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  1. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). The Foundations of Modern Organic Chemistry: The Rise of the Highes and Ingold Theory From 1930–1942. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):99-125.
    The foundations of modern organic chemistry were laid by the seminal work of Hughes and Ingold. The rise from being an interesting alternative hypothesis in 1933 to being the leading theory (outside the USA) in 1942 was achieved by a multiplicity of methods. This include:the construction of a new scientific notation, the rationalisation of some seemingly contradictory reported data, the refutation of the experimental work of one of their persistent critics, the use of conceptual arguments and also the achievement of (...)
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  2. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). Why Was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry? Hyle 6 (2):161 - 173.
    This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time when the (...)
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  3. John Brooke (1971). Organic Synthesis and the Unification of Chemistry—A Reappraisal. British Journal for the History of Science 5 (4):363-392.
    Proclaiming Louis Pasteur as the “Founder of Stereochemistry”, the distinguished Scottish chemist, Crum Brown, addressing a late nineteenth-century audience of Edinburgh savants, drew attention—as Pasteur had incessantly done—to the intimate relationship between living organisms and the optical activity of compounds sustaining them. It seemed to Crum Brown “that we must go very much further down in the scale of animate existence than Buridan's ass, before we come to a being incapable of giving practical expression to a distinct preference for one (...)
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  4. John Hedley Brooke (1973). Chlorine Substitution and the Future of Organic Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (1):47-94.
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  5. Ana Carneiro (2006). Experiments, Models, Paper Tools: Cultures of Organic Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 39 (1):135-136.
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  6. Noel Coley (1988). Essays on the History of Organic Chemistry. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 21 (3):368-368.
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  7. Grant Fisher (2006). The Autonomy of Models and Explanation: Anomalous Molecular Rearrangements in Early Twentieth-Century Physical Organic Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (4):562-584.
    During the 1930s and 1940s, American physical organic chemists employed electronic theories of reaction mechanisms to construct models offering explanations of organic reactions. But two molecular rearrangements presented enormous challenges to model construction. The Claisen and Cope rearrangements were predominantly inaccessible to experimental investigation and they confounded explanation in theoretical terms. Drawing on the idea that models can be autonomous agents in the production of scientific knowledge, I argue that one group of models in particular were functionally autonomous from the (...)
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  8. Sidney W. Fox (1969). Organic Chemistry Macromolecules of Living Systems H. S. Rhinesmith L. A. Cioffi. BioScience 19 (5):480-480.
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  9. W. M. Goodwin (2008). Structural Formulas and Explanation in Organic Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):117-127.
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is diagrams, and in particular structural formulas and potential energy diagrams, that carry the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic (...)
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  10. William Goodwin (2012). Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axs025.
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  11. William Goodwin (2010). How Do Structural Formulas Embody the Theory of Organic Chemistry? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):621-633.
    Organic chemistry provides fertile ground for scholars interested in understanding the role of non-linguistic representations in scientific thinking. In this discipline, it is not plausible to regard diagrams as simply heuristic aids for expressing or applying what is essentially a linguistic theory. Instead, it is more plausible to think of linguistic representation as supplementing theories whose principal expression is diagrammatic. Among the many sorts of diagrams employed by organic chemists, structural formulas are the most important. In this paper, by examining (...)
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  12. William Goodwin (2008). Implementation and Innovation in Total Synthesis. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):177-186.
    This article investigates how understanding the theory of organic chemistry facilitates the total synthesis of organic compounds. After locating the philosophical significance of this question within the methodology or epistemology of applied science, I summarize the results of previous work on this issue—roughly that theoretical organic chemistry underwrites a sequence of heuristic policies that help to isolate plausible synthetic routes from the array of possibilities provided by structural or descriptive organic chemistry. While this prior account makes a solid start, it (...)
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  13. William Goodwin (2007). Scientific Understanding After the Ingold Revolution in Organic Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 74 (3):386-408.
    This paper characterizes the increase in ‘scientific understanding’ that resulted from the Ingold Revolution in organic chemistry. By describing both the sorts of explanations facilitated by Ingold’s Revolution and the sense in which organic chemistry was ‘unified’ by adopting these approaches to explanation, one can appreciate how this revolution led to a dramatic qualitative improvement in organic chemists’ understanding of the phenomena that they study. The explanatory unification responsible for this transformation in organic chemistry is contrasted with contemporary philosophical accounts (...)
