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Organ Donation

Edited by Ruchika Mishra (Program in Medicine and Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center)
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  1. Jacob M. Appel (2005). Organ Solicitation on the Internet: Every Man for Himself: Commentary. Hastings Center Report 35 (3):14-15.
  2. Nafsika Athanassoulis (ed.) (2005). Philosophical Reflections on Medical Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This collection brings together original essays demonstrating the cutting edge of philosophical research in medical ethics. With contributions from a range of established and up-and-coming authors, it examines topics at the forefront of medical technology, such as ethical issues raised by developments in how we research stem cells and genetic engineering, as well as new questions raised by methodological changes in how we approach medical ethics.
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  3. Clifford Earle Bartz (2003). Operation Blue, ULTRA: DION--The Donation Inmate Organ Network. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (1):37-43.
    : Presently more than 80,000 Americans await an organ transplant, while 10 to12 people die each day because of the lack of organs. The program proposed here would allow federal inmates additional "time off" for agreeing to become living donors or to provide organs or their bodies upon death. Such a program could add 100 to 170 thousand new organ donors to the pool, with another 10 to 12 thousand added annually. If the program were applied to all state inmates, (...)
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  4. M. D. D. Bell (2003). Non-Heart Beating Organ Donation: Old Procurement Strategy--New Ethical Problems. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):176-181.
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  5. Rinaldo Bellomo & Nereo Zamperetti (2007). Defining the Vital Condition for Organ Donation. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):27-.
    The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called.
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  6. T. E. O. Bernard & Bernard Tea (1992). Is the Adoption of More Efficient Strategies of Organ Procurement the Answer to Persistent Organ Shortage in Transplantation? Bioethics 6 (2):113–139.
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  7. N. Biller-Andorno (2001). It's Only Love? Some Pitfalls in Emotionally Related Organ Donation. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (3):162-164.
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  8. Nikola Biller-Andorno (2004). Between Solidarity and Self-Interest: How Fair is the "Club Model" for Organ Donation? American Journal of Bioethics 4 (4):19 – 20.
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  9. Nikola Biller-Andorno (2002). Gender Imbalance in Living Organ Donation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):199-203.
    Living organ donation has developed into an important therapeutic option in transplantation medicine. However, there are some medico-ethical problems that come along with the increasing reliance on this organ source. One of these concerns is based on the observation that many more women than men function as living organ donors. Whereas discrimination and differential access have been extensively discussed in the context of cadaveric transplantation and other areas of health care, the issue of gender imbalance in living organ donation has (...)
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  10. Samuel C. M. Birch (2013). The Dead Donor Rule: A Defense. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):426-440.
    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the “dead donor rule,” the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are (...)
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  11. Paula Boddington (1998). Organ Donation After Death — Should I Decide, or Should My Family? Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1):69–81.
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  12. Richard J. Bonnie, Stephanie Wright & Kelly K. Dineen (2008). Legal Authority to Preserve Organs in Cases of Uncontrolled Cardiac Death: Preserving Family Choice. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):741-751.
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  13. Pascal Borry, Walter van Reusel, Leo Roels & Paul Schotsmans (2008). Donation After Uncontrolled Cardiac Death (uDCD): A Review of the Debate From a European Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):752-759.
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  14. Stefden Branden & Bert Broeckaert (forthcoming). The Ongoing Charity of Organ Donation. Contemporary English Sunni Fatwas on Organ Donation and Blood Transfusion. Bioethics.
    Background: Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject. Method: We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts (...)
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  15. Margaret Brazier & Muireann Quigley (2007). Deceased Organ Donation: In Praise of Pragmatism. Clinical Ethics 2 (4):164-165.
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  16. Troyen Brennan (2007). Markets in Health Care: The Case of Renal Transplantation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):249-255.
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  17. Mary Jiang Bresnahan & Kevin Mahler (2010). Ethical Debate Over Organ Donation in the Context of Brain Death. Bioethics 24 (2):54-60.
    This study investigated what information about brain death was available from Google searches for five major religions. A substantial body of supporting research examining online behaviors shows that information seekers use Google as their preferred search engine and usually limit their search to entries on the first page. For each of the five religions in this study, Google listings reveal ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death. These results suggest that family members who go online to (...)
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  18. David A. Buehler (1993). A Small, Good Thing – Anencephalic Organ Donation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (01):81-.
