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  1. Richard E. Aquila (1984). Duty and Inclination: The Fundamentals of Morality Discussed and Redefined with Special Regard to Kant and Schiller. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 1 (1):307-330.
  2. Yotam Benziman (2014). The Ethics of Common Decency. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (1):87-94.
    Let’s begin with a few examples. The queue at the supermarket is long. My shopping cart is full of groceries. You are standing behind me, and your cart has only two or three items in it. I let you go ahead of me so that you can finish your shopping quickly.A stranger in the street approaches you and asks you if you can light his cigarette. As a matter of course, you do.David Heyd, Supererogation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. (...)
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  3. Alexander Broadie & Elizabeth M. Pybus (1981). Kant and Direct Duties. Dialogue 20 (1):60-67.
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  4. Alexander Broadie & Elizabeth M. Pybus (1974). Kant's Treatment of Animals. Philosophy 49 (190):375 - 383.
  5. D. G. Brown (2010). Mill on the Harm in Not Voting. Utilitas 22 (2):126-133.
    Christopher Miles Coope offers a letter, drafted by Helen Taylor but certified by Mill, in which Mill asserts the duty to vote, as evidence that he could not have regarded harmfulness to others as a necessary condition of moral wrongness. But it is clear that Mill regarded the duty to vote as one of imperfect obligation, and the wrongness of not fulfilling it as a matter roughly of not doing enough, in this case not doing one's fair share. He has (...)
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  6. Samuel V. Bruton (2003). Review: Stratton-Lake, Kant, Duty and Moral Worth. [REVIEW] Utilitas 15 (2):248.
  7. Michael Cholbi (2016). Understanding Kant's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    Preface -/- Introduction -/- PART I -/- 1 Kant’s pursuit of the Supreme Principle of Morality -/- 2 The Categorical Imperative and the Kantian theory of value, part I -/- 3 The Categorical Imperative and the Kantian theory of value, part II -/- 4 Dignity -/- 5 Freedom, reason, and the possibility of the Categorical Imperative -/- PART II -/- 6 Objections to the Formula of Universal Law -/- 7 Three problems in Kant’s practical ethics -/- 8 Reason and sentiment: (...)
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  8. Michael Cholbi (2014). A Direct Kantian Duty to Animals. Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):338-358.
    Kant's view that we have only indirect duties to animals fails to capture the intuitive notion that wronging animals transgresses duties we owe to those animals. Here I argue that a suitably modified Kantianism can allow for direct duties to animals and, in particular, an imperfect duty to promote animal welfare without unduly compromising its core theoretical commitments, especially its commitments concerning the source and nature of our duties toward rational beings. The basis for such duties is that animal welfare, (...)
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  9. Stephen Darwall (2008). Kant on Respect, Dignity, and the Duty of Respect. In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. Walter De Gruyter
  10. Lara Denis (2010). Freedom, Primacy, and Perfect Duties to Oneself. In Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press
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  11. Lara Denis (2006). Sex and the Virtuous Kantian Agent. In Raja Halwani (ed.), Sex and Ethics: Essays in Sexuality, Virtue, and the Good Life. Palgrave Macmillan
    This paper explores how a virtuous Kantian agent would regard and express her sexuality. I argue both that Kant has a rich account of virtue, and that a virtuous Kantian agent should view her sexuality as a good thing–as an important aspect of her animal nature. On my view, the virtuous agent does not seek to suppress her sexuality, but rather to find modes and contexts for its expression that allow the agent to maintain her self-respect and to avoid degrading (...)
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  12. Lara Denis (2002). Kant's Ethical Duties and Their Feminist Implications. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 28 (Supplement):157-87.
    Many feminist philosophers have been highly critical of Kant’s ethics, either because of his rationalism or because of particular claims he makes about women in his writings on anthropology and political philosophy. In this paper, I call attention to the aspects of Kant’s ethical theory that make it attractive from a feminist standpoint. Kant’s duties to oneself are rich resource for feminism. These duties require women to act in ways that show respect for themselves as rational human agents by, e.g., (...)
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  13. Lara Denis (2001). Moral Self-Regard: Duties to Oneself in Kant's Moral Theory. Garland Pub..
    Moral Self-Regard draws on the work of Marcia Baron, Joseph Butler and Allen Wood, among others in this first extensive study of the nature, foundation and significance of duties to oneself in Kant's moral theory.
