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Persons

Edited by David Shoemaker (Tulane University)
About this topic
Summary The metaphysics of personhood primarily addresses two questions: what is the nature of persons and what are their persistence conditions across time?  Addressing the former question prompts investigations into the nature of the self (if distinct from the person), consciousness, mind, and embodiment.  Addressing the latter prompts investigations into theories of personal identity.  Because many view "person"as a thoroughly normative notion, however, its study is often connected closely to investigations into value and practical identity.
Key works Primarily metaphysical investigations into personhood are taken up repeatedly by major figures throughout the history of philosophy, from Plato to Descartes to Kant.  In the contemporary literature, there are clear discussions by Baker 2000, Olson 2007, Shoemaker 1963, and Van Inwagen 2001. Personhood as a normative ("forensic") concept was introduced by John Locke, in "Of Identity and Diversity" (see Perry 1975).  Contemporary normatively-based explorations of personhood include Frankfurt 1971 and Korsgaard 1989
Introductions Gallagher 2011, Martin, Raymond and Barresi, John, eds., Personal Identity (2003).
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Persons
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  1. Richard De Bary (1936). My Experiments with Death. New York [Etc.]Longmans, Green and Co..
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  2. Jill de Villiers & Jay Garfield (2009). Evidentiality and Narrative. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (6-8):6-8.
    In this paper we argue that the phenomenon of evidentiality, the grammatical marking in some languages of the source of one's knowledge, gives us a revealing window into the developmental processes in middle childhood that subserve the achievement of narrative competence. First, we argue that the mastery of evidentiality is connected to the development of an understanding of inference, and of the ability to mobilize this understanding in the construction of human narratives. Second, we examine the role that parent-child discourse (...)
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  3. M. C. Dillon (1974). Sartre on the Phenomenal Body and Merleau-Ponty's Critique. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 5:144-158.
    The article tries to show that both resolution of the mind-body problem and adequate description of the phenomenal body depend upon the ontology presupposed in offering such a resolution or description. a detailed analysis of sartre's treatment of the body demonstrates that his failures are a result of his neo-cartesian ontology. both the critique and the resolution proposed toward the end take their departure from merleau- ponty's thesis of the ontological primacy of phenomena.
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  4. Robin S. Dillon (2007). Arrogance, Self-Respect and Personhood. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 5-6):101-126.
    This essay aims to show that arrogance corrupts the very qualities that make persons persons. The corruption is subtle but profound, and the key to understanding it lies in understanding the connections between different kinds of arrogance, self-respect, respect for others and personhood. Making these connections clear is the second aim of this essay. It will build on Kant's claim that self-respect is central to living our human lives as persons and that arrogance is, at its core, the failure to (...)
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  5. Jj Do Nahue (1987). The Person as a Brain Microparticle. Auslegung 14 (1):1-17.
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  6. Thomas J. Donahue, The Person As A Brain Microparticle.
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  7. Joseph Donceel (1987). Death of the Soul. International Philosophical Quarterly 27 (3):338-339.
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  8. Jude P. Dougherty (1983). Social Order and the Limits of Law. Review of Metaphysics 37 (1):126-127.
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  9. Hubert L. Dreyfus (1989). Alternative Philosophical Conceptualizations of Psychopathology. In Phenomenology and Beyond: The Self and its Language. Dordrecht: Kluwer
    Home Courses Selected Papers Selected Books C.V. Dreydegger.org Phil. Faculty Dept. Philosophy UC Berkeley.
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  10. Bárbara Nascimento Duarte (2014). Entangled Agencies: New Individual Practices of Human-Technology Hybridism Through Body Hacking. NanoEthics 8 (3):275-285.
    This essay develops its idiosyncrasy by concentrating primarily on the trend of body hacking. The practitioners, self-defined as body hackers, self-made cyborgs or grinders, work in different ways to develop functional and physiological modifications through the contributions of technology. Their goal is to develop by themselves an empirically man-technique fusion. These dynamic “scientific” subcultures are producing astonishing innovations. From pocket-sized kits that sample human DNA, microchip implants that keep tabs on our internal organs, blood sugar levels or moods, and even (...)