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  19. Russell Burck (1993). Moral Entrepreneurship in Donor Liver Allocation. Professional Ethics 2 (1/2):129-139.
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  20. Norman L. Cantor (2012). Could Premortem Organ Retrieval Be Lawful? American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):12-13.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 6, Page 12-13, June 2012.
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  21. Arthur Caplan (2011). The Use of Prisoners as Sources of Organs–An Ethically Dubious Practice. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):1 - 5.
    The movement to try to close the ever-widening gap between demand and supply of organs has recently arrived at the prison gate. While there is enthusiasm for using executed prisoners as sources of organs, there are both practical barriers and moral concerns that make it unlikely that proposals to use prisoners will or should gain traction. Prisoners are generally not healthy enough to be a safe source of organs, execution makes the procurement of viable organs difficult, and organ donation post-execution (...)
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  22. Ruth F. Chadwick (1989). The Market for Bodily Parts: Kant and Duties to Oneself. Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):129-140.
    The demand for bodily parts such as organs is increasing, and individuals in certain circumstances are responding by offering parts of their bodies for sale. Is there anything wrong in this? Kant had arguments to suggest that there is, namely that we have duties towards our own bodies, among which is the duty not to sell parts of them. Kant's reasons for holding this view are examined, and found to depend on a notion of what is intrinsically degrading. Rom Harré's (...)
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  23. Yen-Yuan Chen & Wen-Je Ko (2011). Further Deliberating Burying the Dead Donor Rule in Donation After Circulatory Death. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):58-59.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 58-59, August 2011.
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  24. James F. Childress (2008). Organ Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death: Lessons and Unresolved Controversies. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):766-771.
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  25. James F. Childress (2001). The Failure to Give: Reducing Barriers to Organ Donation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (1):1-16.
    : Moral frameworks for evaluating non-donation strategies to increase the supply of cadaveric human organs for transplantation and ways to overcome barriers to organ donation are explored. Organ transplantation is a very complex area, because the human body evokes various beliefs, symbols, sentiments, and emotions as well as various rituals and social practices. From a rationalistic standpoint, some policies to increase the supply of transplantable organs may appear to be quite defensible but then turn out to be ineffective and perhaps (...)
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  26. S. Choudhry (2003). Unrelated Living Organ Donation: ULTRA Needs to Go. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):169-170.
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  27. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  28. Mike Collins (2009). Consent for Organ Retrieval Cannot Be Presumed. HEC Forum 21 (1):71-106.
  29. Christian Coons & Noah Levin (2011). The Dead Donor Rule, Voluntary Active Euthanasia, and Capital Punishment. Bioethics 25 (5):236-243.
    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient (...)
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  30. A. J. Cronin & J. Harris (2010). Authorisation, Altruism and Compulsion in the Organ Donation Debate. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (10):627-631.
    The report from the Organ Donation Taskforce looking at the potential impact of an opt-out system for deceased donor organ donation in the UK, published in November 2008, is probably the most comprehensive and systematic inquiry to date into the issues and considerations which might affect the availability of deceased donor organs for clinical transplantation. By the end of a thorough and transparent process, a clear consensus was reached. The taskforce rejected the idea of an opt-out system. In this article (...)
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  31. A. J. Cronin & D. Price (2008). Directed Organ Donation: Is the Donor the Owner? Clinical Ethics 3 (3):127-131.
    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this (...)
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  32. Megan Crowley-Matoka & Robert M. Arnold (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care ... And How Much Should. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):319-332.
    : In this brief commentary, we reflect on the recent study by Siminoff, Burant, and Youngner of public attitudes toward "brain death" and organ donation, focusing on the implications of their findings for the rules governing from whom organs can be obtained. Although the data suggest that many seem to view "brain death" as "as good as dead" rather than "dead" (calling the dead donor rule into question), we find that the study most clearly demonstrates that understanding an individual's definition (...)
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  33. Alexander S. Curtis (2003). Congress Considers Incentives for Organ Procurement. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (1):51-52.
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  34. A. S. Daar (1998). Paid Organ Donation--The Grey Basket Concept. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (6):365-368.
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  35. Dena S. Davis (1992). Organ Transplants, Foreign Nationals, and the Free Rider Problem. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (4).
