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  1. H. B. Ai & J. P. Hsu (1985). Can Quarks Always Be Confined by a Linear Potential? Foundations of Physics 15 (2):155-159.
    It is demonstrated on the basis of the Dirac equation that quarks cannot be confined by a vector gluon potential of the form(r/r 0)a or[ln(r/r 0]a, a>0, if the quark-gluon interaction conserves parity. In order to confine quarks with the parity-conserving interaction, the effective gluon potential must be a pseudovector or a scalar. These are shown in a simple Yang-Mills field with theSU(2) group.
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  2. A. D. Allen (1974). Physical Bases for a New Theory of Motion. Foundations of Physics 4 (3):407-412.
    The author has recently shown that a mathematical question regarding the fundamental constituents of hardrons cannot be resolved unless the classical axioms of nonfinite mathematics are revised in such a way as to produce a new theory of particle motion in continuous space-time. Under this new theory, the instantaneous position of a moving object has a magnitude that is increasing as the object's velocity. The purpose of this paper is to show that, quite apart from the question of Cantorian axiomatics, (...)
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  3. Mauro Anselmino (2002). Book Review: Spin in Particle Physics. By Elliot Leader. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2001, Xxi + 500 Pp., $130.00 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-521-35281-9. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (5):807-809.
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  4. Aristidis Arageorgis & Chrysovalantis Stergiou (2013). On Particle Phenomenology Without Particle Ontology: How Much Local Is Almost Local? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 43 (8):969-977.
    Recently, Clifton and Halvorson have tried to salvage a particle phenomenology in the absence of particle ontology within algebraic relativistic quantum field theory. Their idea is that the detection of a particle is the measurement of a local observable which simulates the measurement of an almost local observable that annihilates the vacuum. In this note, we argue that the measurements local particle detections are supposed to simulate probe radically holistic aspects of relativistic quantum fields. We prove that in an axiomatic (...)
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  5. J. C. Aron (1986). A Stochastic Approach to the Hadron Spectrum. I. Foundations of Physics 16 (10):1021-1060.
    In this paper the squared mass of the hadron is defined as a random variable, whose average is the measured quantity. This leads to a mass formula, of a unique type for mesons and baryons, with a general law for the spin variation of the coefficients. The central squared masses form an overall geometrical scheme; in the baryon case it contains trajectories which are a fine structure of the Regge trajectories. For the accurately measured masses the difference between the computed (...)
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  6. J. C. Aron (1986). A Stochastic Approach to the Hadron Spectrum. II. Foundations of Physics 16 (11):1159-1210.
    The definition of mass as a random variable is applied to the study of the decay rates. A decay is assumed possible when the fluctuation of the Gaussian variables involved makes a definite relation satisfied. Computing the probability of this process leads to the determination of the decay amplitude. This calculation, unified for baryons and mesons, is worked out in the lower and medium spectrum (up to2000 MeV for baryons and mesons), and fits to≈20 MeV the accurate measurements of width (...)
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  7. J. C. Aron (1986). A Stochastic Approach to the Hadron Spectrum. III. Foundations of Physics 16 (12):1315-1328.
    The connection with the quarks of the stochastic model proposed in the two preceding papers is studied; the slopes of the baryon trajectories are calculated with reference to the quarks. Suggestions are made for the interpretation of the model (quadratic or linear addition of the contributions to the mass, dependence of the decay on the quantum numbers of the hadrons involved, etc.) and concerning its link with the quarkonium model, which describes the mesons with charm or beauty. The controversial question (...)
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  8. Anatoli Babin & Alexander Figotin (2012). Relativistic Dynamics of Accelerating Particles Derived From Field Equations. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):996-1014.
    In relativistic mechanics the energy-momentum of a free point mass moving without acceleration forms a four-vector. Einstein’s celebrated energy-mass relation E=mc 2 is commonly derived from that fact. By contrast, in Newtonian mechanics the mass is introduced for an accelerated motion as a measure of inertia. In this paper we rigorously derive the relativistic point mechanics and Einstein’s energy-mass relation using our recently introduced neoclassical field theory where a charge is not a point but a distribution. We show that both (...)