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  11. S. A. E. (1964). Earlier Philosophical Writings. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):185-185.
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  12. S. A. E. (1964). Humanist Without Portfolio. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):186-186.
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  13. T. L. E. (1978). Transcendent Selfhood. The Loss and Rediscovery of the Inner Life. Review of Metaphysics 32 (1):133-134.
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  14. Jonathan Edelmann (2007). Setting Criteria for Ideal Reincarnation Research. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (12):92-101.
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  15. Robert Elliot (1997). Genetic Therapy, Person-Regarding Reasons and the Determination of Identity. Bioethics 11 (2):151–160.
    It has been argued for example by Ingmar Persson, that genetic therapy performed on a conceptus does not alter the identity of the person that develops from it, even if we are essentially persons. If this claim is true then there can be person-regarding reasons for performing genetic therapy on a conceptus. Here it is argued that such person-regarding reasons obtain only if we are not essentially persons but essentially animals. This conclusion requires the defeat of the origination theory, which (...)
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  16. George Englebretsen (1975). Speaking of Persons. Published for the Canadian Association for Publishing in Philosophy by Dalhousie University Press.
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  17. K. P. F. (1963). The Dignity of Science. Review of Metaphysics 17 (1):153-154.
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  18. Arthur E. Falk (1984). Selfhood, Modality, and Philosophies of Mind. Metaphilosophy 15 (2):100–111.
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  19. Mike Featherstone (1999). Body Modification: An Introduction. Body and Society 5 (2-3):1-13.
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  20. Frederick Ferré (1980). The Self and Physical Transiency. Southern Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):107-112.
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  21. Owen Flanagan (2012). Phenomenal and Historical Selves. Grazer Philosophische Studien 84 (1):217-240.
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  22. Antony Flew (1964). SHOEMAKER, SYDNEY-"Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity". [REVIEW] Philosophy 39:275.
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  23. L. Fonnesu (1995). On the Philosophical Thoughts of Luporini, Cesare. Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana 15 (2):129-144.
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  24. Depraz - France (2003). Putting the Epoche Into Practice: Schizophrenic Experience as Illustrating the Phenomenological Exploration of Consciousness. In Bill Fulford, Katherine Morris, John Z. Sadler & Giovanni Stanghellini (eds.), Nature and Narrative: An Introduction to the New Philosophy of Psychiatry. OUP Oxford
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  25. Gary Fuller (1992). Functionalism and Personal Identity. The Personalist Forum 8 (Supplement):133-143.
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  26. R. D. G. (1958). Man in Search of Immortality. Review of Metaphysics 12 (2):328-328.
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  27. Klaus Gahl (1999). On the Unity of the Person: A Physician's Perspective. Ethik in der Medizin 11 (1).
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  28. Spyros Galanis (2011). Syntactic Foundations for Unawareness of Theorems. Theory and Decision 71 (4):593-614.
    We provide a syntactic model of unawareness. By introducing multiple knowledge modalities, one for each sub-language, we specifically model agents whose only mistake in reasoning (other than their unawareness) is to underestimate the knowledge of more aware agents. We show that the model is a complete and sound axiomatization of the set-theoretic model of Galanis (University of Southampton Discussion paper 709, 2007) and compare it with other unawareness models in the literature.
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  29. Shaun Gallagher & Jonathan Shear (1997). Models of the Self: Editors' Introduction. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (5-6):5-6.
    There is a long history of inquiry about human nature and the nature of the self. It stretches from the ancient tradition of Socratic self-knowledge in the context of ethical life to contemporary discussions of brain function in cognitive science. At the beginning of the modern era, Descartes was led to the conclusion that self-knowledge provided the single Archimedean point for all knowledge. His thesis that self is a single, simple, continuing, and unproblematically accessible mental substance resonated with common sense, (...)
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  30. Shaun Gallagher & Francisco Varela (2010). Przerysować mapę i przestawić czas: fenomenologia i nauki kognitywne. Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 1 (1).