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  14. William Mark Goodwin (2009). Scientific Understanding and Synthetic Design. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  15. William Mark Goodwin (2009). Visual Representations in Science. Philosophy of Science 76 (3):372-390.
    This paper evaluates a general argument for the conclusion that visual representations in science must play the role of truth bearers if they are to figure as legitimate contributors to scientific arguments and explanations. The argument is found to be unsound. An alternative approach to assessing the role of visual representations in science is exemplified by an examination of the role of structural formulas in organic chemistry. Structural formulas are found not to play the role of truth bearers; nonetheless, they (...)
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  16. William Mark Goodwin, Diagrams and Explanation in Organic Chemistry.
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is the diagram, and in particular the structural formula, that carries the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic chemistry and (...)
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  17. Mrill Ingram (2002). Producing the Natural Fiber Naturally: Technological Change and the US Organic Cotton Industry. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 19 (4):325-336.
    Organic cotton productionboomed in the early 1990s only to fall steeplymid-decade. Production is currently rising, butslowly, and has yet to reach previous levels.This is in marked contrast to the steady growthin organic food production during the 1990s.Why, when other areas of organic productionexperienced steady growth, did organic cottonexperience a boom and bust? A study of thecotton production and processing industryreveals a long and heavily industrializedproduction chain that has presented numerouschallenges to growers and processors trying tointroduce an organic product. In addition, (...)
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  18. Robert C. Kerber (2002). Markovnikov's Rule in History and Pedagogy. Foundations of Chemistry 4 (1):61-72.
    In 1870–75 Markovnikov enunciatedan empirical Rule which generalized theregiochemical outcome of addition reactions tounsymmetrical alkenes. This Rule remaineduseful for about 75 years, until suchreactions came to be better understood inmechanistic terms. Thereafter the Rule couldbe deduced from principles of relativecarbocation stabilization and ceased to servean independent purpose. Nevertheless, mostorganic textbooks continue to cite it (oftenin a historically inaccurate, anachronisticway), thereby distracting student attentionfrom the underlying principles. This paperadvocates doing away with the Rule in organicchemistry textbooks and classrooms.
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  19. Ursula Klein (2001). Berzelian Formulas as Paper Tools in Early Nineteenth-Century Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):7-32.
    This paper studies the semiotic,epistemological and historical aspects of Berzelianformulas in early nineteenth-century organicchemistry. I argue that Berzelian formulas wereenormously productive `paper tools' for representingchemical reactions of organic substances, and forcreating different pathways of reactions. Moreover, myanalysis of Jean Dumas's application of Berzelianformulas to model the creation of chloral from alcoholand chlorine exemplifies the role played by chemicalformulas in conceptual development (the concept ofsubstitution). Studying the dialectic of chemists'collectively shared goals and tools, I argue thatpaper tools, like laboratory instruments, areresources (...)
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  20. B. L. (2002). Instruments and Rules: R. B. Woodward and the Tools of Twentieth-Century Organic Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):1-32.
    The paper illustrates how organic chemists dramatically altered their practices in the middle part of the twentieth century through the adoption of analytical instrumentation - such as ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - through which the difficult process of structure determination for small molecules became routine. Changes in practice were manifested in two ways: in the use of these instruments in the development of 'rule-based' theories; and in an increased focus on synthesis, at the expense (...)
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  21. Vaughan Durkee Mcternan (1998). God and the Organic: Emerging Notions of God in Process and Feminist Theology. Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    "Organic" has become a central term in twentieth century cultural discourse. It connotes change, evolution, multi-faceted and multi-layered interrelatedness, and flexible responsiveness. It has become a new paradigm through which contemporary society interprets the world. Notions of the organic have increasingly appeared in theology providing focal concepts, models and metaphors for interpreting God and God-world relations. Process and feminist theologians such as Charles Hartshorne, John Cobb, Delwin Brown, Marjorie Suchocki, Sallie McFague, Catherine Keller, and Rosemary Ruether all construct theologies in (...)
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  22. Harold J. Morowitz, Vijayasarathy Srinivasan & Eric Smith (2009). Revolution in Organic Chemistry and its Implication in Biogenesis. Complexity 14 (6):7-8.
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  23. Agustí Nieto-Galan (2004). Free Radicals in the European Periphery: ‘Translating’ Organic Chemistry From Zurich to Barcelona in the Early Twentieth Century. British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2):167-191.
