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Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Virginia Tech)
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Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1948, the articles in Chalmers et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1991 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1960, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1999 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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Related categories
Subcategories:
Events (119)
Existence (107)
Metaontology* (758 | 90)
Propositions* (467 | 219)
Objects* (4,201 | 6)
Properties* (1,318 | 45)
Substance (468)
Truthmakers (470)
See also:History/traditions: Ontology
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  1. M. A. (1967). Metaphysics of Natural Complexes. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):713-714.
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  2. S. C. A. (1971). The Problem of the Self. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 25 (2):356-356.
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  3. Felicia Ackerman (1995). How Does Ontology Supervene on What There Is? In Elias E. Savellos & Ümit D. Yalçin (eds.), Supervenience: New Essays. Cambridge University Press. 264.
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  4. Peter Adamson (2005). On Knowledge of Particulars. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (3):273–294.
    Avicenna's notorious claim that God knows particulars only 'in a universal way' is argued to have its roots in Aristotelian epistemology, and especially in the "Posterior Analytics". According to Avicenna and Aristotle as understood by Avicenna, there is in fact no such thing as 'knowledge' of particulars, at least not as such. Rather, a particular can only be known by subsuming it under a universal. Thus Avicenna turns out to be committed to a much more surprising epistemological thesis: even humans (...)
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  5. Laird Addis (1972). Aristotle and the Independence of Substances. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (1):107-111.
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  6. Median Age (1965). Some Facts. Eugenics Review 1501 (1961):42.
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  7. Takeshi Akiba (2008). Objection to Simons' Nuclear Theory. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 17:7-13.
    A number of philosophers today endorse the view thatmaterial substances (ex. cats, stones, atoms) can be analyzed asbundles of “particular properties” or “tropes”. Among severaldevelopments, the theory that P. Simons proposed is seen as themost successful one. Simons’ theory seems to owe its high reputationto mainly two advantages which he claims for his theory: thecapacity for avoiding infinite regress, and the explanatory adequacyfor phenomenon of change. In this paper, however, I try to object tothis high appraisal, by showing that the (...)
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  8. Hans Albert (1973). Problem neutralności metaetyki. Etyka 11.
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  9. Rogers Albritton (1957). II. Forms of Particular Substances in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Journal of Philosophy 54 (22):699-708.
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  10. Edwin Bonar Allaire (ed.) (1963). Essays in Ontology. Iowa City, University of Iowa.
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  11. Rudolf Allers (1941). The Intellectual Cognition of Particulars. The Thomist 3:95-163.
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  12. Mauricio Barcellos Almeida (2009). A Proposal to Evaluate Ontology Content. Applied Ontology 4 (3-4):245-265.
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  13. Ömer Mahir Alper (2010). Varlık Ve Insan: Kemalpaşazâde Bağlamında Bir Tasavvurun Yeniden Inşası. Klasik.
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  14. Angelo Alves (2005). Prolegómenos a Uma Ontologia Pluridimensional: Dialéctica, Ascensional, Plenificante. Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
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  15. Eileen Amari-Vaught & W. Vaught (1996). Don't I Count? Hastings Center Report 27 (2):23.
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  16. Hajnal Andréka, Ivo Düntsch & István Németi (1995). Expressibility of Properties of Relations. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (3):970-991.
    We investigate in an algebraic setting the question of which logical languages can express the properties integral, permutational, and rigid for algebras of relations.
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  17. De Anima (2001). David Wiggins. In Elijah Millgram (ed.), Varieties of Practical Reasoning. Mit Press. 279.
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  18. Miroslava Anđelković (1995). Epistemic Aspects of Identity. Theoria 38 (4):49-69.
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  19. Maritain as an Interpreter Of Aquinas (1996). On the Problem of Individuaron. Sapientia 199:103.
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  20. Alexandra Arapinis (2013). Referring to Institutional Entities: Semantic and Ontological Perspectives. Applied Ontology 8 (1):31-57.
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  21. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  22. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  23. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  24. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  25. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  26. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  27. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  28. Aristotle (2007). The Metaphysics. Dover.
    A central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education, metaphysics was regarded as "the Queen of Sciences" even before the age of Aristotle. This multipart essay by the prominent philosopher examines the nature of existence, along with issues related to causation, form and matter, mathematics, and God.
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  29. Matija Arko (2006). Is If-Then-Ism Still an Option? Synthesis Philosophica 21 (1):95-101.
