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Persons

Edited by Timothy Campbell (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
About this topic
Summary The metaphysics of personhood primarily addresses two questions: what is the nature of persons and what are their persistence conditions across time?  Addressing the former question prompts investigations into the nature of the self (if distinct from the person), consciousness, mind, and embodiment.  Addressing the latter prompts investigations into theories of personal identity.  Because many view "person"as a thoroughly normative notion, however, its study is often connected closely to investigations into value and practical identity.
Key works Primarily metaphysical investigations into personhood are taken up repeatedly by major figures throughout the history of philosophy, from Plato to Descartes to Kant.  In the contemporary literature, there are clear discussions by Baker 2000, Olson 2007, Shoemaker 1963, and Van Inwagen 2001. Personhood as a normative ("forensic") concept was introduced by John Locke, in "Of Identity and Diversity" (see Perry 1975).  Contemporary normatively-based explorations of personhood include Frankfurt 1971 and Korsgaard 1989
Introductions Gallagher 2011, Martin, Raymond and Barresi, John, eds., Personal Identity (2003).
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Persons
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  1. E. M. Adams (1995). Character: The Framework for a Successful Life. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):1-18.
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  2. Nicholas Agar (2001). Book Review. Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation Anthony O'Hear. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (438):534-537.
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  3. Kelly T. Alberts (1990). The Self and First Person Metaphysics. International Studies in Philosophy 22 (1):3-20.
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  4. Virgil C. Aldrich (1973). On What It is Like to Be a Man. Inquiry 16 (1-4):355 – 366.
    The human body is ?transmogrified? (caricatured) under physicalistic descriptions of it. These imply that it is a contingent fact that rational beings such as human persons have the sort of bodies they do have. (Or, that, say, baboons are not rational creatures.) The human body is ?transfigured? under a description that makes it necessary to the performance of rational functions, including speaking a language. Any view of the matter that excludes this notion, either by reduction to the physicalist treatment or (...)
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  5. A. H. B. Allen (1937). The Self in Psychology. Philosophy 12 (47):378-378.
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  6. Rudolf Allers (1953). The Person. New Scholasticism 27 (3):361-361.
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  7. H. Mike Awalt (1992). Reply to Clifford and Gallagher. The Personalist Forum 8 (Supplement):43-46.
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  8. Julian Baggini, Psychological Reductionism About Persons: A Critical Development.
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  9. Julian Baggini (2000). All in the Mind. The Philosophers' Magazine 12:42-43.
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  10. C. M. Bakewell (1904). Why the Mind has a Body: A Rejoinder. Philosophical Review 13 (3):342-346.
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  11. J. Mark Baldwin (1903). Mind and Body From the Genetic Point of View. Philosophical Review 12:563.
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  12. Edward G. Ballard (1957). Individual and Person. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (1):59-67.
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  13. Dorit Bar-on (2009). Transparency, Epistemic Impartiality, and Personhood: A Commentary on Simon Evnine'sepistemic Dimensions of Personhood. Philosophical Books 50 (1):1-14.
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  14. Martin Barker (1980). Wilson: On Human Nature. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 24:27.
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  15. P. Baumann (2009). Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood, by Simon Evnine. Mind 118 (471):823-827.
    Review of Evnine, "Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood".
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  16. L. W. Beck (1941). Goldstein's Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 2:245.
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  17. Lewis White Beck (1944). Character and Deed. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4 (4):547-553.
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  18. Ciaran Benson (2001). The Cultural Psychology of Self: Place, Morality and Art in Human Worlds. Routledge.
    Philosophers and psychologists both investigate the self, but often in isolation from one another. this book brings together studies by philosophers and psychologists in an exploration of the self and its function. It will be of interest to all those involved in philosophy, psychology and sociology.
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  19. Sylvia Berryman (1992). Sowing the Body. The Personalist Forum 8 (2):115-118.
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  20. John Bishop (1990). Searle on Natural Agency. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (3):282 – 300.
  21. Giovanni Boniolo (2005). The Ontogenesis of Human Identity. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80 (56):5-.
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  22. Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Review of Evnine, Simon J.,Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, Pp. Viii + 176, £32.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):349-352.
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  23. Brian Boyd (1998). Jane, Meet Charles: Literature, Evolution, and Human Nature. Philosophy and Literature 22 (1):1-30.
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  24. Ernest G. Braham (1937). Personality in Philosophical Theology. London, the Epworth Press.
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  25. Godehard Brüntrup (1997). Der Streit um die Person. Information Philosophie 4:18-27.
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  26. Frank Budenholzer (2006). The Spiritual Emergent: Lonergan's View of Science and the Human Person. Philosophy and Culture 33 (11):127-147.
    Recently, physics and life sciences, and especially the development of neuroscience, is already leading the people to accept a rigid form of reductionism. Where the human intellect, human initiative and awareness can be identified as a purely biological vocabulary to explain. This article describes the root of the Nepalese people learn Lang; This paper argues that the root Lang Nepalese understanding of human nature-bit cell based on this idea in the legislation but the two pillars, namely: the theory of knowledge (...)
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  27. Michael B. Burke (2002). Objects and Persons. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 111 (4):586-588.
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  28. Michael B. Burke (1996). Sortal Essentialism and the Potentiality Principle. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):491 - 514.
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  29. Mikel Burley (2009). Immortality and Meaning: Reflections on the Makropulos Debate. Philosophy 84 (4):529-547.
