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Summary Very roughly, all variants of pantheism takes God to be an all-inclusive unity. If we assume ontological naturalism, this means that God is identical with the cosmos. This is not to say that each proper part of the universe is divine. Rather, the entire universe exhibits a range of qualities sufficient to ground our theological discourse. Exactly what the proper fundamental ontology must be for pantheism to be true is a matter of some dispute. While many associate pantheism with an ontological commitment to substance monism, pantheism does not imply any such commitment. A variety of different proposals have been offered both in the history of philosophy and in more recent work in philosophy of religion to account for how the cosmos can exhibit the right features to be described as divine. And there is no shortage of proposals of what qualities must be possessed for any such all-inclusive unity to be genuinely divine and the proper object of some religious attitudes.
Key works Pantheistic ideas are present not only in the history of philosophy in the West, but also in movements in many world religions. Focusing on philosophy, some (e.g., Baltzly 2003) have argued that the Stoics should be regarded as pantheists. But  Spinoza's Ethics (de Spinoza & Curley 1994:) is regarded by many as providing the first clear and systematic presentation and defense of pantheism. That said, some (e.g., Curley 1969)have denied that Spinoza is best understood as a pantheist (but see Guilherme 2008 for a reply to Curley). After Spinoza, among Anglophone philosophers, some philosophers leading up to today have expressed sympathy for pantheism (e.g., Edward Caird 1894, Josiah Royce 1901, T.L.S. Sprigge 2006, Grace  Jantzen 1984, John Leslie 2001, and Peter Forrest 2016). Perhaps one of the most interesting recent developments in the literature on pantheism has been philosophers considering the implications of panpsychism (in particular, cosmopsychism) for pantheism (Goff forthcoming). For an opinionated (and somewhat controversial) book-length survey of pantheism, including its commitments and implications (both theoretical and practical), see Levine 1994. For a recent collection of essays by analytic philosophers of religion on alternative conceptions of the divine, including both defenses and critiques of pantheism, see Buckareff & Nagasawa 2016.
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  1. István Aranyosi (2013). God, Mind, and Logical Space. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In God, Mind and Logical Space István Aranyosi takes the reader on a journey for the mind by revisiting the fundamental questions and the everlasting debates in philosophy of religion, ontology, and the philosophy of mind. The first part deals with issues in ontology, and the author puts forward a radical view according to which all thinkable objects and states of affairs have an equal claim to existence in a way that renders existence a relative notion. In the second part (...)
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  2. Dirk Baltzly (2003). Stoic Pantheism. Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  3. Dirk Baltzly (2003). Stoic Pantheism. Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  4. Susanne Bobzien (2005). Early Stoic Determinism. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 4 (4):489-516.
    ABSTRACT: Although from the 2nd century BC to the 3rd AD the problems of determinism were discussed almost exclusively under the heading of fate, early Stoic determinism, as introduced by Zeno and elaborated by Chrysippus, was developed largely in Stoic writings on physics, independently of any specific "theory of fate ". Stoic determinism was firmly grounded in Stoic cosmology, and the Stoic notions of causes, as corporeal and responsible for both sustenance and change, and of effects as incorporeal and as (...)
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  5. G. Anthony Bruno (forthcoming). Schelling on the Possibility of Evil: Rendering Pantheism, Freedom and Time Consistent. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy.
    German idealism stems in large part from Fichte’s response to a dilemma involving the concepts of pantheism, freedom and time: either time is the form of the determination of modes of substance, as held by a pantheistic or ‘dogmatic’ person, or the form of acts generated by human freedom, as held by an idealistic person. Fichte solves the dilemma by refuting dogmatism and deducing time from idealism’s first principle. But his diagnosis is more portentous: by casting the lemmas in terms (...)
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  6. Andrei A. Buckareff (forthcoming). Pantheism and Saving God. Sophia:1-9.
    In this paper, I examine Mark Johnston’s panentheistic account of the metaphysics of the divine developed in his recent book, Saving God: Religion After Idolatry. On Johnston’s account, God is the ‘Highest One’ and is identified with ‘the outpouring of Being by way of its exemplification in ordinary existents for the sake of the self-disclosure of Being’. Johnston eschews supernaturalism and takes his position to be consistent with what he calls ‘legitimate naturalism’ which he takes to be some version of (...)