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  9. John C. Baez (2012). Division Algebras and Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (7):819-855.
    Quantum theory may be formulated using Hilbert spaces over any of the three associative normed division algebras: the real numbers, the complex numbers and the quaternions. Indeed, these three choices appear naturally in a number of axiomatic approaches. However, there are internal problems with real or quaternionic quantum theory. Here we argue that these problems can be resolved if we treat real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory as part of a unified structure. Dyson called this structure the ‘three-fold way’. It (...)
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  10. David John Baker, Hans Halvorson & Noel Swanson, The Conventionality of Parastatistics.
    Nature seems to be such that we can describe it accurately with quantum theories of bosons and fermions alone, without resort to parastatistics. This has been seen as a deep mystery: paraparticles make perfect physical sense, so why don't we see them in nature? We consider one potential answer: every paraparticle theory is physically equivalent to some theory of bosons or fermions, making the absence of paraparticles in our theories a matter of convention rather than a mysterious empirical discovery. We (...)
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  11. David Baker & Hans Halvorson (2010). Antimatter. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):93-121.
    Next SectionThe nature of antimatter is examined in the context of algebraic quantum field theory. It is shown that the notion of antimatter is more general than that of antiparticles. Properly speaking, then, antimatter is not matter made up of antiparticles—rather, antiparticles are particles made up of antimatter. We go on to discuss whether the notion of antimatter is itself completely general in quantum field theory. Does the matter–antimatter distinction apply to all field theoretic systems? The answer depends on which (...)
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  12. A. Balakin & V. Kurbanova (2001). Relativistic Dynamics of Vector Bosons in the Field of Gravitational Radiation. Foundations of Physics 31 (7):1039-1049.
    We consider a model of the state evolution of relativistic vector bosons, which includes both the dynamical equations for the particle four-velocity and the equations for the polarization four-vector evolution in the field of a nonlinear plane gravitational wave. In addition to the gravitational minimal coupling, tidal forces linear in curvature tensor are suggested to drive the particle state evolution. The exact solutions of the evolutionary equations are obtained. Birefringence and tidal deviations from the geodesic motion are discussed.
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  13. M. Barone (2004). The Vacuum as Ether in the Last Century. Foundations of Physics 34 (12):1973-1982.
    In this paper we review the evolution of the concept of “vacuum” according to different theories formulated in the last century, like Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Quantum Chromodynamics in Particle Physics and Cosmology. In all these theories a metastable vacuum state is considered which transforms from one state to another according to the energy taken into consideration. It is a “fluid” made up by matter and radiation present in the whole Universe, which may be identified with a modern definition of (...)
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  14. A. O. Barut (1983). On Conservation of Parity and Time Reversal and Composite Models of Particles. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):7-12.
    We show that it is possible to consider parity and time reversal, as basic geometric symmetry operations, as being absolutely conserved. The observations of symmetry-violating pseudoscalar quantities can be attributed to the fact that some particles, due to their internal structure, are not eigenstates of parity or CP, and there is no reason that they should be. In terms of a model it is shown how, in spite of this, pseudoscalar terms are small in strong interactions. The neutrino plays an (...)
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  15. R. G. Beil (1993). The Extended Classical Charged Particle. II. Foundations of Physics 23 (12):1587-1600.
    A model of the extended classical charged particle is developed further to prove that the electron potential can be expressed as a superposition of null waves. The null waves are solutions of the homogeneous wave equation and are related to some recently discovered types of solutions which are localized and propagate without dispersion. Connections with quantum electrodynamics and the fine structure constant are indicated.
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  16. R. G. Beil (1989). The Extended Classical Charged Particle. Foundations of Physics 19 (3):319-338.
