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  1. added 2014-10-17
    Lajos L. Brons (2014). Language Death and Diversity: Philosophical and Linguistic Implications. The Science of Mind 52:243-260.
    This paper presents a simple model to estimate the number of languages that existed throughout history, and considers philosophical and linguistic implications of the findings. The estimated number is 150,000 plus or minus 50,000.
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  2. added 2014-10-16
    David Ellerman, Partitions and Objective Indefiniteness.
    Classical physics and quantum physics suggest two meta-physical types of reality: the classical notion of a objectively definite reality with properties "all the way down," and the quantum notion of an objectively indefinite type of reality. The problem of interpreting quantum mechanics (QM) is essentially the problem of making sense out of an objectively indefinite reality. These two types of reality can be respectively associated with the two mathematical concepts of subsets and quotient sets (or partitions) which are category-theoretically dual (...)
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  3. added 2014-10-16
    David Ellerman, Four Ways From Universal to Particular: How Chomsky's Language-Acquisition Faculty is Not Selectionist.
    Following the development of the selectionist theory of the immune system, there was an attempt to characterize many biological mechanisms as being "selectionist" as juxtaposed to "instructionist." But this broad definition would group Darwinian evolution, the immune system, embryonic development, and Chomsky's language-acquisition mechanism as all being "selectionist." Yet Chomsky's mechanism (and embryonic development) are significantly different from the selectionist mechanisms of biological evolution or the immune system. Surprisingly, there is a very abstract way using two dual mathematical logics to (...)
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  4. added 2014-10-16
    David Ellerman (forthcoming). On Double-Entry Bookkeeping: The Mathematical Treatment. Accounting Education: An International Journal.
    Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) implicitly uses a specific mathematical construction, the group of differences using pairs of unsigned numbers ("T-accounts"). That construction was only formulated abstractly in mathematics in the 19th century—even though DEB had been used in the business world for over five centuries. Yet the connection between DEB and the group of differences (here called the "Pacioli group") is still largely unknown both in mathematics and accounting. The precise mathematical treatment of DEB allows clarity on certain conceptual questions and (...)
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  5. added 2014-10-16
    David Ellerman (forthcoming). Listen Libertarians!: A Review of John Tomasi's Free Market Fairness. [REVIEW] Conversations in Philanthropy.
    John Tomasi's new book, Free Market Fairness, has been well-received as "one of the very best philosophical treatments of libertarian thought, ever" (Tyler Cowen) and as a "long and friendly conversation between Friedrich Hayek and John Rawls—a conversation which, astonishingly, reaches agreement" (D. McCloskey). The book does present an authoritative state-of-the-debate across the spectrum from right-libertarianism on the one side to high liberalism (that shares some shades of opinion with democratic socialism) on the other side. My point is not to (...)
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  6. added 2014-10-16
    R. Sorbello, A. Chella, C. Calì, M. Giardina, S. Nishio & H. Ishiguro (2014). Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human–Humanoid Interaction. Robotics and Autonomous System 62:1329-1341.
    The present paper aims to validate our research on human–humanoid interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human–robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions (‘‘Perception’’ and ‘‘Believability’’) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid.Weadministered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting (‘‘ordinary and goal-guided task’’). A thorough (...)
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  7. added 2014-10-16
    David Ellerman (2014). An Introduction to Partition Logic. Logic Journal of the Igpl 22 (1):94-125.
    Classical logic is usually interpreted as the logic of propositions. But from Boole's original development up to modern categorical logic, there has always been the alternative interpretation of classical logic as the logic of subsets of any given (nonempty) universe set. Partitions on a universe set are dual to subsets of a universe set in the sense of the reverse-the-arrows category-theoretic duality--which is reflected in the duality between quotient objects and subobjects throughout algebra. Hence the idea arises of a dual (...)
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  8. added 2014-10-15
    Peter L. Samuelson, Matthew J. Jarvinen, Thomas B. Paulus, Ian M. Church, Sam A. Hardy & Justin L. Barrett (forthcoming). Implicit Theories of Intellectual Virtues and Vices: A Focus on Intellectual Humility. Journal of Positive Psychology.
    The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one for (...)
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  9. added 2014-10-14
    Shriniwas Hemade (2014). What is Business Ethics ? Daily Loksatta Column - Tattvabhan - The Philosophical Consciousness:10.
    What is Business Ethics ? Read the difference between Business Ethics and Professional Ethics. व्यवसाय आणि धंदा एकत्र आले की त्यांच्या मिसळणीतून नवेच प्रश्न निर्माण होतात. मालकाला धंदा हवा असतो आणि व्यावसायिक असलेल्या नोकराला अधिक वेतन हवे असते.. इथे व्यवस्थापनाचे, पण मूलत: नैतिक प्रश्न येतात..