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  7. Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.) (2016). Alternative Concepts of God: Essays on the Metaphysics of the Divine. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The concept of God according to traditional Judeo-Christian-Islamic theism minimally includes the theses that there is one God-an omniscient, omnipotent, and morally perfect agent, who is the creator of the universe and the sustainer of all that exists, and who is an immaterial substance that is ontologically distinct from the universe. Proponents of alternative concepts of God, such as pantheism, panentheism, religious anti-realism, developmental theism, and religious naturalism, exclude at least one of these claims. This volume aims to shed light (...)
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  8. Konul Bunyadzade (2008). Pantheism in Thinking of the Medieval East. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 14:13-19.
    Pantheist thinking in Islamic East and its adequacy to western pantheism is complicated and controversy problem. To make the problem somewhat clearer, it needs first of all to emphasize that it is possible to divide the development of the theories of world outlook and trends relied on essence of Koran’s esoteric meaning and religion towards inner world in Islamic East, into two direction: pantheist and “vahdat al-vujud”. The trend, in organization and formation of which ismailism, hurufism, nogtavism played important role (...)
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  9. Andrew Chignell & Dean Zimmerman (2012). Review: Saving God From Saving God. [REVIEW] Books and Culture 15 (3).
    Mark Johnston’s book, Saving God (Princeton University Press, 2010) has two main goals, one negative and the other positive: (1) to eliminate the gods of the major Western monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) as candidates for the role of “the Highest One”; (2) to introduce the real Highest One, a panentheistic deity worthy of devotion and capable of extending to us the grace needed to transform us from inwardly-turned sinners to practitioners of agape. In this review, we argue that Johnston’s (...)
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  10. Robin Collins (2003). Theism or Pantheism? A Review Essay on John Leslie’s Infinite Minds. Philosophia Christi 5 (2):567-574.
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  11. F. C. Copleston (1946). Pantheism in Spinoza and the German Idealists. Philosophy 21 (78):42 - 56.
    In an essay on pantheism Schopenhauer observes that his chief objection against it is that it says nothing, that it simply enriches language with a superfluous synonym of the word “world.” It can hardly be denied that by this remark the great pessimist, who was himself an atheist, scored a real point. For if a philosopher starts off with the physical world and proceeds to call it God, he has not added anything to the world except a label, a label (...)
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  12. Robert S. Corrington (2015). Deep Pantheism: Toward a New Transcendentalism. Lexington Books.
    This book broadens our conceptions of the sheer breadth and uncanny depths of nature. It locates the Selving process directly within the one nature that there is—a nature that has no boundary or contour. The highest manifestation of the human psyche, as argued by Otto Rank, is the creation of the artistic personality. The book transcends and transforms current work in the field of religious naturalism, gives pantheism new life over against the more fashionable panentheism, radicalizes and deepens the thought (...)
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  13. Caresse Cranwell (2010). Embracing Thanatos-in-Eros: Evolutionary Ecology and Panentheism. [REVIEW] Sophia 49 (2):271-283.
    If Panentheism’s core thesis, that God is in the world, is to animate a spiritual approach to life, then we have to account for the way in which God is in the destructive or thanative dimensions of life. From the perspective of evolutionary ecology the universe is imbued with creative and destructive energies. The creative drive can be termed eros as creation occurs through the expansion of relational unities, holons. The destructive drive is termed thanatos and is the drive to (...)
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  14. Benjamin D. Crowe (2008). On 'the Religion of the Visible Universe': Novalis and the Pantheism Controversy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):125 – 146.
    (2008). On ‘The religion of the visible Universe’: Novalis and the pantheism controversy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 125-146.
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  15. Daniel A. Dombrowski (2009). A Platonic Philosophy of Religion: A Process Perspective. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):177 - 181.
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  16. Russell W. Dumke (forthcoming). A Pantheist in Spite of Himself: Craig, Hegel, and Divine Infinity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-15.
    In his 2006 paper `Pantheists in Spite of Themselves: God and Infinity in Contemporary Theology,’ William Lane Craig examines the work of Wolfhart Pannenberg, Philip Clayton, and F. LeRon Shults, whose conceptions of God are influenced by Hegel. Craig shows that these thinkers’ Hegelian formulations lead to monism, despite their attempts to avoid it. He then attempts to refute Hegelian thinking by appealing to Cantor. I argue that that this refutation fails because Cantor and Hegel are far more amicable than (...)
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  17. Lewis S. Ford (1997). Pantheism Vs. Theism. The Monist 80 (2):286-306.
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  18. Marcus P. Ford (1979). Pluralistic Pantheism? Southern Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):155-161.
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  19. P. Forrest, The Personal Pantheist Conception of God.
