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  1. Yotam Benziman (2014). The Ethics of Common Decency. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (1):87-94.
    Let’s begin with a few examples. The queue at the supermarket is long. My shopping cart is full of groceries. You are standing behind me, and your cart has only two or three items in it. I let you go ahead of me so that you can finish your shopping quickly.A stranger in the street approaches you and asks you if you can light his cigarette. As a matter of course, you do.David Heyd, Supererogation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. (...)
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  2. Alexander Broadie & Elizabeth M. Pybus (1981). Kant and Direct Duties. Dialogue 20 (01):60-67.
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  3. Alexander Broadie & Elizabeth M. Pybus (1974). Kant's Treatment of Animals. Philosophy 49 (190):375 - 383.
  4. D. G. Brown (2010). Mill on the Harm in Not Voting. Utilitas 22 (2):126-133.
    Christopher Miles Coope offers a letter, drafted by Helen Taylor but certified by Mill, in which Mill asserts the duty to vote, as evidence that he could not have regarded harmfulness to others as a necessary condition of moral wrongness. But it is clear that Mill regarded the duty to vote as one of imperfect obligation, and the wrongness of not fulfilling it as a matter roughly of not doing enough, in this case not doing one's fair share. He has (...)
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  5. Samuel V. Bruton (2003). Review: Stratton-Lake, Kant, Duty and Moral Worth. Utilitas 15 (02):248-.
  6. Michael Cholbi (forthcoming). A Direct Kantian Duty to Animals. Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    Kant’s view that we have only indirect duties to animals fails to capture the intuitive notion that wronging animals transgresses duties we owe to those animals. Here I argue that Kantianism can allow for direct duties to animals, and in particular, an imperfect duty to promote animal welfare, without unduly compromising its core theoretical commitments, especially its claims concerning the source and nature of our duties toward rational beings. The basis for such duties is that animal welfare, on my revised (...)
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  7. Stephen Darwall (2008). Kant on Respect, Dignity, and the Duty of Respect. In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. Walter De Gruyter.
  8. Lara Denis (2010). Freedom, Primacy, and Perfect Duties to Oneself. In , Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  9. Lara Denis (2006). Sex and the Virtuous Kantian Agent. In Raja Halwani (ed.), Sex and Ethics: Essays in Sexuality, Virtue, and the Good Life. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This paper explores how a virtuous Kantian agent would regard and express her sexuality. I argue both that Kant has a rich account of virtue, and that a virtuous Kantian agent should view her sexuality as a good thing–as an important aspect of her animal nature. On my view, the virtuous agent does not seek to suppress her sexuality, but rather to find modes and contexts for its expression that allow the agent to maintain her self-respect and to avoid degrading (...)
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  10. Lara Denis (2002). Kant's Ethical Duties and Their Feminist Implications. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 28 (Supplement):157-87.
    Many feminist philosophers have been highly critical of Kant’s ethics, either because of his rationalism or because of particular claims he makes about women in his writings on anthropology and political philosophy. In this paper, I call attention to the aspects of Kant’s ethical theory that make it attractive from a feminist standpoint. Kant’s duties to oneself are rich resource for feminism. These duties require women to act in ways that show respect for themselves as rational human agents by, e.g., (...)
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  11. Lara Denis (2001). Moral Self-Regard: Duties to Oneself in Kant's Moral Theory. Garland Pub..
    Moral Self-Regard draws on the work of Marcia Baron, Joseph Butler and Allen Wood, among others in this first extensive study of the nature, foundation and significance of duties to oneself in Kant's moral theory.
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  12. Lara Denis (2000). Kant's Conception of Duties Regarding Animals: Reconstruction and Reconsideration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 17 (4):405-23.
    In Kant’s moral theory, we do not have duties to animals, though we have duties with regard to them. I reconstruct Kant’s arguments for several types of duties with regard to animals and show that Kant’s theory imposes far more robust requirements on our treatment of animals than one would expect. Kant’s duties regarding animals are perfect and imperfect; they are primarily but not exclusively duties to oneself; and they condemn not merely cruelty to animals for its own sake, but (...)
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  13. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Wrongness of 'Unnatural' Sex. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (2):225-48.
    I consider Kant’s use of claims about “nature’s ends” in his arguments to establish maxims of homosexual sex, masturbation, and bestiality as constituting “unnatural” sexual vices, which are contrary to one’s duties to oneself as an animal and moral being. I argue, first, that the formula of humanity is the principle best suited for understanding duties to oneself as an animal and moral being; and second, that although natural teleology is relevant to some degree in specifying these duties, it cannot (...)
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  14. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Perfection of Others. Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):25-41.