    In this paper I am going to try to prove that if-then-ism is not an option. I will focus on if-then-ism as a strategy to reduce ontological commitments in mathematics. I will start with the definition of if-then-ism in The Principles of Mathematics. Then I am going to discuss the Putnam’s criticism of if-then-ism. Next I will move on to some arguments of Cian Dorr that support it. In the end, I will talk about ontological parsimony as the general motivation (...)
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  30. Andrew W. Arlig (2011). Mereology. In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer. 763--771.
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  31. D. M. Armstrong, Revisions and Quiddities.
    I used to think of the connection between a particular and a universal that it instantiates as a contingent one. Now I think that this is not quite right. This revision, as I now see it, is not a very large one. I still think that the states of affairs (Russell’s facts in his great Lectures on Logical Atomism) that unite particulars and universals are contingent beings. But the connection within states of affairs is, in a certain way, necessary.
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  32. D. M. Armstrong (1996). Place and Armstrong's Views Compared. In Tim Crane (ed.), Dispositions: A Debate. New York: Routledge. 33--48.
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  33. M. Aronoff, R. W. Ashby, H. Atmanspacher, S. Avrutin, B. Baars, J. Balling, J. Balogh, A. Bandura, R. G. Barker & J. Barkow (1999). 139-43, 148, 186; Co-Author of Chapter 6; See Also Grafton, ST Et Al.; Jeannerod, M. Et Al. Armstrong, DF: Et Al. 128 Armstrong, SL: Et Al 10-11, 21, 41-2. [REVIEW] In Philip R. Loockvane (ed.), The Nature of Concepts: Evolution, Structure, and Representation. Routledge.
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  34. Sergeĭ Shalvovich Avaliani (2006). Pʻsevdoabsoluturis Pʻilosopʻia. Gamomcʻemloba "Universali".
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  35. Michael Ayers (2002). Mehmet on Substances: A Reply. Facta Philosophica: Internazionale Zeitschrift für Gegenwartsphilosophie: International Journal for Contemporary Philosophy 4:121-141.
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  36. G. B. (1960). Prime Ricerche di Hegel. Review of Metaphysics 13 (3):532-532.
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  37. J. A. B. (1961). Existential Metaphysics. Review of Metaphysics 14 (3):573-573.
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  38. L. K. B. (1956). A Philosophy of Potentiality. Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):185-185.
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  39. Claudio Badano (2009). Il Possibile Fra l'Essere E Il Nulla: Il Ritorno Della Questione Ontologica Fondamentale Nella Filosofia Del Novecento. Unicopli.
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  40. Amrei Bahr, Jan G. Miehel & Mareike Volta (2013). Refining Kitcher's Semantics for Kind Terms, Or: Cleaning Up the Mess. In Marie Kaiser & Ansgar Seide (eds.), Philip Kitcher. Pragmatic Naturalism. Ontos. 15--91.
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  41. Patrick Barlatier & Richard Dapoigny (2012). A Type-Theoretical Approach for Ontologies: The Case of Roles. Applied Ontology 7 (3):311-356.
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  42. Elizabeth Barnes (2014). XV—Going Beyond the Fundamental: Feminism in Contemporary Metaphysics. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (3pt3):335-351.
    Much recent literature in metaphysics attempts to answer the question, ‘What is metaphysics?’ In this paper I argue that many of the most influential contemporary answers to this question yield the result that feminist metaphysics is not metaphysics. I further argue this result is problematic.
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  43. J. D. Bastable (1957). The Nature of Metaphysics. Philosophical Studies 7:195-196.
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  44. Emiliano Bazzanella (2004). Trattato di Echologia. Mimesis.
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  45. Kathi Beier & Peter Heuer (eds.) (2010). Ontologie: Zur Aktualität Einer Umstrittenen Disziplin. Leipziger Universitätsverlag.
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  46. Elena Beisswanger, Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn & Udo Hahn (2008). BioTop: An Upper Domain Ontology for the Life sciencesA Description of its Current Structure, Contents and Interfaces to OBO Ontologies. Applied Ontology 3 (4):205-212.
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  47. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2008). Critical Study of Amie L. Thomasson, Ordinary Objects. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):267-279.
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  48. A. Cornelius Benjamin (1926). To Exist or Not to Exist. The Monist 36 (2):326-339.
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  49. Andrew Benjamin (2000). Having to Exist. Angelaki 5 (3):51 – 56.
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  50. Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter & Nina F. Caraco (2001). Human Impact on Erodable Phosphorus and Eutrophication: A Global Perspective Increasing Accumulation of Phosphorus in Soil Threatens Rivers, Lakes, and Coastal Oceans with Eutrophication. BioScience 51 (3):227-234.
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