    This chapter is a case for the pantheist conception considered as a species of theism, rather than a rival to it. The starting point, the premise of the argument, is properly anthropomorphic metaphysics, which I propose as a rival to scientific naturalism; I begin, then, by stating my version of pantheism, by expounding PAM, and by sketching my argument.
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  20. Peter Forrest (2010). Spinozistic Pantheism, the Environment and Christianity. Sophia 49 (4):463-473.
    I am not a pantheist and I don’t believe that pantheism is consistent with Christianity. My preferred speculation is what I call the Swiss Cheese theory: we and our artefacts are the holes in God, the only Godless parts of reality. In this paper, I begin by considering a world rather like ours but without any beings capable of sin. Ignoring extraterrestrials and angels we could consider the world, say, 5 million years ago. Pantheism was, I say, true at that (...)
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  21. Peter Forrest (1997). Pantheism and Science. The Monist 80 (2):307-319.
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  22. Richard Francks (1979). Omniscience, Omnipotence and Pantheism. Philosophy 54 (209):395 - 399.
    Spinoza is a pantheist: he believes that everything that is, is God. Traditional Judaeo-Christian theologians dislike the idea, and Spinoza has always been unpopular for it. Nevertheless, I want here to suggest that, simply by following out the logic of omniscience and omnipotence—two attributes of God on which both Spinoza and his opponents are agreed—it is possible to arrive at a conception of God which is at least very close to Spinoza's own. I do not claim that any of the (...)
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  23. Nancy Frankenberry (1993). Classical Theism, Panentheism, and Pantheism: On the Relation Between God Construction and Gender Construction. Zygon 28 (1):29-46.
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  24. Philippe Gagnon (2012). Raymond Ruyer, la Biologie Et la Théologie Naturelle [Raymond Ruyer, Biology, and Natural Theology]. In Ronny Desmet & Michel Weber (eds.), Chromatikon VIII: Annales de la philosophie en procès — Yearbook of Philosophy in Process. Éditions Chromatika
    This is the outline: Introduction : le praticien d’une science-philosophie; Épiphénoménisme retourné et subjectivité délocalisée; Dieu est-il jamais inféré par la science ?; La question du panthéisme; Le pilotage axiologique et la parabole mécaniste; L'unité domaniale comme ce qui reste en dehors de la science.
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  25. Brandon Gallaher (2012). Antinomism, Trinity and the Challenge of Solov'ëvan Pantheism in the Theology of Sergij Bulgakov. Studies in East European Thought 64 (3-4):205-225.
    The paper argues that Sergej Bulgakov's sophiology was an attempt, via antinomism or the philosophy of antinomies, to overcome the rationalism, monism, and determinism (in a word, "pantheism") of Vladimir Solov'ëv's philosophy of the Absolute understood as an abstract Trinitarianism. After detailing Solov'ëv's thought on the Trinity and Bulgakov's criticisms of it, the study then describes Bulgakov's antinomism and its application to the doctrine of God. However, it is contended that Bulgakov's antinomism ultimately falls into the same problems with pantheism (...)
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  26. Newton Garver (1971). Pantheism and Ontology In Wittgenstein's Early Work. Idealistic Studies 1 (3):269-277.
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  27. Joan Delaney Grossman (1995). Neo-Kantianism, Pantheism, and the Ego. Studies in East European Thought 47 (3-4):179 - 193.
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  28. John W. Grula (2008). Pantheism Reconstructed: Ecotheology as a Successor to the Judeo-Christian, Enlightenment, and Postmodernist Paradigms. Zygon 43 (1):159-180.
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  29. R. Harwood (1999). Polytheism, Pantheism, and the Ontological Argument. Religious Studies 35 (4):477-491.
    I show that if the ontological argument is sound, it proves that a number of maximally great beings must exist. I show that maximal greatness does not imply uniqueness, that such beings can be omnipotent and yet not restrict each other's power, and that each must have its own separate stream of consciousness. I also show that attempts to unify the beings by unifying the streams of consciousness leads to a form of pantheism.
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  30. Paul Helm (1995). Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity By Michael P. Levine London and New York Routledge, 1994, Xii+388 Pp., £45.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy 70 (271):129-.
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  31. John Hunt (1970). Pantheism and Christianity.
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  32. Grace M. Jantzen (1997). Feminism and Pantheism. The Monist 80 (2):266-285.
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  33. Julie R. Klein (2003). The Question of Pantheism in the Second Objections to Descartes's Meditations. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 77 (3):357-379.