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  14. Lara Denis (2000). Kant's Conception of Duties Regarding Animals: Reconstruction and Reconsideration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 17 (4):405-23.
    In Kant’s moral theory, we do not have duties to animals, though we have duties with regard to them. I reconstruct Kant’s arguments for several types of duties with regard to animals and show that Kant’s theory imposes far more robust requirements on our treatment of animals than one would expect. Kant’s duties regarding animals are perfect and imperfect; they are primarily but not exclusively duties to oneself; and they condemn not merely cruelty to animals for its own sake, but (...)
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  15. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Wrongness of 'Unnatural' Sex. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (2):225-48.
    I consider Kant’s use of claims about “nature’s ends” in his arguments to establish maxims of homosexual sex, masturbation, and bestiality as constituting “unnatural” sexual vices, which are contrary to one’s duties to oneself as an animal and moral being. I argue, first, that the formula of humanity is the principle best suited for understanding duties to oneself as an animal and moral being; and second, that although natural teleology is relevant to some degree in specifying these duties, it cannot (...)
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  16. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Perfection of Others. Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):25-41.
    Kant claims that we have a duty to promote our own moral perfection, but not the moral perfection of others. I examine three types of argument for this asymmetry, as well as the implications of these arguments--and their success or failure--for Kantian theory. The arguments I consider say that (first) to promote others’ perfection is impossible; (second) to try to promote others’ perfection is impermissible; and (third) one cannot be obligated to promote both others’ perfection and one’s own. I argue (...)
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  17. Lara Denis (1997). Kant's Ethics and Duties to Oneself. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):321–348.
    This paper investigates the nature and foundation of duties to oneself in Kant's moral theory. Duties to oneself embody the requirement of the formula of humanity that agents respect rational nature in them-selves as well as in others. So understood, duties to oneself are not subject to the sorts of conceptual objections often raised against duties to oneself; nor do these duties support objections that Kant's moral theory is overly demanding or produces agents who are preoccupied with their own virtue. (...)
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  18. Paul Dietrichson (1962). What Does Kant Mean by 'Acting From Duty'? Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):277-288.
  19. Paul D. Eisenberg (1968). Duties to Oneself and the Concept of Morality. Inquiry 11 (1-4):129 – 154.
    Why is it that most among the relatively few moral philosophers since Kant who, like J. S. Mill, have discussed the question whether there can be moral duties to oneself, have answered it negatively? One reason is that those philosophers have supposed that all moral action must be, inter alia, social; and they may have thought so because of their commitment to what is here called a 'corporationist' moral view. But such a conception of morality as social is objectionable (...)
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  20. Stephen Engstrom (1997). Deriving Duties to Oneself. Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (Supplement):125-130.
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  21. Stephen Engstrom & Jennifer Whiting (eds.) (1996). Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. Cambridge University Press.
    This major collection of essays offers the first serious challenge to the traditional view that ancient and modern ethics are fundamentally opposed.
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  22. Melissa Seymour Fahmy (2011). Love, Respect, and Interfering with Others. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):174-192.
    The fact that Kantian beneficence is constrained by Kantian respect appears to seriously restrict the Kantian's moral response to agents who have embraced self-destructive ends. In this paper I defend the Kantian duties of love and respect by arguing that Kantians can recognize attempts to get an agent to change her ends as a legitimate form of beneficence. My argument depends on two key premises. First, that rational nature is not identical to the capacity to set ends, and second, that (...)
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  23. Pablo Gilabert (forthcoming). Justice and Beneficence. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy.
    What is a duty of justice? And how is it different from a duty of beneficence? We need a clear account of the contrast. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the philosophical literature as to how to characterize it. Different articulations of it have been provided, but it is hard to identify a common core that is invariant across them. In this paper, I propose an account of how to understand duties of justice, explain how it contrasts with several proposals (...)
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  24. N. G. E. Harris (1988). Imperfect Duties and Conflicts of Will. Kant-Studien 79 (1-4):33-42.
  25. Carol Hay (2011). The Obligation to Resist Oppression. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (1):21-45.
    In this paper I argue that, in addition to having an obligation to resist the oppression of others, people have an obligation to themselves to resist their own oppression. This obligation to oneself, I argue, is grounded in a Kantian duty of self-respect.