    A theory of the extended classical charged particle is presented. The theory assumes extension along the forward light cone of the particle instead of the usual now-plane. Solutions are given for many of the traditional problems including 4/3, instability, infinite self-energy, and runaway velocity. The Lorentz and Lorentz-Dirac equations are derived from a more general equation of motion.
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  17. A. B. Bell & D. M. Bell (1979). Energy in a Highly Ordered Universe. Foundations of Physics 9 (5-6):471-477.
    A new theory of particles proposed in an earlier paper is now applied to explain energy. Having earlier derived the Rydberg formula for atomic spectra without using the Pauli principle, the authors now derive the photoelectric effect, deflection of light by gravitation, and Planck's law for blackbody radiation without using Planck's assumption on energy quanta or Einstein's theory of general relativity.
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  18. A. B. Bell & D. M. Bell (1976). Particles Without Quarks. Foundations of Physics 6 (3):351-366.
    Based on a theory of primitive particles presented in two earlier papers, further applications to macro- and microphenomena are considered—for example, weather phenomena, earthquakes, photoemission, collision of particles, violation of parity, and decay modes. A broad class of leptons withSU(3) symmetry is proposed, together with a quarkless model of particles.
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  19. A. B. Bell & D. M. Bell (1975). A Highly Ordered Universe. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):455-480.
    A highly ordered universe is described in terms of neutrino and electrino alone as basic particles, and length and time alone as dimensional units. New theories are obtained of particles, nuclides, atomic spectra, general relativity, and gravitation.
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  20. Sarah B. M. Bell, John P. Cullerne & Bernard M. Diaz (2000). Classical Behavior of the Dirac Bispinor. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):35-57.
    It is usually supposed that the Dirac and radiation equations predict that the phase of a fermion will rotate through half the angle through which the fermion is rotated, which means, via the measured dynamical and geometrical phase factors, that the fermion must have a half-integral spin. We demonstrate that this is not the case and that the identical relativistic quantum mechanics can also be derived with the phase of the fermion rotating through the same angle as does the fermion (...)
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  21. N. Ben-Amots (2007). Relativistic Exponential Gravitation and Exponential Potential of Electric Charge. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):773-787.
    We present theories of gravitation and electric potentials with exponential dependence on the reciprocal distance. In the context of this kind of electric potential we investigate the dynamics of a relativistic electron interacting with a proton.
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  22. N. Ben-Amots (2003). Basic Aspect of Relativistic Rotation: Franklin Rotation of a Sphere. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1369-1372.
    We give a relativistic treatment to the dynamics of spherical bodies rotating at very high speed. It is found that most of the mass of a homogeneous spherical quark with Franklin rotation is due to the relativistic increase of the mass.
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  23. Silvio Bergia (2004). The Way We Were: Bubble Chamber Pictures, Pion-Nucleon Interactions and Polology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1761-1776.
    The late Fifties were going to be eventful for physics in Italy. CERN had officially started its activities in the fall of 1954; however, the single European countries, Italy in the first place, were not in the condition to compete at the highest international level. A peculiar form of international distribution of the forms of research activities was then going to characterize those years, in particular as far as relationships between Italy and the United States were concerned. Italian physicists who (...)
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  24. Nils Berglund & Turgay Uzer (2001). The Averaged Dynamics of the Hydrogen Atom in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields as a Perturbed Kepler Problem. Foundations of Physics 31 (2):283-326.
    We treat the classical dynamics of the hydrogen atom in perpendicular electric and magnetic fields as a celestial mechanics problem. By expressing the Hamiltonian in appropriate action–angle variables, we separate the different time scales of the motion. The method of averaging then allows us to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom, and to classify the most important periodic orbits.
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  25. Jerzy Bogdanowicz, Maciej Pindor & Ryszard Raczka (1995). An Analysis of Mean Life and Lifetime of Unstable Elementary Particles. Foundations of Physics 25 (6):833-849.
