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  1. Jonas R. B. Arenhart (2012). Ontological Frameworks for Scientific Theories. Foundations of Science 17 (4):339-356.
    A close examination of the literature on ontology may strike one with roughly two distinct senses of this word. According to the first of them, which we shall call traditional ontology , ontology is characterized as the a priori study of various “ontological categories”. In a second sense, which may be called naturalized ontology , ontology relies on our best scientific theories and from them it tries to derive the ultimate furniture of the world. From a methodological point of view (...)
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  2. Robert Arp & Barry Smith, Function, Role and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology. Nature Precedings.
    Numerous research groups are now utilizing Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as an upper-level framework to assist in the organization and integration of biomedical information. This paper provides elucidation of the three existing BFO subcategories of realizable entity, namely function, role, and disposition. It proposes one further sub-category of tendency, and considers the merits of recognizing two sub-categories of function for domain ontologies, namely, artifactual and biological function. The motivation is to help advance the coherent ontological treatment of functions, roles, and (...)
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  3. Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew Spear (forthcoming). Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. MIT Press, August 7, 2015.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  4. F. G. Asenjo (1988). In-Between: An Essay on Categories. Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology & University Press of America.
    This book introduces a new category, in-between, that will have a far-reaching impact on classic ways of thinking. Husserl's description of consciousness and Whitehead's criticism of the prejudice of simple location are two starting points. Relativity theory's radical changes in the conception of space and time also motivate some of the lines of thought.
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  5. Edward G. Ballard (1956). Category and Paradox. Tulane Studies in Philosophy 5:5-16.
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  6. Monroe Beardsley (1954). Categories. Review of Metaphysics 8 (1):3 - 29.
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  7. Gustav Bergmann (1978). Esbozo de un inventario ontológico. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):93.
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  8. Scott Berman (2006). Categories. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (4):503-504.
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  9. Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith (2004). Individuals, Universals, Collections: On the Foundational Relations of Ontology. In Achille Varzi Laure Vieu (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference. IOS Press 37–48.
    This paper provides an axiomatic formalization of a theory of foundational relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the is-a relation among universals and the part-of relation among individuals as well as cross-category relations such as instance-of, member-of, and partition-of. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical (...)
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  10. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2003). Granular Spatio-Temporal Ontologies. AAAI Symposium:12-17.
    We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes (occurrents) and the enduring entities (continuants) that participate therein. The theory is divided into two major categories of sub-theories: (sub-) theories of type SPAN and (sub-)theories of type SNAP. These theories represent two complementary perspectives on reality and result in distinct though compatible systems of categories. In SNAP we have enduring entities such as substances, qualities, roles, functions; in SPAN we have perduring entities such as (...)
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  11. Phillip Bricker (2009). Review of The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):675-678.
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  12. Panayot Butchvarov (2007). Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance – Jan Westerhoff. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (227):301–303.
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  13. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2011). Realistyczne teorie uniwersaliów (realist theories of universals). In Sebastian Kołodziejczyk (ed.), Przewodnik po Metafizyce. WAM
    This is a general introduction to the metaphysics o universals.
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  14. Michael Clark (1990). Fact and Fiction. In Alan Malachowski (ed.), Reading Rorty. Blackwell
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  15. S. Marc Cohen (2009). Substances. In Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.), A Companion to Aristotle. Blackwell-Wiley
    This is a survey of Aristotle's development of the concept of substance in the Categories and Book VII (Zeta) of the Metaphysics. We begin with the Categories conception of a primary substance as that which is not "in a subject" -- i.e., not ontologically dependent on anything else -- and also not "said of a subject" -- i.e., not predicated of any item beneath it in its categorial tree. This gives us the idea of primary substances as ontologically basic individuals, (...)
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  16. Max Colodro (ed.) (2013). Ontologia de la ausencia. La metáfora en el horizonte de la desconstruccion. Editorial Cuarto Propio.
    Metaphor as a central key to understand The metaphisic into The order of language. Deconstruction is a very important process and instrument to iluminate de position of writing for discloseing a New concept of reality.
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  17. Max Colodro (ed.) (2002). El silencio en la palabra. Editorial Siglo XII.
    Silent and language in The horizonts of decline of metaphisics.
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  18. Gabriele Contessa (2013). Does Your Metaphysics Need Structure? Analysis 73 (4):715-721.
    This paper is part of a book symposium on Theodore Sider's Writing the Book of the World.
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  19. John Corcoran (2008). Meanings of Form. Manuscrito 31 (1):223-266.