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  26. Barbara Herman (2012). Being Helped and Being Grateful: Imperfect Duties, the Ethics of Possession, and the Unity of Morality. Journal of Philosophy 109 (5-6):391-411.
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  27. Thomas E. Hill Jr (1971). Kant on Imperfect Duty and Supererogation. Kant-Studien 62 (1-4):55-76.
  28. Thomas E. Hill & Adam Cureton, Supererogation. International Encyclopedia of Ethics.
    “Supererogation” is now a technical term in philosophy for a range of ideas expressed by terms such as “good but not required,” “beyond the call of duty,” “praiseworthy but not obligatory,” and “good to do but not bad not to do” (see Duty and Obligation; Intrinsic Value). Examples often cited are extremely generous acts of charity, heroic self-sacrifice, extraordinary service to morally worthy causes, and sometimes forgiveness and minor favors. These concepts are familiar in institutional contexts, for example, when teachers (...)
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  29. Gary M. Hochberg (1974). The Concept of 'Possible Worlds' and Kant's Distinction Between Perfect and Imperfect Duties. Philosophical Studies 26 (3-4):255 - 262.
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  30. Gary M. Hochberg (1973). A Re-Examination of the Contradictions in Kant's Examples. Philosophical Studies 24 (4):264 - 267.
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  31. Simon Hope (2013). Subsistence Needs, Human Rights, and Imperfect Duties. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):88-100.
    I address the usefulness of thinking about a human right to subsistence within conceptions of human rights grounded in ordinary moral reasoning. I argue that that natural rights should be understood as rights in rem, with their dynamism constrained by the requirements of justification and their scope constrained by the distinction between perfect and imperfect duty. I then suggest that many of the most pressing demands which the moral significance of subsistence needs create are plausibly imperfect duties, and so cannot (...)
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  32. Violetta Igneski (2006). Perfect and Imperfect Duties to Aid. Social Theory and Practice 32 (3):439-466.
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  33. Alexander Jech (2011). Open Duties. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):503-516.
  34. Babić Jovan (2000). Die Pflicht, nicht zu lügen — Eine vollkommene, jedoch nicht auch juridische Pflicht. Kant-Studien 91 (4):433-446.
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  35. Immanuel Kant, On a Supposed Right to Lie Because of Philanthropic Concerns.
    "The moral principle stating that it is a duty to tell the truth would make any society impossible if that principle were taken singly and unconditionally. We have proof of this in the very direct consequences which a German philosopher has drawn from this principle. This philosopher goes as far as to assert that it would be a crime to tell a lie to a murderer who asked whether our friend who is being pursued by the murderer had taken refuge (...)
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  36. Silviya Lechner (2011). Review: Wood, Kantian Ethics: The Hermeneutics of Freedom. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 16 (1):141-150.
  37. Silviya Lechner (2011). Review: Wood, Kantian Ethics: A Hermeneutics of Freedom. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 16 (1):141-150.
  38. Ken Levy (2010). Killing, Letting Die, and the Case for Mildly Punishing Bad Samaritanism. Georgia Law Review 44:607-695.
    For over a century now, American scholars (among others) have been debating the merits of “bad Samaritan” laws — laws punishing people for failing to attempt easy and safe rescues. Unfortunately, the opponents of bad Samaritan laws have mostly prevailed. In the United States, the “no-duty-to-rescue” rule dominates. Only four states have passed bad Samaritan laws, and these laws impose only the most minimal punishment — either sub-$500 fines or short-term imprisonment. -/- This Article argues that every state should criminalize (...)
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  39. James Edwin Mahon (2009). The Truth About Kant On Lies. In Clancy W. Martin (ed.), The Philosophy of Deception. Oxford University Press
    In this chapter I argue that there are three different senses of 'lie' in Kant's moral philosophy: the lie in the ethical sense (the broadest sense, which includes lies to oneself), the lie in the 'juristic' sense (the narrowest sense, which only includes lies that specifically harm particular others), and the lie in the sense of right (or justice), which is narrower than the ethical sense, but broader than the juristic sense, since it includes all lies told to others, including (...)
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  40. James Edwin Mahon (2006). Kant and the Perfect Duty to Others Not to Lie. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (4):653 – 685.