    This article reflects upon the debate, initiated by Bernard Williams in 1973, concerning the desirability of immortality, where the latter expression is taken to mean endless bodily life as a human or humanoid being. Williams contends that it cannot be desirable; others have disputed this contention. I discuss a recent response from Timothy Chappell and attempt to pinpoint the central disagreement between Chappell and Williams. I propose that neither side in the debate has firm grounds for its claims, and then (...)
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  30. Stephen Burwood (2009). Are We Our Brains? Philosophical Investigations 32 (2):113-133.
    My aim in this paper is to destabilise the brain-is-self thesis, something that is now regarded in some quarters as philosophical commonsense. My contention is that it is the epithelial body that enters into the formation of our sense of self and that largely bears the burden of personal identity as well as playing the key role in grounding our psychological ascriptions. Lacking any sensorimotor or social presence of its own, the brain by itself cannot "underlie" selfhood, but only as (...)
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  31. Spencer E. Cahill (1998). Toward a Sociology of the Person. Sociological Theory 16 (2):131-148.
    This paper proposes a sociology of the person that focuses upon the socially defined, publicly visible beings of intersubjective experience. I argue that the sociology of the person proposed by Durkheim and Mauss is more accurately described as a sociology of institutions of the person and neglects both folk or ethnopsychologies of personhood and the interactional production of persons. I draw upon the work of Gossman to develop a sociology of the person concerned with means, processes, and relations of person (...)
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  32. Sorin Calin (2003). The Body, a Metaphor of Mind. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (5):143-157.
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  33. William Calvin, My Synapses, Myself.
    The self, Joseph LeDoux tells us, is “the totality of the living organism”. Most disciplines in the natural sciences focus on only one or two levels of organization. Indeed, Dmitri Mendeleev figured out the periodic table of the elements without knowing any of the underlying quantum mechanics or stereochemistry. There are, however, at least a dozen levels of organization within the neurosciences — and, if we use a metaphor, we temporarily create yet another. This leads to considerable confusion and arguments (...)
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  34. Paul Carus (1911). The Self and Personality. The Monist 21 (1):92-108.
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  35. Gerald Casenave (1989). The Body in Mind. The Personalist Forum 5 (1):58-60.
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  36. Marcia Cavell (1985). Separate Minds. Philosophy 60 (233):359 - 371.
    This fact about the grammar of selfhypenreference doesn't answer the ontological question, however, of what sort of entity I am in so far as I am a speaker. Thinking about what is presumed in my understanding the concepts ‘one’ and ‘one who is speaking’ tells us this much, that I must be able to differentiate myself from other speakers at the same time as I must be like them. If I cannot differentiate myself from you then of course I cannot (...)
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  37. Rollin Chambliss (1961). The Nature of Man. University of Georgia, Center for Continuing Education.
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  38. David Charles (1988). Introducing Persons: Theories and Arguments in the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Books 29 (1):46-48.
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  39. Felice Cimatti (2009). “Me” As Speech Act: A Performative Based Psychology. Etica E Politica 11 (1):291-300.
    We propose to define a psychological hypothesis for the word “me” that designates, for each human being, his or her personal interior Ego. Every human being is naturally an Ego – it is a question of learning the particular linguistic sound in which it is named in one’s mother tongue. In fact, it is not important, for our analysis, that the Ego be innate or developed gradually through experience. The important point in the psychological hypothesis is that the Ego is (...)
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  40. Stephen R. L. Clark (1991). How Many Selves Make Me?1: Stephen R. L. Clark. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:213-233.
    Cartesian accounts of the mental make it axiomatic that consciousness is transparent: what I feel, I know I feel, however many errors I may make about its cause. ‘I’ names a simple, unextended, irreducible substance, created ex nihilo or eternally existent, and only associated with the complete, extended, dissoluble substance or pretend-substance that is ‘my’ body by divine fiat. Good moderns take it for granted that ‘we’ now realize how shifting, foggy and deconstructible are the boundaries of the self; ‘we’ (...)
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  41. D. S. Clarke (1995). Alternative Uses of 'We'. Philosophia 24 (3-4):389-403.
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  42. Albert A. Cock (1946). What Does It Mean to Be a Person? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 47:129 - 142.
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  43. Steven Collins & Derek Parfit (1986). Selfless Persons. Philosophy East and West 36 (3):289-298.
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  44. Antonella Corradini (2003). The Return of Human Nature in Evolutionary Biology and Cognitive Science: A Critical Note. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 95 (2):273-280.
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  45. S. C. Coval (1964). Persons and Criteria in Strawson. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (3):406-409.
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  46. John Creaveny (1943). Person and Individual. New Scholasticism 17 (3):231-250.
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  47. John F. Crosby (1997). The Estrangement of Persons From Their Bodies. Logos 1 (2).
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  48. Nick Crossley (2001). The Social Body: Habit, Identity and Desire. Sage.
    This book explores both the embodied nature of social life and the social nature of human bodily life. It provides an accessible review of the contemporary social science debates on the body, and develops a coherent new perspective. Nick Crossley critically reviews the literature on mind and body, and also on the body and society. He draws on theoretical insights from the work of Gilbert Ryle, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, George Herbert Mead and Pierre Bourdieu, and shows how the work of these (...)
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  49. Cunningham Cunningham (1952). LEWELLING'S The Person or the Significance of Man. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 13:559.
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  50. Fred D'Agostino (2007). Chomsky's Generative Theory of Human Nature and the Boundaries of Diversity: Review of Noam Chomsky: On Power, Knowledge and Human Nature by Peter Wilkin. [REVIEW] Journal of Critical Realism 1 (1).
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