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Persons

Edited by David Shoemaker (Tulane University)
About this topic
Summary The metaphysics of personhood primarily addresses two questions: what is the nature of persons and what are their persistence conditions across time?  Addressing the former question prompts investigations into the nature of the self (if distinct from the person), consciousness, mind, and embodiment.  Addressing the latter prompts investigations into theories of personal identity.  Because many view "person"as a thoroughly normative notion, however, its study is often connected closely to investigations into value and practical identity.
Key works Primarily metaphysical investigations into personhood are taken up repeatedly by major figures throughout the history of philosophy, from Plato to Descartes to Kant.  In the contemporary literature, there are clear discussions by Baker 2000, Olson 2007, Shoemaker 1963, and Van Inwagen 2001. Personhood as a normative ("forensic") concept was introduced by John Locke, in "Of Identity and Diversity" (see Perry 1975).  Contemporary normatively-based explorations of personhood include Frankfurt 1971 and Korsgaard 1989
Introductions Gallagher 2011, Martin, Raymond and Barresi, John, eds., Personal Identity (2003).
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Persons
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  1. E. M. Adams (1995). Character: The Framework for a Successful Life. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):1-18.
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  2. Nicholas Agar (2001). Book Review. Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation Anthony O'Hear. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (438):534-537.
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  3. Kelly T. Alberts (1990). The Self and First Person Metaphysics. International Studies in Philosophy 22 (1):3-20.
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  4. Virgil C. Aldrich (1973). On What It is Like to Be a Man. Inquiry 16 (1-4):355 – 366.
    The human body is ?transmogrified? (caricatured) under physicalistic descriptions of it. These imply that it is a contingent fact that rational beings such as human persons have the sort of bodies they do have. (Or, that, say, baboons are not rational creatures.) The human body is ?transfigured? under a description that makes it necessary to the performance of rational functions, including speaking a language. Any view of the matter that excludes this notion, either by reduction to the physicalist treatment or (...)
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  5. A. H. B. Allen (1937). The Self in Psychology. Philosophy 12 (47):378-378.
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  6. Rudolf Allers (1953). The Person. New Scholasticism 27 (3):361-361.
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  7. H. Mike Awalt (1992). Reply to Clifford and Gallagher. The Personalist Forum 8 (Supplement):43-46.
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  8. Julian Baggini, Psychological Reductionism About Persons: A Critical Development.
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  9. Julian Baggini (2000). All in the Mind. The Philosophers' Magazine 12:42-43.
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  10. C. M. Bakewell (1904). Why the Mind has a Body: A Rejoinder. Philosophical Review 13 (3):342-346.
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  11. J. Mark Baldwin (1903). Mind and Body From the Genetic Point of View. Philosophical Review 12:563.
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  12. Edward G. Ballard (1957). Individual and Person. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (1):59-67.
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  13. Dorit Bar-on (2009). Transparency, Epistemic Impartiality, and Personhood: A Commentary on Simon Evnine'sepistemic Dimensions of Personhood. Philosophical Books 50 (1):1-14.
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  14. Martin Barker (1980). Wilson: On Human Nature. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 24:27.
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  15. P. Baumann (2009). Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood, by Simon Evnine. Mind 118 (471):823-827.
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  16. L. W. Beck (1941). Goldstein's Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 2:245.
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  17. Lewis White Beck (1944). Character and Deed. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4 (4):547-553.
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  18. Ciaran Benson (2001). The Cultural Psychology of Self: Place, Morality and Art in Human Worlds. Routledge.
    Philosophers and psychologists both investigate the self, but often in isolation from one another. this book brings together studies by philosophers and psychologists in an exploration of the self and its function. It will be of interest to all those involved in philosophy, psychology and sociology.
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  19. Sylvia Berryman (1992). Sowing the Body. The Personalist Forum 8 (2):115-118.
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  20. John Bishop (1990). Searle on Natural Agency. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (3):282 – 300.
  21. Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Review of Evnine, Simon J.,Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, Pp. Viii + 176, £32.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):349-352.
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  22. Brian Boyd (1998). Jane, Meet Charles: Literature, Evolution, and Human Nature. Philosophy and Literature 22 (1):1-30.
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  23. Ernest G. Braham (1937). Personality in Philosophical Theology. London, the Epworth Press.
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  24. Godehard Brüntrup (1997). Der Streit um die Person. Information Philosophie 4:18-27.
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  25. Frank Budenholzer (2006). The Spiritual Emergent: Lonergan's View of Science and the Human Person. Philosophy and Culture 33 (11):127-147.
    Recently, physics and life sciences, and especially the development of neuroscience, is already leading the people to accept a rigid form of reductionism. Where the human intellect, human initiative and awareness can be identified as a purely biological vocabulary to explain. This article describes the root of the Nepalese people learn Lang; This paper argues that the root Lang Nepalese understanding of human nature-bit cell based on this idea in the legislation but the two pillars, namely: the theory of knowledge (...)
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  26. Michael B. Burke (2002). Objects and Persons. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 111 (4):586-588.
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  27. Michael B. Burke (1996). Sortal Essentialism and the Potentiality Principle. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):491 - 514.
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  28. Mikel Burley (2009). Immortality and Meaning: Reflections on the Makropulos Debate. Philosophy 84 (4):529-547.