    Through a close analysis of texts from the Second Objections and Replies to the Meditations, this article addresses the tension between the pursuit of certainty and the preservation of divine transcendence in Descartes’s philosophy. Via a hypothetical “atheist geometer,” the Objectors charge Descartes with pantheism. While the Objectors’ motivations are not clear, the objection raises provocative questions about the relation of the divine and the human mind and about the being of created or dependent entities inDescartes’s metaphysics. Descartes contends that (...)
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  34. David Knight (2000). Higher Pantheism. Zygon 35 (3):603-612.
    Romantic sensibility and political necessity led Humphry Davy, Britain's most prominent scientist in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, to pantheism: nature worship, involving for him a fervent belief in the immortality of the soul. Rapt with a vision of sublimity, from mountain tops or balloons, men of science in succeeding generations also found in pantheism a reason for their vocation and a way of making sense of their world. It should be seen as an alternative both to active (...)
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  35. Mary Lenzi (1997). Platonic Polypsychic Pantheism. The Monist 80 (2):232-250.
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  36. John Leslie (1997). A Neoplatonist's Pantheism. The Monist 80 (2):218-231.
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  37. Michael Levine, Pantheism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  38. Michael Levine (1984). Why Traditional Theism Does Not Entail Pantheism. Sophia 23 (2):13-20.
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  39. Michael P. Levine (1994). Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity. Routledge.
    Many people who do not believe in God believe that 'everything is God' - that everything is part of an all-inclusive divine unity. In Pantheism , this concept is presented as a legitimate position and its philosophical basis is examined. Michael Levine compares it to theism, and discusses the scope for resolving the problems inherent in theism through pantheism. He also considers the implications of pantheism in terms of practice. This book will appeal to those who study philosophy or theology. (...)
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  40. Michael P. Levine (1994). Pantheism, Ethics and Ecology. Environmental Values 3 (2):121 - 138.
    Pantheism is a metaphysical and religious position. Broadly defined it is the view that (1) "God is everything and everything is God ... the world is either identical with God or in some way a self-expression of his nature" (H.P. Owen). Similarly, it is the view that (2) everything that exists constitutes a 'unity' and this all-inclusive unity is in some sense divine (A. MacIntyre). I begin with an account of what the pantheist's ethical position is formally likely to be (...)
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  41. Michael P. Levine (1994). Pantheism, Theism and the Problem of Evil. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (3):129 - 151.
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  42. Michael P. Levine (1992). Monism and Pantheism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (4):95-110.
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  43. Michael P. Levine (1992). Pantheism, Substance and Unity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 32 (1):1 - 23.
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  44. Michael P. Levine (1986). More on “Does Traditional Theism Entail Pantheism?”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 20 (1):31 - 35.
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  45. W. J. Mander (2007). Theism, Pantheism, and Petitionary Prayer. Religious Studies 43 (3):317-331.
    Theists typically think it appropriate to pray to God in the hope that He will thereby intervene in affairs. On the other hand, such prayer is often held to be quite inappropriate for pantheists; a view endorsed by many pantheists themselves. This paper argues for the exact opposite of these positions. It is maintained not only that pantheism can make sense of petitionary prayer but that, despite initial appearances to the contrary, classical theism can not.
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  46. William Mander, Pantheism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  47. William J. Mander (2000). Omniscience and Pantheism. Heythrop Journal 41 (2):199–208.
    This article argues that theism entails a species of pantheism on the grounds that there is simply no discernible difference between the God's knowledge of the world and the world that God knows. The case against this thesis begins with the traditional theory of distinctions. But since God is necessarily omniscient there is not even the possibility that these might be considered apart and thus distinguished in that way. But neither is it possible to do this by means of Leibnitz's (...)
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  48. William J. Mander, Omniscience and Pantheism.
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  49. Dermot Moran (1990). Pantheism From John Scottus Eriugena to Nicholas of Cusa. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 64 (1):131-152.
  50. John Nemec (2014). The Evidence for Somānanda's Pantheism. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (1):99-114.
    It is well known that Utpaladeva’s (c. 925–975) articulation of the Pratyabhijñā deviates in style and substance from that of his teacher, Somānanda (fl. c. 900–950), and that the former’s Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikās (along with two auto-commentaries) come to be regarded as the definitive formulation of the school’s philosophy almost from the moment they were first composed. In this essay, I argue that while the spirit and general philosophical contours of Somānanda’s Śivadṛṣṭi serve as the basis for all subsequent writings in the (...)
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