    A theoretical analysis of the concept of lifetime and mean life of unstable elementary particles is presented. New analytic formulas for lifetime and mean life as a function of decay width Γ and the mass of unstable particle are derived for Breit-Wigner and Matthews-Salam energy distributions. It is demonstrated that, for unstable particles with a larger width or decay energy threshold, the deviation from the generally accepted mean life τ m =Γ −1 is significant. The behavior of the decay law (...)
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  26. Jens Bolte (2001). Semiclassical Expectation Values for Relativistic Particles with Spin 1/2. Foundations of Physics 31 (2):423-444.
    For relativistic particles with spin 1/2, which are described by the Dirac equation, a semiclassical trace formula is introduced that incorporates expectation values of observables in eigenstates of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the semiclassical limit of an average of expectation values is expressed in terms of a classical average of the corresponding classical observable.
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  27. Luis J. Boya (1989). State Space as Projective Space. The Case of Massless Particles. Foundations of Physics 19 (11):1363-1370.
    The fact that the space of states of a quantum mechanical system is a projective space (as opposed to a linear manifold) has many consequences. We develop some of these here. First, the space is nearly contractible, namely all the finite homotopy groups (except the second) vanish (i.e., it is the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(ℤ, 2)). Moreover, there is strictly speaking no “superposition principle” in quantum mechanics as one cannot “add” rays; instead, there is adecomposition principle by which a given ray (...)
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  28. Grzegorz Bugajak (2011). Fears of Science. Nature and Human Actions. In Adam Świeżyński (ed.), Knowledge and Values, Wyd. UKSW, Warszawa. 157–170.
    The paper points to quite a surprising change of the attitude among general public towards science and scientific progress that seems to have happened at the turn of the 20th century, and, to an extent, stays on: from holding scientific enterprise in high esteem to treating scientists and fortune˗tellers on a par, from hopes that science will eventually resolve our problems, both theoretical and practical, to anxiety and fear of what scientific experiments can bring about in nature and human life. (...)
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  29. Elena Castellani (1998). Galilean Particles: An Example of Constitution of Objects. In , Interpreting Bodies. Princeton University Press. 181--194.
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  30. J. S. R. Chisholm & R. S. Farwell (1995). Unified Spin Gauge Model and the Top Quark Mass. Foundations of Physics 25 (10):1511-1522.
    Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure Rp,q associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. This review provides a comparison between those models and the standard model, indicating their similarities and differences. By contrast with the standard model, the spin gauge model based on R3,8 generates intermediate boson mass terms without the need to use the Higgs-Kibble mechanism and produces a precise prediction for the mass of the (...)
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  31. Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo (2009). Non-Compact Groups, Coherent States, Relativistic Wave Equations and the Harmonic Oscillator II: Physical and Geometrical Considerations. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (4):373-396.
    The physical meaning of the particularly simple non-degenerate supermetric, introduced in the previous part by the authors, is elucidated and the possible connection with processes of topological origin in high energy physics is analyzed and discussed. New possible mechanism of the localization of the fields in a particular sector of the supermanifold is proposed and the similarity and differences with a 5-dimensional warped model are shown. The relation with gauge theories of supergravity based in the OSP(1/4) group is explicitly given (...)
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  32. John Cramer, Breaking the Standard Model.
    So far this has been a lonely and unrewarding quest. New experiments occasionally come along which point to a breakdown of the Standard Model, but up to now they have invariably been proved wrong by more careful analysis or subsequent experiments with better data. A case in point is the energetic jet data from the CDF experiment at FermiLab which suggested possible substructure of the quark. (See my AV column "Inside the Quark" in the September-1996 issue of Analog.) The CDF (...)
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  33. John Cramer, Massive Neutrinos.
    This column is about recent evidence from the Super Kamiokande detector in Japan indicating that at least one of the three known neutrino flavors, the mu-neutrino, has a non-zero rest mass. To put this result in the proper context, I'll briefly review parts of the standard model of particle physics.