    This article reflects upon the debate, initiated by Bernard Williams in 1973, concerning the desirability of immortality, where the latter expression is taken to mean endless bodily life as a human or humanoid being. Williams contends that it cannot be desirable; others have disputed this contention. I discuss a recent response from Timothy Chappell and attempt to pinpoint the central disagreement between Chappell and Williams. I propose that neither side in the debate has firm grounds for its claims, and then (...)
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  29. Stephen Burwood (2009). Are We Our Brains? Philosophical Investigations 32 (2):113-133.
    My aim in this paper is to destabilise the brain-is-self thesis, something that is now regarded in some quarters as philosophical commonsense. My contention is that it is the epithelial body that enters into the formation of our sense of self and that largely bears the burden of personal identity as well as playing the key role in grounding our psychological ascriptions. Lacking any sensorimotor or social presence of its own, the brain by itself cannot "underlie" selfhood, but only as (...)
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  30. Sorin Calin (2003). The Body, a Metaphor of Mind. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (5):143-157.
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  31. Paul Carus (1911). The Self and Personality. The Monist 21 (1):92-108.
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  32. Gerald Casenave (1989). The Body in Mind. The Personalist Forum 5 (1):58-60.
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  33. Marcia Cavell (1985). Separate Minds. Philosophy 60 (233):359 - 371.
    This fact about the grammar of selfhypenreference doesn't answer the ontological question, however, of what sort of entity I am in so far as I am a speaker. Thinking about what is presumed in my understanding the concepts ‘one’ and ‘one who is speaking’ tells us this much, that I must be able to differentiate myself from other speakers at the same time as I must be like them. If I cannot differentiate myself from you then of course I cannot (...)
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  34. David Charles (1988). Introducing Persons: Theories and Arguments in the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Books 29 (1):46-48.
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  35. Albert A. Cock (1946). What Does It Mean to Be a Person? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 47:129 - 142.
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  36. S. C. Coval (1964). Persons and Criteria in Strawson. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (3):406-409.
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  37. John Creaveny (1943). Person and Individual. New Scholasticism 17 (3):231-250.
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  38. John F. Crosby (1997). The Estrangement of Persons From Their Bodies. Logos 1 (2).
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  39. Cunningham Cunningham (1952). LEWELLING'S The Person or the Significance of Man. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 13:559.
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  40. Thomas E. Davitt (1939). For a Philosophy of the Person. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):190-192.
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  41. Richard De Bary (1936). My Experiments with Death. New York [Etc.]Longmans, Green and Co..
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  42. Jill de Villiers & Jay Garfield (2009). Evidentiality and Narrative. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (6-8):6-8.
    In this paper we argue that the phenomenon of evidentiality, the grammatical marking in some languages of the source of one's knowledge, gives us a revealing window into the developmental processes in middle childhood that subserve the achievement of narrative competence. First, we argue that the mastery of evidentiality is connected to the development of an understanding of inference, and of the ability to mobilize this understanding in the construction of human narratives. Second, we examine the role that parent-child discourse (...)
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  43. Charles R. Dechert (1965). Cybernetics and the Human Person. International Philosophical Quarterly 5 (1):5-36.
    Contemporary approaches to the science of communication and control show some striking conceptual parallels with traditional aristotelian-Thomistic thought and suggest the major themes treated in this study: (a) the intellectual validity and necessity of non-Empirical models of the universe, (b) the clarification of traditional concepts of "form" and "in-Form-Ation" brought by communications theory, (c) the relation of form to the sensible and intelligible "species", (d) possible modes of persistence of the individual human "psyche" as an integral information pattern unified in (...)
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  44. David DeGrazia (1997). Great Apes, Dolphins, and the Concept of Personhood. Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (3):301-320.
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  45. A. Delkman (1996). I = Awareness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (4):350-356.
    Introspection reveals that the core of subjectivity -- the ‘I’ -- is identical to awareness. This ‘I’ should be differentiated from the various aspects of the physical person and its mental contents which form the ‘self’. Most discussions of consciousness confuse the ‘I’ and the ‘self’. In fact, our experience is fundamentally dualistic -- not the dualism of mind and matter -- but that of the ‘I’ and that which is observed. The identity of awareness and the ‘I’ means that (...)
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  46. M. C. Dillon (1974). Sartre on the Phenomenal Body and Merleau-Ponty's Critique. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 5:144-158.
    The article tries to show that both resolution of the mind-body problem and adequate description of the phenomenal body depend upon the ontology presupposed in offering such a resolution or description. a detailed analysis of sartre's treatment of the body demonstrates that his failures are a result of his neo-cartesian ontology. both the critique and the resolution proposed toward the end take their departure from merleau- ponty's thesis of the ontological primacy of phenomena.
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  47. Robin S. Dillon (2007). Arrogance, Self-Respect and Personhood. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 5-6):101-126.
    This essay aims to show that arrogance corrupts the very qualities that make persons persons. The corruption is subtle but profound, and the key to understanding it lies in understanding the connections between different kinds of arrogance, self-respect, respect for others and personhood. Making these connections clear is the second aim of this essay. It will build on Kant's claim that self-respect is central to living our human lives as persons and that arrogance is, at its core, the failure to (...)
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  48. I. Dilman (1979). "The Self: Psychological and Philosophical Issues." Edited by T. Mischel. [REVIEW] Mind 88:610.
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  49. Jj Do Nahue (1987). The Person as a Brain Microparticle. Auslegung 14 (1):1-17.
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  50. Frederick Dommeyer (1965). Body, Mind, and Death. World Futures 3 (3):3-73.
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