    Kant claims that we have a duty to promote our own moral perfection, but not the moral perfection of others. I examine three types of argument for this asymmetry, as well as the implications of these arguments--and their success or failure--for Kantian theory. The arguments I consider say that (first) to promote others’ perfection is impossible; (second) to try to promote others’ perfection is impermissible; and (third) one cannot be obligated to promote both others’ perfection and one’s own. I argue (...)
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  15. Lara Denis (1997). Kant's Ethics and Duties to Oneself. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):321–348.
    This paper investigates the nature and foundation of duties to oneself in Kant's moral theory. Duties to oneself embody the requirement of the formula of humanity that agents respect rational nature in them-selves as well as in others. So understood, duties to oneself are not subject to the sorts of conceptual objections often raised against duties to oneself; nor do these duties support objections that Kant's moral theory is overly demanding or produces agents who are preoccupied with their own virtue. (...)
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  16. Paul Dietrichson (1962). What Does Kant Mean by 'Acting From Duty'? Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):277-288.
  17. Stephen Engstrom & Jennifer Whiting (eds.) (1996). Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. Cambridge University Press.
    This major collection of essays offers the first serious challenge to the traditional view that ancient and modern ethics are fundamentally opposed.
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  18. N. G. E. Harris (1988). Imperfect Duties and Conflicts of Will. Kant-Studien 79 (1-4):33-42.
  19. Carol Hay (2011). The Obligation to Resist Oppression. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (1):21-45.
    In this paper I argue that, in addition to having an obligation to resist the oppression of others, people have an obligation to themselves to resist their own oppression. This obligation to oneself, I argue, is grounded in a Kantian duty of self-respect.
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  20. Thomas E. Hill Jr (1971). Kant on Imperfect Duty and Supererogation. Kant-Studien 62 (1-4):55-76.
  21. Gary M. Hochberg (1974). The Concept of 'Possible Worlds' and Kant's Distinction Between Perfect and Imperfect Duties. Philosophical Studies 26 (3-4):255 - 262.
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  22. Gary M. Hochberg (1973). A Re-Examination of the Contradictions in Kant's Examples. Philosophical Studies 24 (4):264 - 267.
  23. Simon Hope (2013). Subsistence Needs, Human Rights, and Imperfect Duties. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):88-100.
    I address the usefulness of thinking about a human right to subsistence within conceptions of human rights grounded in ordinary moral reasoning. I argue that that natural rights should be understood as rights in rem, with their dynamism constrained by the requirements of justification and their scope constrained by the distinction between perfect and imperfect duty. I then suggest that many of the most pressing demands which the moral significance of subsistence needs create are plausibly imperfect duties, and so cannot (...)
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  24. Violetta Igneski (2006). Perfect and Imperfect Duties to Aid. Social Theory and Practice 32 (3):439-466.
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  25. Alexander Jech (2011). Open Duties. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):503-516.
  26. Babić Jovan (2000). Die Pflicht, nicht zu lügen — Eine vollkommene, jedoch nicht auch juridische Pflicht. Kant-Studien 91 (4):433-446.
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  27. Immanuel Kant, On a Supposed Right to Lie Because of Philanthropic Concerns.
    "The moral principle stating that it is a duty to tell the truth would make any society impossible if that principle were taken singly and unconditionally. We have proof of this in the very direct consequences which a German philosopher has drawn from this principle. This philosopher goes as far as to assert that it would be a crime to tell a lie to a murderer who asked whether our friend who is being pursued by the murderer had taken refuge (...)
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  28. Silviya Lechner (2011). Review: Wood, Kantian Ethics: The Hermeneutics of Freedom. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 16 (1):141-150.
  29. Silviya Lechner (2011). Review: Wood, Kantian Ethics: A Hermeneutics of Freedom. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 16 (1):141-150.
  30. Keya Maitra (2006). Comparing the Bhagavad-Gita and Kant. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (1):63-67.
    This paper examines the often-mentioned similarity in comparative moral philosophy between the Hindu Text Bhagavad-Gita’s notion of duty and Kant’s notion of duty. It is commonly argued that they are similar in their deontological nature where one is asked to perform one’s duty for the sake of duty only. I consider three related questions from Gita’s and Kant’s perspectives. First, What is the source of our duties: Self or Nature; second, How do we know that an act x is our (...)
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  31. Joel Marks (2009). Ought Implies Kant: A Reply to the Consequentialist Critique. Lexington Books.
    Ought Implies Kant defends Kantianism via a critical examination of consequentialism. The latter is shown to be untenable on epistemic grounds; meanwhile, the charge that Kantianism is really consequentialism in disguise is refuted. The book also presents a novel interpretation of Kantianism as according direct duties to other animals.