    In this article I argue that it is possible to find, in the Groundwork, a perfect ethical duty to others not to lie to any other person, ever. This duty is not in the Doctrine of Virtue, or the Right to Lie essay. It is an exceptionless, negative duty. The argument given for this negative duty from the Universal Law formula of the Categorical Imperative is that the liar necessarily applies a double standard: do not lie (everyone else), and lie (...)
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  41. Keya Maitra (2006). Comparing the Bhagavad-Gita and Kant. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (1):63-67.
    This paper examines the often-mentioned similarity in comparative moral philosophy between the Hindu Text Bhagavad-Gita’s notion of duty and Kant’s notion of duty. It is commonly argued that they are similar in their deontological nature where one is asked to perform one’s duty for the sake of duty only. I consider three related questions from Gita’s and Kant’s perspectives. First, What is the source of our duties: Self or Nature; second, How do we know that an act x is our (...)
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  42. Joel Marks (2009). Ought Implies Kant: A Reply to the Consequentialist Critique. Lexington Books.
    Ought Implies Kant defends Kantianism via a critical examination of consequentialism. The latter is shown to be untenable on epistemic grounds; meanwhile, the charge that Kantianism is really consequentialism in disguise is refuted. The book also presents a novel interpretation of Kantianism as according direct duties to other animals.
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  43. Lawrence Masek (2005). How Kant's View of Perfect and Imperfect Duties Resolves an Alleged Moral Dilemma for Judges. Ratio Juris 18 (4):415-428.
    I clarify Kant's classification of duties and criticize the apocryphal tradition that, according to Kant, perfect duties trump imperfect duties. I then use Kant's view to argue that judges who believe that an action is immoral and should be illegal need not set aside their beliefs in order to comply with binding precedents that permit the action. The same view of morality that causes some people to oppose certain actions, including abortion, requires lower–court judges to comply with binding precedents. Therefore, (...)
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  44. Chris McCord (2004). Frankenstein Meets Kant (and the Problem of Wide Duties). Teaching Philosophy 27 (2):127-141.
    This paper describes how an ethics instructor might use Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” to teach Kant’s duty-based ethics. For example, themes like the lack of beneficence of Victor toward his creature and Victor’s uneven development of his talents can be used to introduce students to criticisms of Kant’s view that beneficence is an imperfect duty or that we have an imperfect duty to cultivate, not only our scientific abilities, but also non-scientific ones. In addition, “Frankenstein” can be used to consider Kant’s (...)
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  45. Saladin Meckled-Garcia (2013). Giving Up the Goods: Rethinking the Human Right to Subsistence, Institutional Justice, and Imperfect Duties. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):73-87.
    Either a person's claim to subsistence goods is held against institutions equipped to distribute social benefits and burdens fairly or it is made regardless of such a social scheme. If the former, then one's claim is not best understood as based on principles setting out a subsistence goods entitlement, but rather on principles of equitable social distribution — a fair share. If, however, the claim is not against a given social scheme, no plausible principle exists defining what counts as a (...)
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  46. Peter Nicholson (1976). Kant on the Duty Never to Resist the Sovereign. Ethics 86 (3):214-230.
  47. Robert Noggle (2009). Give Till It Hurts? Beneficence, Imperfect Duties, and a Moderate Response to the Aid Question. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):1-16.
  48. Margaret Paton (1990). A Reconsideration of Kant's Treatment of Duties to Oneself. Philosophical Quarterly 40 (159):222-233.
  49. Douglas W. Portmore, Transitivity, Moral Latitude, and Supererogation.
    On what I take to be the standard account of supererogation, an act is supererogatory if and only if it is morally optional and there is more moral reason to perform it than to perform some permissible alternative. And, on this account, an agent has more moral reason to perform one act than to perform another if and only if she morally ought to prefer how things would be if she were to perform the one to how things would be (...)
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  50. Michael Ridge (2005). Why Must We Threat Humanity with Respect? Evaluating the Regress Argument. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 1 (1):57-73.
    -- Immanuel Kant (Kant 1990, p. 46/429) The idea that our most basic duty is to treat each other with respect is one of the Enlightenment’s greatest legacies and Kant is often thought to be one of its most powerful defenders. If Kant’s project were successful then the lofty notion that humanity is always worthy of respect would be vindicated by pure practical reason. Further, this way of defending the ideal is supposed to reflect our autonomy, insofar as it is (...)
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