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  10. added 2014-10-13
    Frank J. Hoffman (2008). “Is Won Buddhism, Buddhism?”. In Bokin Kim (ed.), Won Buddhism in the U.S.: Issues and Visions for the Future.
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  11. added 2014-10-13
    Frank J. Hoffman (2006). “Buddhism in the Developing World&Quot;. In Thomas M. Leonard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Developing World.
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  12. added 2014-10-13
    Frank J. Hoffman (ed.) (1996). Pali Buddhism. Curzon Press.
    And the Bactrian King, a possible convert to Buddhism, responds at this point, " Well said, Nagasena! So it is, and as such I accept it." Conclusion Between the times of these two apparently contradictory texts about nirvana, the Mahavagga and ...
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  13. added 2014-10-11
    Fabrizio Panebianco & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.) (forthcoming). Understanding Cultural Traits. A Multidisciplinary Perspective on Cultural Diversity. Springer.
    UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2 November 2001) defines culture with an emphasis on cultural features: “culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group”, encompassing, “in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs”. Cultural traits are also the primitive of mathematical models of cultural transmission inspired by population genetics, imported and refined by economics. Any serious evaluation of the (...)
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  14. added 2014-10-10
    Emanuele Serrelli (forthcoming). Evolutionary Genetics and Cultural Traits in a 'Body of Theory' Perspective. In Fabrizio Panebianco & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.), Understanding cultural traits. A multidisciplinary perspective on cultural diversity. Springer.
    The chapter explains why evolutionary genetics – a mathematical body of theory developed since the 1910s – eventually got to deal with culture: the frequency dynamics of genes like “the lactase gene” in populations cannot be correctly modeled without including social transmission. While the body of theory requires specific justifications, for example meticulous legitimations of describing culture in terms of traits, the body of theory is an immensely valuable scientific instrument, not only for its modeling power but also for the (...)
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  15. added 2014-10-06
    Russell Ford (2012). Migratory Rhetorics: Conrad, Salih and the Limits of Culture. In Amar Acheraiou & Nursel Icoz (eds.), Conrad and the Orient. Eastern European Monographs / Columbia UP. 211-237.
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  16. added 2014-10-03
    Mehmet Karabela (2013). The Dialectical Discourse in Classical Ottoman Literature: The Beloved Between Lover and Rival in the Game of Love. Journal of Turkish Literature 10 (1):7-19.
  17. added 2014-09-29
    Raamy Majeed, The Rising Tide of Islamic Radicalism in the Maldives.
    This essay offers a historical account, as well as an explanation, of the recent rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the Maldives.
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  18. added 2014-09-26
    Mehmet Karabela (2014). Ibn Al-Rawandi. In Ibrahim Kalin (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press.
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  19. added 2014-09-24
    Pascal Massie & Lauryn Mayer (2014). Bringing Elsewhere Home: A Song of Ice and Fire’s Ethics of Disability. In Karl Fugelso (ed.), Studies in Medievalism. D S Brewer. 45-60.
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  20. added 2014-09-20
    Sandra Raponi (2001). Grounding a Cause of Action for Torture in Transnational Law. In Craig Scott (ed.), Torture as Tort: Comparative Perspectives on the Development of Transnational Human Rights Litigation. Hart Publishing. 373-400.
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  21. added 2014-09-06
    Michael Baurmann (2014). Meinungsdynamiken in fundamentalistischen Gruppen: Erklärungshypothesen auf der Basis von Simulationsmodellen. Analyse Und Kritik 36:61-102.
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  22. added 2014-09-05
    Rene Von Schomberg (ed.) (2011). Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields. Publications Office of the European Union.
  23. added 2014-09-05
    Rene von Schomberg (ed.) (2010). Understanding Public Debate on Nanotechnologies. Publications Office of the European Union.
    This book features the contribution of major European research projects on the governance and ethics of Nanotechnology. They focus on the responsible development of nanotechnology and on the understanding of public debate.
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  24. added 2014-09-05
    Christophe Guibal & Birgitta Dresp (2004). Interaction of Color and Geometric Cues in Depth Perception: When Does Red Mean "Near&Quot;? Psychological Research 69:30-40.
    Luminance and color are strong and self-sufficient cues to pictorial depth in visual scenes and images. The present study investigates the conditions Under which luminance or color either strengthens or overrides geometric depth cues. We investigated how luminance contrasts associated with color contrast interact with relative height in the visual field, partial occlusion, and interposition in determining the probability that a given figure is perceived as ‘‘nearer’’ than another. Latencies of ‘‘near’’ responses were analyzed to test for effects of attentional (...)