    The expressions ‘form’, ‘structure’, ‘schema’, ‘shape’, ‘pattern’, ‘figure’, ‘mold’, and related locutions are used in logic both as technical terms and in metaphors. This paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyses uses of [FOR these PUT such] expressions by logicians. No [FOR such PUT similar] project has been attempted previously. After establishing general terminology, we present a variant of traditional usage of the expression ‘logical form’ followed by a discussion of the usage found in the two-volume Chateaubriand book Logical Forms (2001 and (...)
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  20. Phil Corkum (2013). Substance and Independence in Aristotle. In B. Schnieder, A. Steinberg & M. Hoeltje (eds.), Varieties of Dependence: Ontological Dependence, Supervenience, and Response-Dependence. Basic Philosophical Concepts Series, Philosophia Verlag 36-67.
    Individual substances are the ground of Aristotle’s ontology. Taking a liberal approach to existence, Aristotle accepts among existents entities in such categories other than substance as quality, quantity and relation; and, within each category, individuals and universals. As I will argue, individual substances are ontologically independent from all these other entities, while all other entities are ontologically dependent on individual substances. The association of substance with independence has a long history and several contemporary metaphysicians have pursued the connection. In this (...)
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  21. Raphael Demos (1953). Nature. Mind and Death. Review of Metaphysics 6 (4):563 - 582.
  22. Joshua Ryan Farris (2013). Pure or Compound Dualism? Considering Afresh the Prospects of Pure Substance Dualism. ARGUMENT 3 (1):151-159.
    Substance dualism has received much attention from philosophers and theologians in contemporary literature. Whilst it may have been fashionable in the recent past to dismiss substance dualism as an unviable and academically absurd position to hold, this is no longer the case. My contention is not so much the merits of substance dualism in general, but a more specified variation of substance dualism. My specific contribution to the literature in this article is that I argue for the viability of pure (...)
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  23. Marilyn Frye (1996). The Necessity of Differences: Constructing a Positive Category of Women. Signs 21 (3):991-1010.
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  24. Claudio Gnoli (2008). Categories and Facets in Integrative Levels. Axiomathes 18 (2):177-192.
    Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge. However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the major strata of form, matter, life, mind, society and culture, agreeing with Nicolai Hartmann’s ontology. Unlike a layer, a stratum is not constituted of elements of the lower ones; rather, it (...)
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  25. Claudio Gnoli & Roberto Poli (2004). Levels of Reality and Levels of Representation. Knowledge Organization 31 (3):151-160.
    Ontology, in its philosophical meaning, is the discipline investigating the structure of reality. Its findings can be relevant to knowledge organization, as well as models of knowledge can in turn offer relevant ontological suggestions. Several philosophers in time have pointed out that reality is structured into a series of integrative levels, like the physical, the biological, the mental, and the cultural one, and that each level plays as a base for the emergence of more complex ones. Among them, more detailed (...)
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  26. Jorge J. E. Gracia (1999). The Ontological Status of Categories. International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (3):249-264.
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  27. Jerry R. Hobbs, William Croft, Todd Davies, Douglas Edwards & Kenneth Laws (1987). Commonsense Metaphysics and Lexical Semantics. Computational Linguistics 13 (3&4):241-250.
    In the TACITUS project for using commonsense knowledge in the understanding of texts about mechanical devices and their failures, we have been developing various commonsense theories that are needed to mediate between the way we talk about the behavior of such devices and causal models of their operation. Of central importance in this effort is the axiomatization of what might be called commonsense metaphysics. This includes a number of areas that figure in virtually every domain of discourse, such as granularity, (...)
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  28. Kiraly V. Istvan (2015). The Names of the Nothing. Philobiblon - Transilvanian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Humanities (1).
    Every discourse about the nothing seems fully and ultimately empty. However, this cannot be true precisely because it is language – that is, discourse – which always brings forth the nothing, the word of the “Nothing”. The language therefore speaks about the nothing and perhaps also “speaks nothing”. In its primary – and abstract – appearance, the nothing is precisely “that” “which” it is not. However, its word is still there in the words of most languages (for we cannot know (...)
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  29. Ludger Jansen (forthcoming). Classifications. Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
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  30. Ludger Jansen (2008). Kategorien: Die Top Level Ontologie. In Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Biomedizinische Ontologie. Wissen strukturieren für den Informatik-Einsatz. Vdf Hochschulverlag 85-112.