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  34. James T. Cushing (1985). Book Review:Constructing Quarks: A Sociological History of Particle Physics Andrew Pickering. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 52 (4):640-.
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  35. Mark Davidson (2014). Theories of Variable Mass Particles and Low Energy Nuclear Phenomena. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):144-174.
    Variable particle masses have sometimes been invoked to explain observed anomalies in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Such behavior has never been observed directly, and is not considered possible in theoretical nuclear physics. Nevertheless, there are covariant off-mass-shell theories of relativistic particle dynamics, based on works by Fock, Stueckelberg, Feynman, Greenberger, Horwitz, and others. We review some of these and we also consider virtual particles that arise in conventional Feynman diagrams in relativistic field theories. Effective Lagrangian models incorporating variable mass (...)
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  36. Richard Dawid (2010). High Energy Physics and the Marginalization of The Phenomena. Manuscrito 33 (1):165-206.
    It is argued that the evolution of fundamental microphysics throughout the twentieth century is characterised by two interrelated developments. On the one hand, the experimental signatures which confirm theoretical statements are moving towards the fringes of the phenomenal world and, at the same time, leave increasingly wide spaces for entirely theoretical reasoning with little or no empirical interference. On the other hand, assessments of limitations to scientific underdetermination gain importance within the theoretical process.
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  37. Dennis Dieks & Andrea Lubberdink (2011). How Classical Particles Emerge From the Quantum World. Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1051-1064.
    The symmetrization postulates of quantum mechanics (symmetry for bosons, antisymmetry for fermions) are usually taken to entail that quantum particles of the same kind (e.g., electrons) are all in exactly the same state and therefore indistinguishable in the strongest possible sense. These symmetrization postulates possess a general validity that survives the classical limit, and the conclusion seems therefore unavoidable that even classical particles of the same kind must all be in the same state—in clear conflict with what we know about (...)
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  38. W. Drechsler (1989). Modified Weyl Theory and Extended Elementary Objects. Foundations of Physics 19 (12):1479-1497.
    To represent extension of objects in particle physics, a modified Weyl theory is used by gauging the curvature radius of the local fibers in a soldered bundle over space-time possessing a homogeneous space G/H of the (4, 1)-de Sitter group G as fiber. Objects with extension determined by a fundamental length parameter R0 appear as islands D(i) in space-time characterized by a geometry of the Cartan-Weyl type (i.e., involving torsion and modified Weyl degrees of freedom). Farther away from the domains (...)
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  39. M. Drees (2004). Theory and Phenomenology of Sparticles: An Account of Four-Dimensional N=1 Supersymmetry in High Energy Physics. World Scientific.
  40. Matthias Egg (2013). Inequivalent Representations Do Not Undermine Realism About Particles. Foundations of Physics 31.
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  41. James Elkins (2008). Six Stories From the End of Representation: Images in Painting, Photography, Astronomy, Microscopy, Particle Physics, and Quantum Mechanics, 1980-2000. Stanford University Press.
    James Elkins has shaped the discussion about how we—as artists, as art historians, or as outsiders—view art. He has not only revolutionized our thinking about the purpose of teaching art, but has also blazed trails in creating a means of communication between scientists, artists, and humanities scholars. In Six Stories from the End of Representation , Elkins weaves stories about recent images from painting, photography, physics, astrophysics, and microscopy. These images, regardless of origin, all fail as representations: they are blurry, (...)
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  42. Brigitte Falkenburg (1988). The Unifying Role of Symmetry Principles in Particle Physics. Ratio 1 (2):113-134.
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  43. John R. Fanchi (2003). Relativistic Dynamical Theory of Particle Decay and Application to K-Mesons. Foundations of Physics 33 (8):1189-1205.