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  25. added 2014-09-05
    Birgitta Dresp, Severine Durand & Stephen Grossberg (2002). Depth Perception From Pairs of Overlapping Cues in Pictorial Displays. Spatial Visions 15:255-276.
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  26. added 2014-09-05
    Birgitta Dresp (1997). On Illusory Contours and Their Fucntional Significance. Current Psychology of Cognition 16:489-518.
    This article discusses the reasons why illusory contours are likely to result from adaptive perceptual mechanisms that have evolved across species to promote behavioral success.
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  27. added 2014-09-05
    Lothar Spillmann & Birgitta Dresp (1995). Phenomena of Illusory Form: Can We Bridge the Gap Between Levels of Explanation? Perception 24:1333-1364.
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  28. added 2014-09-05
    Birgitta Dresp & Claude Bonnet (1993). Psychophysical Measures of Illusory Form: Further Evidence for Local Mechanisms. Vision Research 33:759-766.
    Detection thresholds for a small light spot were measured at various distances from the colinear inucer edges of white inducing elements on a dark background. The data show that thresholds are elevated when the target is located close to one or more inducing element(s). Threshold elevations diminish with increasing distance of the target from colinear edges and decreasing surface size of the inducing elements. gradients show the same tendencies. Tbe present observations add empirical support to the idea that illusory figures (...)
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  29. added 2014-09-05
    Birgitta Dresp & Claude Bonnet (1991). Psychophysical Evidence for Low-Level Processing of Illusory Contours and Surfaces in the Kanizsa Square. Vision Research 31:1813-1817.
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  30. added 2014-09-05
    Birgitta Dresp & Jean Lorenceau (1990). Apparent Brightness Enhancement in the Kanizsa Square with and Without Illusory Contours. Perception 19:483-489.
    The perceived strength of darkness enhancement in the centre of surfaces surrounded or not surrounded by illusory contours was investigated as a function of proximity of the constituent elements of the display and their angular size. Magnitude estimation was used to measure the perception of the darkness phenomenon in white-on-grey stimuli. Darkness enhancement was perceived in both types of the stimuli used, but more strongly in the presence of illusory contours. In both cases, perceived darkness enhancement increased with increasing proximity (...)
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  31. added 2014-09-04
    Richard Moore, Bettina Mueller, Juliane Kaminski & Michael Tomasello (forthcoming). Two-Year-Olds but Not Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris) Understand Communicative Intentions Without Language, Gestures, or Gaze. Developmental Science.
    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled (...)
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  32. added 2014-08-29
    Jonny Anomaly & Geoffrey Brennan (forthcoming). Social Norms, The Invisible Hand, and the Law. University of Queensland Law Journal 33.
  33. added 2014-08-21
    Robert Briscoe, Depiction, Pictorial Experience, and Vision Science.
    Pictures are 2D surfaces designed to elicit 3D-scene-representing experiences from their viewers. In this essay, I argue that philosophers have tended to underestimate the relevance of research in vision science to understanding the nature of pictorial experience or ‘seeing-in’, to use Richard Wollheim’s familiar expression. Both the deeply entrenched methodology of virtual psychophysics as well as empirical studies of pictorial space perception provide compelling support for the view that seeing-in and seeing face-to-face are experiences of the same psychological, explanatory kind. (...)
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  34. added 2014-08-20
    S. Orestis Palermos (2014). Loops, Constitution and Cognitive Extension. Cognitive Systems Research 27:25-41.
    The ‘causal-constitution’ fallacy, the ‘cognitive bloat’ worry, and the persisting theoretical confusion about the fundamental difference between the hypotheses of embedded (HEMC) and extended (HEC) cognition are three interrelated worries, whose common point—and the problem they accentuate—is the lack of a principled criterion of constitution. Attempting to address the ‘causal-constitution’ fallacy, mathematically oriented philosophers of mind have previously suggested that the presence of non-linear relations between the inner and the outer contributions is sufficient for cognitive extension. The abstract idea of (...)
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  35. added 2014-08-20
    Catherine Rowett (2013). Philosophy's Numerical Turn: Why the Pythagoreans' Interest in Numbers is Truly Awesome. In Dirk Obbink & David Sider (eds.), Doctrine and Doxography: Studies on Heraclitus and Pythagoras. De Gruyter. 3-32.