    In 1915, after acquiring first-hand knowledge of the new free radical chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Antonio García Banús became professor of organic chemistry at the University of Barcelona and created his own research group, which was to last from 1915 until 1936. He was a gifted teacher and a prolific writer who attempted to introduce international scientific standards into his local environment. This paper analyses the bridges that Banús built between the experimental culture of (...)
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  24. Richard Martin Pagni (2009). The Origin and Development of the Acidity Function. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (1):43-50.
    The acidity function is a thermodynamic quantitative measure of acid strength for non-aqueous and concentrated aqueous Brønsted acids, with acid strength being defined as the extent to which the acid protonates a base of known basicity. The acidity function, which was developed, both theoretically and experimentally, by Louis P. Hammett of Columbia University during the 1930s, has proven useful in the area of physical organic chemistry where it has been used to correlate rates of acid-catalyzed reactions and to quantitate the (...)
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  25. Peter J. Ramberg & Mary Jo Nye (2015). Introduction: Atomism and Organic Chemistry in Context: Essays in Honour of Alan J. Rocke. Annals of Science 72 (2):149-152.
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  26. Jeffry L. Ramsey (2008). Mechanisms and Their Explanatory Challenges in Organic Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):970-982.
    Chemists take mechanisms to be an important way of explaining chemical change. I examine the usefulness of the mechanism approach in the recent philosophical literature in explicating the explanatory use of mechanisms by organic chemists. I argue that chemists consider a mechanism to be explanatory because it accounts for the “dynamic process of bringing about” (Tabery 2004 , 10) chemical change. For chemists, mechanisms are causal explanations based on interventions that show “how some possibilities depend on others” (Woodward 2003 , (...)
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  27. Gerrylynn Roberts (1996). C. K. Ingold At University College London: Educator and Department Head. British Journal for the History of Science 29 (1):65-82.
    The outstanding scientific work of Christopher Kelk Ingold was the focus of considerable discussion, celebration and evaluation during the year of the centenary of his birth. In addition to understanding his prolific and highly original scientific output as a pioneer in the application of physical methods to organic chemistry and, indeed, as a founder of physical organic chemistry, it is also important to examine other aspects of Ingold's career, in particular his role in shaping the institutional context in which he (...)
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  28. A. J. Rocke (1988). Essays on the History of Organic Chemistry in the United States, 1875–1955. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 21 (1):130-131.
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  29. Alan J. Rocke & T. H. Levere (1995). The Quiet Revolution: Hermann Kolbe and the Science of Organic Chemistry. Annals of Science 52 (4):421-421.
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  30. Leo B. Slater (2002). Instruments and Rules: R. B. Woodward and the Tools of Twentieth-Century Organic Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):1-33.
    The paper illustrates how organic chemists dramatically altered their practices in the middle part of the twentieth century through the adoption of analytical instrumentation — such as ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy — through which the difficult process of structure determination for small molecules became routine. Changes in practice were manifested in two ways: in the use of these instruments in the development of ‘rule-based’ theories; and in an increased focus on synthesis, at the expense (...)
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  31. B. E. Smart, M. Hudlicky & A. E. Pavlath (1995). Chemistry of Organic Fluorine Compounds II. A Critical Review 187:979.
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  32. Douwe Tiemersma (1996). Organic Time. In Douwe Tiemersma & Henk Oosterling (eds.), Time and Temporality in Intercultural Perspective. Rodopi 4--161.
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  33. Anthony Travis, Willem Hornix, Robert Bud & John Beer (1992). Organic Chemistry and High Technology, 1850–1950. British Journal for the History of Science 25 (1):1-4.
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  34. J. H. van‘T. Hoff (2001). A Proposal for Extending the Currently Employed Structural Formulae in Chemistry Into Space, Together With a Related Remark on the Relationship Between Optical Activating Power and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds.; a Paper on the History of the First Publication of the Pamphlet in Dutch is by PJ Ramberg and GJ Somsen. Annals of Science 58:51.
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  35. Francis Joseph Weiss (1969). Bio-Organic Chemistry M. Calvin M. J. Jorgenson. BioScience 19 (5):476-477.
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  36. Kenneth L. Williamson (2010). Microscale Experiments in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory. Argumentation 12:00.
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  37. Ewa Zielonacka-Lis (1994). The Cognitive Status of the Reconstruction of Mechanisms in Modern Organic Chemistry. The Reconstruction of the Mechanism of the Acidic Hydrolysis of Nucleosides. In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer 483--498.
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