    The theoretical description of particle decay by a single particle theory requires the use of a probability density in time that is not present in conventional theories. The problem of single particle decay is consistently described here within the context of a single particle, relativistic dynamical theory. We derive experimentally testable differences between the standard model and Relativistic Dynamics for a two-state system: the neutral K-meson (K 0) system. We show that the estimate of mass difference between the two states (...)
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  44. William G. Faris (1982). Spin Correlation in Stochastic Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 12 (1):1-26.
    Stochastic mechanics may be used to described the spin of atomic particles. The spin variables have the same expectations as in quantum mechanics, but not the same distributions. They play the role of hidden variables that influence, but do not determine, the results of Stern-Gerlach experiments involving magnets. During the course of such an experiment spin becomes correlated with position. The case of two particles with zero total spin occurs in Bohm's version of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky experiment.
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  45. S. Fujita (1991). On the Indistinguishability of Classical Particles. Foundations of Physics 21 (4):439-457.
    If no property of a system of many particles discriminates among the particles, they are said to be indistinguishable. This indistinguishability is equivalent to the requirement that the many-particle distribution function and all of the dynamic functions for the system be symmetric. The indistinguishability defined in terms of the discrete symmetry of many-particle functions cannot change in the continuous classical statistical limit in which the number density n and the reciprocal temperature β become small. Thus, microscopic particles like electrons must (...)
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  46. S. Fujita, T. Kimura & Y. Zheng (1991). On the Bose-Einstein Condensation of Free Relativistic Bosons with or Without Mass. Foundations of Physics 21 (9):1117-1130.
    The Bose-Einstein condensation of free relativistic particles [ε=(M 2 c 4 +c 2 p 2 ) 1/2 −Mc 2 ] is studied rigorously. For massless bosons (ε=cp), the condensation transition of third (second) order occurs in2 (3) dimensions (D). The molar heat capacity follows the T 2 (T 3 ) law below the condensation temperature Tc [k B Tc=(2πħ 2 c 2 n/1.645) 1/2 [(π 2 ħ 3 c 3 n/1.202) 1/3 ], reaches4.38 (10.8) R at T=Tc, and approaches the (...)
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  47. S. A. Fulling, B.-G. Englert & M. D. Pilloff (2003). Interacting Bosons at Finite Temperature: How Bogolubov Visited a Black Hole and Came Home Again. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (1):87-110.
    The structure of the thermal equilibrium state of a weakly interacting Bose gas is of current interest. We calculate the density matrix of that state in two ways. The most effective method, in terms of yielding a simple, explicit answer, is to construct a generating function within the traditional framework of quantum statistical mechanics. The alternative method, arguably more interesting, is to construct the thermal state as a vector state in an artificial system with twice as many degrees of freedom. (...)
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  48. K. Gavroglu (1976). Research Guiding Principles in Modern Physics: Case Studies in Elementary Particle Physics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 7 (2):223-248.
    Summary Some case studies in elementary particle physics are presented in this work, that can be used for the critical appraisal of specific criteria which were proposed to account for the development of Heisenberg's work. It is attempted to define the philosophical problems associated with and emerging from the structures of theories, rather than analyse the philosophical aspects of concepts used in elementary particle physics. This necessitates the discussion of the relationship between theory and experiment, and the role of the (...)
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  49. Kostas Gavroglu (1985). Popper's Tetradic Schema, Progressive Research Programs, and the Case of Parity Violation in Elementary Particle Physics 1953–1958. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 16 (2):261-286.
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  50. Stanford Goldman (1971). The Mechanics of Individuality in Nature. Foundations of Physics 1 (4):395-408.
    Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that there is a set of basically similar phenomena or characteristics of physics, biology, and sociology. Six of these are identified. Five of them are usually associated with quantum mechanics. They are the existence of eigenstates, transform domains, bosons and fermions, particles and antiparticles, and complementarity. The sixth, namely alternation of generation, is usually associated with biology. The hypothesis leads to some new points of view and interpretations in biology, sociology, and physics.
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