    Philosophers are generally somewhat wary of the hints of number mysticism in the reports about the beliefs and doctrines of the so-called Pythagoreans. It's not clear how much Pythagoras himself (as opposed to his later followers) indulged in speculation about numbers, or in more serious mathematics. But the Pythagoreans whom Aristotle discusses in the Metaphysics had some elaborate stories to tell about how the universe could be explained in terms of numbers—not just its physics but perhaps morality too. Was this (...)
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  36. added 2014-08-19
    Ugo di Toro (2014). Niente di troppo: agalmato-erotismo e metamorfosi nei miti greci. AGALMA. Rivista di Studi Culturali E di Estetica 27 (Aprile):86-97.
    Agalmato-eroticism is usually shown in the ancient world as a literary myth; it had lasted in the works of those poets such as Ovid and those writers of varia variorum like Pseudo Luciano in his Amores, who devoted to it their analyses and reflections. The best known example of Agalmato-eroticism is certainly the one which refers to Pygmalion’s story, who carved an ivory statue of a maiden and fell in love with it, then asked the ancient Greek goddess of love (...)
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  37. added 2014-08-19
    Ugo di Toro (2013). La duplice degenerazione della Fedra senecana. In Marcella Romeo (ed.), Donne de-generate. La costruzioe sociale trans-genre dell'identità femminile tra Settecento e Ottocento. Agorà & CO. 41-58.
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  38. added 2014-08-19
    Ugo di Toro (2013). "Filosseno desiderava avere la gola di una gru". Gastro-sophia e gastro-latria nei Saturnali di Macrobio. In Costantino Cipolla & Gabriele Di Francesco (eds.), La ragion gatronomica. 159-171.
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  39. added 2014-08-19
    Aldo Marroni & Ugo di Toro (eds.) (2012). Muse ribelli. Complicità e conflitto nel sentire al femminile. ombre corte.
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  40. added 2014-08-18
    Michaela Rehm (2012). Aufklärung Über Fortschritt: Warum Rousseau Kein “Zurück Zur Natur” Propagiert. In Pascal Delhom & Alfred Hirsch (eds.), Rousseaus Ursprungserzählungen. Fink. 49-66.
    The claim of this paper is to show that the “Discourse on the Arts and Sciences” does not propose a general critique of progress as such, but a critique of the idea of progress as promoted by the 18th century “philosophers”. It is argued that Rousseau is no proponent of a Counter-Enlightenment, on the contrary he aims to go further than other thinkers of his time by scrutinizing even progress itself, Enlightenment’s pet notion. In defining arts and sciences as the (...)
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  41. added 2014-08-16
    Ann A. Pang-White (2009). Chinese Philosophy and Woman: Is Reconciliation Possible? American Philosophical Association Newsletter 9 (1):1-2.
  42. added 2014-08-12
    Hannes Rusch (2014). The Evolutionary Interplay of Intergroup Conflict and Altruism in Humans: A Review of Parochial Altruism Theory and Prospects for its Extension. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 281 (1794): 20141539.
    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesised that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of ‘parochial altruism’. After a brief synopsis of (...)
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  43. added 2014-08-06
    Vincenzo Fano, Enrico Giannetto, Giulia Giannini & Pierluigi Graziani (2012). Complessità E Riduzionismo. ISONOMIA - Epistemologica Series Editor.
    The enormous increasing of connections between people and the noteworthy enlargement of domains and methods in sciences have augmented extraordinarily the cardinality of the set of meaningful human symbols. We know that complexity is always on the way to become complication, i.e. a non-tractable topic. For this reason scholars engage themselves more and more in attempting to tame plurality and chaos. In this book distinguished scientists, philosophers and historians of science reflect on the topic from a multidisciplinary point of view. (...)
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  44. added 2014-08-01
    Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2002). Reductionism in Medicine: Social Aspects of Health. In Marc Van Regenmortel & David Hull (eds.), Promises and Limits of Reductionism in the Biomedical Sciences. J. Wiley and Sons. 67-82.
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  45. added 2014-07-23
    Susann Wagenknecht (2012). Debating Troy in the Mass Media – The Catalytic Impact of Public Controversy on Academic Discourse. In Simone Roedder Martina FranzenPeter Weingart & Peter Weingart (eds.), The Sciences’ Media Connection – Public Communication and its Repercussions. Springer. 291-306.
    he Troy controversy (2001–2005) illustrates the substantial impact of mass media on academic discourse among specialists. Triggered by a disputed exhibition, the controversy breaks out in the mass media and quickly escalates. In leading newspapers, Germany’s most renowned archeologists discuss findings and their interpretation in Troy research fiercely. The public Troy controversy is best characterized as an inter-specialist debate since lay people virtually have no say. The chapter provides an overview of the course that the public and the subsequent academic (...)
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