    There is strong sentiment for a policy which would exclude foreigners from access to organs from American cadaver donors. One common argument is that foreigners are free riders; since they are not members of the community whichgives organs, it would be unfair to allow them toreceive such a scarce resource.This essay examines the philosophical basis for the free rider argument, and compares that with the empirical data about organ donation in the U.S. The free rider argument ought not to be (...)
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  36. L. D. de Castro (2003). Commodification and Exploitation: Arguments in Favour of Compensated Organ Donation. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):142-146.
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  37. Michael DeVita, James V. Snyder, Renéee C. Fox & Stuart J. Younger (1996). Reflections on Non-Heartbeating Organ Donation: How 3 Years of Experience Affected the University of Pittsburgh's Ethics Committee's Actions. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (02):285-.
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  38. Christopher James Doig & David A. Zygun (2008). (Uncontrolled) Donation After Cardiac Determination of Death: A Note of Caution. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):760-765.
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  39. John Drayton (2011). Organ Retention and Bereavement: Family Counselling and the Ethics of Consultation. Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (3):227-246.
    Taking organisational responses to the ?organ retention scandals? in the United Kingdom and Australia as a starting point, this paper considers the role of social welfare workers within the medico-legal system. Official responses to the inquiries of the late 1990s have focused on issues of consent and process-transparency, leaving unaddressed concerns expressed by the bereaved about the impact of organ retention on both their experience of grief and on the deceased themselves. A review of grief and embodiment literature suggests that (...)
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  40. James M. DuBois (1999). Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Defense of the Required Determination of Death. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):126-136.
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  41. James M. DuBois & Rebecca L. Volpe (2008). Introduction: Organ Donation and Death From Unexpected Circulatory Arrest: Engaging the Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):731-734.
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  42. Speranta Dumitru (2010). Consentement présumé, famille et équité dans le don d'organes. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):341-354.
    Cet article propose une évaluation éthique des institutions qui organisent la transplantation avec donneurs décédés, au travers du rôle qu’elles accordent à la famille survivante. Son objectif est double. Il s’agit, premièrement, de montrer que la famille possède un pouvoir de décision considérable en matière de prélèvement posthume bien que les législations soient habituellement décrites comme fondées sur le consentement ou l’opposition des personnes concernées. Deuxièmement, il s’agit de montrer que les politiques qui octroient un tel pouvoir aux familles manquent (...)
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  43. S. Eaton (1998). The Subtle Politics of Organ Donation: A Proposal. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3):166-170.
    Organs available for transplantation are scarce and valuable medical resources and decisions about who is to receive them should not be made more difficult by complicated calculations of desert. Consideration of likely clinical outcome must always take priority when allocating such a precious resource otherwise there is a danger of wasting that resource. However, desert may be a relevant concern in decision-making where the clinical risk is identical between two or more potential recipients of organs. Unlikely as this scenario is, (...)
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  44. H. E. Emson (2003). It is Immoral to Require Consent for Cadaver Organ Donation. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):125-127.
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  45. Amitai Etzioni (2003). Organ Donation: A Communitarian Approach. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (1):1-18.
    : Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that members of society will recognize that donating one's organs, once they are no longer of use to the donor, is the moral (right) thing to (...)
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  46. Leonard M. Fleck (2004). Children and Organ Donation: Some Cautionary Remarks. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (02):161-166.
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  47. Norman Fost (2004). Reconsidering the Dead Donor Rule: Is It Important That Organ Donors Be Dead? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):249-260.
    : The "dead donor rule" is increasingly under attack for several reasons. First, there has long been disagreement about whether there is a correct or coherent definition of "death." Second, it has long been clear that the concept and ascertainment of "brain death" is medically flawed. Third, the requirement stands in the way of improving organ supply by prohibiting organ removal from patients who have little to lose—e.g., infants with anencephaly—and from patients who ardently want to donate while still alive—e.g., (...)
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  48. Dale Gardiner & Robert Sparrow (2009). Not Dead Yet: Controlled Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation, Consent, and the Dead Donor Rule. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (01):17-.
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  49. Molly Gardner (2011). Retribution, Deterrence, and Organ Donation. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):7 - 9.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 10, Page 7-9, October 2011.
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  50. Nicole Gerrand (1994). The Notion of Gift-Giving and Organ Donation. Bioethics 8 (2):127–150.
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