dualism? Considering Afresh the Prospects of Pure Substance Dualism. Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 3 (1):151-159.
    Substance dualism has received much attention from philosophers and theologians in contemporary literature. Whilst it may have been fashionable in the recent past to dismiss substance dualism as an unviable and academically absurd position to hold, this is no longer the case. My contention is not so much the merits of substance dualism in general, but a more specified variation of substance dualism. My specific contribution to the literature in this article is that I argue for the viability of pure (...)
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  34. A. R. J. Fisher (2015). Samuel Alexander's Theory of Categories. The Monist 98 (3):246-67.
    Samuel Alexander was one of the first realists of the twentieth century to defend a theory of categories. He thought that the categories are genuinely real and grounded in the intrinsic nature of Space-Time. I present his reduction of the categories in terms of Space-Time, articulate his account of categorial structure and completeness, and offer an interpretation of what he thought the nature of the categories really were. I then argue that his theory of categories has some advantages over competing (...)
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  35. Marilyn Frye (1996). The Necessity of Differences: Constructing a Positive Category of Women. Signs 21 (3):991-1010.
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  36. Claudio Gnoli (2008). Categories and Facets in Integrative Levels. Axiomathes 18 (2):177-192.
    Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge. However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the major strata of form, matter, life, mind, society and culture, agreeing with Nicolai Hartmann’s ontology. Unlike a layer, a stratum is not constituted of elements of the lower ones; rather, it (...)
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  37. Claudio Gnoli & Roberto Poli (2004). Levels of Reality and Levels of Representation. Knowledge Organization 31 (3):151-160.
    Ontology, in its philosophical meaning, is the discipline investigating the structure of reality. Its findings can be relevant to knowledge organization, as well as models of knowledge can in turn offer relevant ontological suggestions. Several philosophers in time have pointed out that reality is structured into a series of integrative levels, like the physical, the biological, the mental, and the cultural one, and that each level plays as a base for the emergence of more complex ones. Among them, more detailed (...)
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  38. Jorge J. E. Gracia (1999). The Ontological Status of Categories. International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (3):249-264.
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  39. Attila Grandpierre (2000). The Nature of the Universe and the Ultimate Organisational Principle, to Appear In. Ultimate Reality and Meaning 23:12-35.
    It is pointed out that the different concepts of the Universe serve as an ultimate basis determining the frames of consciousness. A unified concept of the Universe is explored which includes consciousness and matter as well to the universe of existents. Some consequences of the unified concept of the Universe are derived and shown to be able to solve the paradox of the self-founding notion of the Universe. The self-contained Universe is indicated to possess a logical nature. It is shown (...)
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  40. Aaron M. Griffith (2015). Do Ontological Categories Exist? Metaphysica 16 (1).
    This paper concerns the ontological status of ontological categories (e.g., universal, particular, substance, property, relation, kind, object, etc.). I consider E.J. Lowe’s argument for the view that ontological categories do not exist and point out that it has some undesirable consequences for his realist ontology. I go on to argue that the main premise in Lowe’s argument—that ontological categories cannot be categorized—is false and then develop a conception of ontological categories as formal ontological kinds.
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  41. Steven Gross (2015). Forms of Thought: A Study in Philosophical Logic By E. J. Lowe. Analysis 75 (1):165-167.
  42. Karey Harrison (2013). Ontological Commitments of Ethics and Economics. Economic Thought 2 (1):1-19.
    This paper analyses the cognitive image schemas structuring the ontological commitments of dominant conceptions of ethics and economics to show that the content of economics is implicated in conceptions of ethics, and that these conceptions cannot be separated from questions of research and professional ethics. This analysis of the metaphoric structuring of the ontological commitments of ethics and economics is based on an extension of Kuhn's construct sense of 'paradigm' as concrete analogy; and on techniques of metaphoric analysis developed in (...)
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  43. Dave S. Henley, The Propositional Content of Data.
    Our online interaction with information-systems may well provide the largest arena of formal logical reasoning in the world today. Presented here is a critique of the foundations of Logic, in which the metaphysical assumptions of such 'closed world' reasoning are contrasted with those of traditional logic. Closed worlds mostly employ a syntactic alternative to formal language namely, recording data in files. Whilst this may be unfamiliar as logical syntax, it is argued here that propositions are expressed by data stored in (...)
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  44. Jerry R. Hobbs, William Croft, Todd Davies, Douglas Edwards & Kenneth Laws (1987). Commonsense Metaphysics and Lexical Semantics. Computational Linguistics 13 (3&4):241-250.
    In the TACITUS project for using commonsense knowledge in the understanding of texts about mechanical devices and their failures, we have been developing various commonsense theories that are needed to mediate between the way we talk about the behavior of such devices and causal models of their operation. Of central importance in this effort is the axiomatization of what might be called commonsense metaphysics. This includes a number of areas that figure in virtually every domain of discourse, such as granularity, (...)
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  45. Kiraly V. Istvan (2015). The Names of the Nothing. Philobiblon - Transilvanian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Humanities (1).
    Every discourse about the nothing seems fully and ultimately empty. However, this cannot be true precisely because it is language – that is, discourse – which always brings forth the nothing, the word of the “Nothing”. The language therefore speaks about the nothing and perhaps also “speaks nothing”. In its primary – and abstract – appearance, the nothing is precisely “that” “which” it is not. However, its word is still there in the words of most languages (for we cannot know (...)
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  46. Ludger Jansen (forthcoming). Classifications. Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
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  47. Ludger Jansen (2008). Kategorien: Die Top Level Ontologie. In Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Biomedizinische Ontologie. Wissen strukturieren für den Informatik-Einsatz. Vdf Hochschulverlag 85-112.
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  48. Taraneh Javanbakht (2011). Netism: A new metaphysics and its impacts. Journal of New Philosophy 1:34-40.
    This is Dr. Taraneh Javanbakht's paper on metaphysics entitled Netism, which was published in Journal of New Philosophy by the Tabatabai University in Iran in 2011.
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  49. Catherine Kendig (2016). Activities of Kinding in Scientific Practice. In C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge
    Discussions over whether these natural kinds exist, what is the nature of their existence, and whether natural kinds are themselves natural kinds aim to not only characterize the kinds of things that exist in the world, but also what can knowledge of these categories provide. Although philosophically critical, much of the past discussions of natural kinds have often answered these questions in a way that is unresponsive to, or has actively avoided, discussions of the empirical use of natural kinds and (...)
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  50. Tim Klaassen, Why Am I Me and Not Someone Else?
    In this article I discuss the seeming contingency of the fact that one is the specific person that one is. Here, I propose that this contingency is illusory.
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