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  31. Catherine Kendig (ed.) (forthcoming). Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on natural kinds (...)
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  32. Tim Klaassen, Why Am I Me and Not Someone Else?
    In this article I discuss the seeming contingency of the fact that one is the specific person that one is. Here, I propose that this contingency is illusory.
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  33. Lucía Lewowicz & Olimpia Lombardi (2013). Stuff Versus Individuals. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):65-77.
    The general question to be considered in this paper points to the nature of the world described by chemistry: what is macro-chemical ontology like? In particular, we want to identify the ontological categories that underlie chemical discourse and chemical practice. This is not an easy task, because modern Western metaphysics was strongly modeled by theoretical physics. For this reason, we attempt to answer our question by contrasting macro-chemical ontology with the mainstream ontology of physics and of traditional metaphysics. In particular, (...)
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  34. E. J. Lowe (2012). A Neo-Aristotelian Substance Ontology: Neither Relational nor Constituent. In Tuomas E. Tahko (ed.), Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press 229-248.
    Following the lead of Gustav Bergmann ( 1967 ), if not his precise terminology, ontologies are sometimes divided into those that are ‘relational’ and those that are ‘constituent’ (Wolterstorff 1970 ). Substance ontologies in the Aristotelian tradition are commonly thought of as being constituent ontologies, because they typically espouse the hylemorphic dualism of Aristotle ’s Metaphysics – a doctrine according to which an individual substance is always a combination of matter and form. But an alternative approach drawing more on the (...)
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  35. Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.) (2013). Art & Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction: Art, Metaphysics, & The Paradox of Standards (Christy Mag Uidhir) GENERAL ONTOLOGICAL ISSUES 1. Must Ontological Pragmatism be Self-Defeating? (Guy Rohrbaugh) 2. Indication, Abstraction, & Individuation (Jerrold Levinson) 3. Destroying Artworks (Marcus Rossberg) INFORMATIVE COMPARISONS 4. Artworks & Indefinite Extensibility (Roy T. Cook) 5. Historical Individuals Like Anas platyrhynchos & ‘Classical Gas’ (P.D. Magnus) 6. Repeatable Artworks & Genericity (Shieva Kleinschmidt & Jacob Ross) ARGUMENTS AGAINST & ALTERNATIVES TO 7. Against Repeatable Artworks (Allan Hazlett) 8. How (...)
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  36. David M. Mark, Andre Skupin & Barry Smith (2001). Features, Objects, and Other Things: Ontological Distinctions in the Geographic Domain. In Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Lecture Notes in Computer Science
    Two hundred and sixty-three subjects each gave examples for one of five geographic categories: geographic features, geographic objects, geographic concepts, something geographic, and something that could be portrayed on a map. The frequencies of various responses were significantly different, indicating that the basic ontological terms feature, object, etc., are not interchangeable but carry different meanings when combined with adjectives indicating geographic or mappable. For all of the test phrases involving geographic, responses were predominantly natural features such as mountain, river, lake, (...)
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  37. David M. Mark & Barry Smith (1999). Ontology and Geographic Kinds. In T. Poiker & N. Chrisman (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.
    Cognitive categories in the geographic realm appear to manifest certain special features as contrasted with categories for objects at surveyable scales. We have argued that these features reflect specific ontological characteristics of geographic objects. This paper presents hypotheses as to the nature of the features mentioned, reviews previous empirical work on geographic categories, and presents the results of pilot experiments that used English-speaking subjects to test our hypotheses. Our experiments show geographic categories to be similar to their non-geographic counterparts in (...)
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  38. C. B. Martin (2007). The Mind in Nature. Oxford University Press.
    What are the most fundamental features of the world? Do minds stand outside the natural order? Is a unified picture of mental and physical reality possible? The Mind in Nature provides a staunchly realist account of the world as a unified system incorporating both the mental and the physical.
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  39. Tomas Marvan (2012). Searle on Realism and "Privileged Conceptual Scheme". Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 19 (suppl. 2):31-39.
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  40. Friederike Moltmann, Existence Predicates.
    The most common philosophical view of existence is that existence amounts to existential quantification or is a second-order concept. A less common philosophical view is that existence is a first-order property distinguishing between nonexistent (past, possible, or merely intentional) objects and existing objects. An even less common philosophical view is that existence divides into different ‘modes of being’ for different kinds of entities. The aim of the present paper is to take a closer look at how the notion of existence (...)
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  41. Friederike Moltmann, The Semantics of 'Cases': 'Cases' as Truthmakers.