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  32. Lawrence Masek (2005). How Kant's View of Perfect and Imperfect Duties Resolves an Alleged Moral Dilemma for Judges. Ratio Juris 18 (4):415-428.
    I clarify Kant's classification of duties and criticize the apocryphal tradition that, according to Kant, perfect duties trump imperfect duties. I then use Kant's view to argue that judges who believe that an action is immoral and should be illegal need not set aside their beliefs in order to comply with binding precedents that permit the action. The same view of morality that causes some people to oppose certain actions, including abortion, requires lower–court judges to comply with binding precedents. Therefore, (...)
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  33. Chris McCord (2004). Frankenstein Meets Kant (and the Problem of Wide Duties). Teaching Philosophy 27 (2):127-141.
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  34. Saladin Meckled-Garcia (2013). Giving Up the Goods: Rethinking the Human Right to Subsistence, Institutional Justice, and Imperfect Duties. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):73-87.
    Either a person's claim to subsistence goods is held against institutions equipped to distribute social benefits and burdens fairly or it is made regardless of such a social scheme. If the former, then one's claim is not best understood as based on principles setting out a subsistence goods entitlement, but rather on principles of equitable social distribution — a fair share. If, however, the claim is not against a given social scheme, no plausible principle exists defining what counts as a (...)
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  35. Peter Nicholson (1976). Kant on the Duty Never to Resist the Sovereign. Ethics 86 (3):214-230.
  36. Robert Noggle (2009). Give Till It Hurts? Beneficence, Imperfect Duties, and a Moderate Response to the Aid Question. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):1-16.
  37. Walter E. Schaller (1987). Kant's Architectonic of Duties. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (2):299-314.
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  38. S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Imperfect Duties, Group Obligations, and Beneficence. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    There is virtually no philosophical consensus on what, exactly, imperfect duties are. In this paper, I lay out three criteria which I argue any adequate account of imperfect duties should satisfy. Using beneficence as a leading example, I suggest that existing accounts of imperfect duties will have trouble meeting those criteria. I then propose a new approach: thinking of imperfect duties as duties held by groups, rather than individuals. I show, again using the example of beneficence, that this proposal can (...)
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  39. Rudolf Schüssler (2012). Kant und die Kasuistik: Fragen zur Tugendlehre. Kant-Studien 103 (1):70-95.
  40. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (2005). You Ought to Be Ashamed of Yourself (When You Violate an Imperfect Moral Obligation). Philosophical Issues 15 (1):193-208.
    The distinction between perfect and imperfect obligations has a long history in moral philosophy and is important to many central issues in moral theory and in everyday morality. Unfortunately, this distinction is often overlooked and rarely defined precisely or univocally. This paper tries to clarify the distinction in light of recent empirical research on guilt and shame. I begin with the general notion of an obligation before distinguishing its sub-classes.
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  41. Scott Stapleford (2013). Imperfect Epistemic Duties and the Justificational Fecundity of Evidence. Synthese 190 (18):4065-4075.
    Mark Nelson argues that we have no positive epistemic duties. His case rests on the evidential inexhaustibility of sensory and propositional evidence—what he calls their ‘infinite justificational fecundity’. It is argued here that Nelson’s reflections on the richness of sensory and propositional evidence do make it doubtful that we ever have an epistemic duty to add any particular beliefs to our belief set, but that they fail to establish that we have no positive epistemic duties whatsoever. A theory of epistemic (...)
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  42. Robert S. Taylor (2005). Kantian Personal Autonomy. Political Theory 33 (5):602-628.
    Jeremy Waldron has recently raised the question of whether there is anything approximating the creative self-authorship of personal autonomy in the writings of Immanuel Kant. After considering the possibility that Kantian prudential reasoning might serve as a conception of personal autonomy, I argue that the elements of a more suitable conception can be found in Kant’s Tugendlehre or Doctrine of Virtue--specifically, in the imperfect duties of self-perfection and the practical love of others. This discovery is important for at least three (...)
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  43. Yvonne Unna (2003). Kants Answers to the Casuistical Questions Concerning Self-Disembodiment. Kant-Studien 94 (4):454-473.
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  44. Kenneth R. Westphal (1995). 'How "Full" is Kant's Categorical Imperative?'. Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik/Annual Review of Law and Ethics 3:465-509.
    Through a careful examination of two detailed investigations of Kant’s Categorical Imperative (CI) as a criterion for determining correct action I show that Hegel’s widely castigated critique of Kant’s CI has significant merit. Kant holds that moral imperatives are categorical because the obligations they express do not depend upon our contingent ends or desires and he holds that the CI is the supreme normative principle. However, his actual illustrations show (1) that Kant repeatedly appeals to contingent ends and desires in (...)
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