    We argue that phenomenology can be of central and positive importance to the cognitive sciences, and that it can also learn from the empirical research conducted in those sciences. We discuss the project of naturalizing phenomenology and how this can be best accomplished. We provide several examples of how phenomenology and the cognitive sciences can integrate their research. Specifically, we consider issues related to embodied cognition and intersubjectivity. We provide a detailed analysis of issues related to time-consciousness, with reference to (...)
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  31. Eugenie Georgaca (2004). Defending Sociocultural Perspectives on Mental. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology: Ppp 100:1.
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  32. Hanjo Glock & John Hyman (1994). Persons and Their Bodies. Philosophical Investigations 17 (2):365-379.
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  33. Benedikt Paul Göcke (2010). Reviews Personal Agency: The Metaphysics of Mind and Action . By E. J. Lowe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, Pp. 240, £19.99. [REVIEW] Philosophy 85 (2):302-306.
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  34. A. Godin (1954). Persons and Personality. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):156-159.
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  35. Kurt Goldstein (1941). Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology. Philosophical Review 50:651.
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  36. Rebecca Goldstein (1990). The Body-Mind Conceptual Framework And The Problem of Personal Identity. International Studies in Philosophy 22 (1):133-134.
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  37. Michael Francis Goodman (1986). The Moral and Metaphysical Aspects of Personhood. Dissertation, Michigan State University
    Holding that there is a distinction between persons in the metaphysical sense and persons in the moral sense, I show that the conditions for personhood is inadequate to capture the notion of the person in the moral sense. The proposed conditions for personhood are: consciousness, rationality, self-consciousness, the ability to adopt and reciprocate a personal attitude toward another being, complex communication, self-motivated activity, and free will. ;A person in the metaphysical sense is defined as an intelligent, conscious, feeling agent. The (...)
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  38. Marie T. Gould (1992). Embryo Experimentation. Review of Metaphysics 45 (3):635-636.
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  39. George Graham (1985). Man and His Dignity. Review of Metaphysics 39 (1):169-170.
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  40. George Albert Graham (1975). The Identities of Persons. Dissertation, Brandeis University
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  41. John Graham (1908). New Facts on Our Survival of Death. Hibbert Journal 7:261.
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  42. Temple Grandin (2010). How Does Visual Thinking Work in the Mind of a Person with Autism? A Personal Account. In Francesca Happé & Uta Frith (eds.), Autism and Talent. OUP/the Royal Society 141--149.
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  43. Adam Green (2012). Perceiving Persons. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (3-4):3-4.
    Since their discovery, mirror neurons have played a critical role in the interdisciplinary debate over how we come to understand other people, a topic often labelled 'mind-reading'. The philosopher Alvin Goldman argues that mirror neurons provide critical evidence that we come to understand others by simulating them. In this paper, I demonstrate that mirror neurons should be thought of as facilitating the perception of persons but should not be thought of as simulators. Our basic understanding of others does not come (...)
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  44. Jack Gruenenfelder (1967). Is Substance Relevant to Contemporary Concern With the Person? New Scholasticism 41 (4):498-505.
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  45. Bart Gruzalski (1986). Parfit's Unified Theory of Morality. Philosophical Studies 50 (1):143 - 152.
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  46. Raymond Guess, Gilbert Harman, Richard Jeffrey, David Lewis, Alison Mclntyre & Michael Smith (1991). Mark Johnston. In Daniel Kolak & R. Martin (eds.), Self and Identity: Contemporary Philosophical Issues. Macmillan
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  47. Rev Benedict Guevin (2001). The Conjoined Twins of Malta: Direct or Indirect Killing? The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (3):397-405.
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  48. Robert van Gulick (2013). Phenomenal Unity, Representation and the Self. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (1):209 - 214.
  49. Paul Guyer (1993). The Subject of Modernity. Review of Metaphysics 47 (1):138-140.
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  50. Peter Austin Guyer (2010). Suicidal Crisis and Life-Threatening Illness: A Narrative Inquiry. Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies
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