    This paper argues that what we refer to as 'cases' are situations acting as truthmakers in the sense of Fine's truthmaker semantics. The truthmaking relation thus is explicitly reflected in at least a range of languages.
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  42. Fabian Neuhaus, Pierre Grenon & Barry Smith (2004). A Formal Theory of Substances, Qualities, and Universals. In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference. IOS Press
    One of the tasks of ontology in information science is to support the classification of entities according to their kinds and qualities. We hold that to realize this task as far as entities such as material objects are concerned we need to distinguish four kinds of entities: substance particulars, quality particulars, substance universals, and quality universals. These form, so to speak, an ontological square. We present a formal theory of classification based on this idea, including both a semantics for the (...)
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  43. Eric Palmer (2008). Real Institutions and Really Legitimate Institutions. In David Mark, Bary Smith & Isaac Ehrlich (eds.). Open Court 331-347.
    This essay develops a thesis regarding the manner through which social institutions such as property come to be, and a second thesis regarding how such institutions ought to be legitimated. The two theses, outlined below, are in need of explication largely because of the entrenched cultural influence of an erroneous reading of social contract theory concerning the historical origins of the state. In part A, I introduce that error. I proceed in parts B and C to present two central theses (...)
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  44. Glenn Pearce & Patrick Maynard (eds.) (1973). Conceptual Change. Boston,D. Reidel.
  45. Ray Scott Percival (1994). Natural Selections. [REVIEW] Nature 371 (6499):666-667.
    How do you put both physicists and biologists on their guard? Answer: propound a philosophical theory that ignores Darwin's demolition of essentialism in species and brands any physicist who denies your theory of natural kinds as an anti-realist. A traditional division in philosophy is between metaphysics (what sorts of things exist) and epistemology (what and how we know). Some think that the core of realism is the metaphysical assumption that there is a world independent of our minds. But this core (...)
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  46. Bryan Pickel & Nicholas Mantegani (2012). A Quinean Critique of Ostrich Nominalism. Philosophers' Imprint 12 (6).
    Ostrich nominalists often cite Quine’s criterion of ontological commitment in order to claim that their view is more parsimonious than rival positions in ontology such as realism. We show that Quine’s criterion, properly understood, does not support this claim. Indeed, we show that ostrich nominalism has a far more profligate ontology than realism.
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  47. Roberto Poli (2011). Hartmann's Theory of Categories. In Roberto Poli, Carlo Scognamiglio & Frederic Tremblay (eds.), The Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann. Walter de Gruyter
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  48. Paul Redding (2011). The Metaphysical and Theological Commitments of Idealism: Kant, Hegel, Hegelianism. In Douglas Moggach (ed.), Politics, Religion, and Art: Hegelian Debates. Northwestern University Press
    It is sometimes said that changes in academic philosophy in the twentieth century reflected a process in which a discipline that had been earlier closely tied to institutional religion became increasingly laicized and secularized.1 In line with this idea, the idealist philosophy that had flowered within British philosophy at the end of the nineteenth century can look like the last and ill-fated attempt of a Victorian religious sensibility to guard itself against a post-Darwinian God-less view of the world and ourselves.2 (...)
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  49. Paul Redding (2011). The Relevance of Hegel’s “Absolute Spirit” to Social Normativity. In Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen (eds.), Recognition and Social Ontology. Brill 212--238.
    Around the turn of the twentieth century, Wilhelm Dilthey, in his reflections on the nature of history as a “Geisteswissenschaft”—a science of “spirit” as opposed to “nature”—appealed “to Hegel’s notion of “spirit” (Geist). Attempting to extract Hegel’s concept from what he considered the unsupportable metaphysical system within which it had been developed, Dilthey, a neo-Kantian, gave it a broadly epistemological significance by correlating it with a distinct type of “understanding” (Verstehen) that was foreign to the Naturwissenschaften, concerned as they were (...)
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  50. Richard H. Scheuermann, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2009). Toward an Ontological Treatment of Disease and Diagnosis. In Proceedings of the 2009 AMIA Summit on Translational Bioinformatics. American Medical Informatics Association
    Many existing biomedical vocabulary standards rest on incomplete, inconsistent or confused accounts of basic terms pertaining to diseases, diagnoses, and clinical phenotypes. Here we outline what we believe to be a logically and biologically coherent framework for the representation of such entities and of the relations between them. We defend a view of disease as involving in every case some physical basis within the organism that bears a disposition toward the execution of pathological processes. We present our view in the (...)
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