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  1. Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible in the 1950s when theoretical (...)
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  2. Henry Adobor (2012). Ethical Issues in Outsourcing: The Case of Contract Medical Research and the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):239-255.
    The outsourcing of medical research has become a strategic imperative in the global pharmaceutical industry. Spurred by the challenges of competition, the need for speed in drug development, and increasing domestic costs, pharmaceutical companies across the globe continue to outsource critical parts of their value chain activities, namely contract clinical research and drug testing, to sponsors across the globe, typically into emerging markets. While it is clear that important ethical issues arise with this practice, unraveling moral responsibility and the allocation (...)
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  3. Richard L. Allman (2003). The Relationship Between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Ethical Problems with the Every-Day Conflict of Interest. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 15 (2):155-170.
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  4. Jonny Anomaly (2014). What's Wrong with Factory Farming? Public Health Ethics 7:phu001.
    Factory farming continues to grow around the world as a low cost way of producing animal products for human consumption. But many of the practices associated with intensive animal farming have been criticized by public health professionals and animal welfare advocates. The aim of this essay is to raise three independent moral concerns with factory farming, and to explain why these practices flourish despite the cruelty inflicted on animals and the public health risks imposed on people. I conclude that the (...)
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  5. Jonny Anomaly (2013). Collective Action and Individual Choice: Rethinking How We Regulate Narcotics and Antibiotics. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):752-756.
    Governments across the globe have squandered treasure and imprisoned millions of their own citizens by criminalising the use and sale of recreational drugs. But use of these drugs has remained relatively constant, and the primary victims are the users themselves. Meanwhile, antimicrobial drugs that once had the power to cure infections are losing their ability to do so, compromising the health of people around the world. The thesis of this essay is that policymakers should stop wasting resources trying to fight (...)
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  6. David Badcott (2013). Big Pharma: A Former Insider's View. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):249-264.
    There is no lack of criticisms frequently levelled against the international pharmaceutical industry (Big Pharma): excessive profits, dubious or even dishonest practices, exploiting the sick and selective use of research data. Neither is there a shortage of examples used to support such opinions. A recent book by Brody (Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession and the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2008) provides a précis of the main areas of criticism, adopting a twofold strategy: (1) An assumption that the special nature and human need (...)
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  7. Edward R. Balotsky (2009). Where Strategy and Ethics Converge: Pharmaceutical Industry Pricing Policy for Medicare Part D Beneficiaries. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):75 - 88.
    On January 1, 2006, Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage was initiated. Concern was immediately voiced by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and Families USA that, in response to this program, the pharmaceutical industry may raise prices for drugs most often used by the elderly. This article examines the ethical implications of a revenue-maximizing pricing strategy in an industry in which third party financing mitigates an end product's true cost to the user. The perspectives of three stakeholder groups (...)
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  8. Rebecca Bamford (2013). Just How Cognitive is Emotion? The Continuing Importance of the Philosophy of Emotion in Enhancement Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics-Neuroscience 4 (1):18-19.
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  9. David Barnard (2002). In the High Court of South Africa, Case No. 4138/98: The Global Politics of Access to Low-Cost AIDS Drugs in Poor Countries. [REVIEW] Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (2):159-174.
    : In 1998, 39 pharmaceutical manufacturers sued the government of South Africa to prevent the implementation of a law designed to facilitate access to AIDS drugs at low cost. The companies accused South Africa, the country with the largest population of individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the world, of circumventing patent protections guaranteed by intellectual property rules that were included in the latest round of world trade agreements. The pharmaceutical companies dropped their lawsuit in the spring of 2001 after an (...)
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  10. Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (2005). Book Review: Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster, Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected Diseases. Princeton University Presss, Princeton, NJ and Oxford, UK. 2004. 153 Pp. Hb, ISBN: 0-691-12113-. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (4):415-417.
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  11. Stephanie Bell, Brad Partridge, Jayne Lucke & Wayne Hall (2013). Australian University Students' Attitudes Towards the Acceptability and Regulation of Pharmaceuticals to Improve Academic Performance. Neuroethics 6 (1):197-205.
    There is currently little empirical information about attitudes towards cognitive enhancement - the use of pharmaceutical drugs to enhance normal brain functioning. It is claimed this behaviour most commonly occurs in students to aid studying. We undertook a qualitative assessment of attitudes towards cognitive enhancement by conducting 19 semi-structured interviews with Australian university students. Most students considered cognitive enhancement to be unacceptable, in part because they believed it to be unethical but there was a lack of consensus on whether it (...)
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  12. Nick Bostrom (forthcoming). Smart Policy: Cognitive Enhancement and the Public Interest. In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Muelen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capabilities. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Cognitive enhancement may be defined as the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems. Cognition refers to the processes an organism uses to organize information. These include acquiring information (perception), selecting (attention), representing (understanding) and retaining (memory) information, and using it to guide behavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs). Interventions to improve cognitive function may be directed at any of these core faculties.
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  13. Marcia M. Boumil, Emily S. Cutrell, Kathleen E. Lowney & Harris A. Berman (2012). Pharmaceutical Speakers' Bureaus, Academic Freedom, and the Management of Promotional Speaking at Academic Medical Centers. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):311-325.
    Pharmaceutical companies routinely engage physicians, particularly those with prestigious academic credentials, to deliver “educational” talks to groups of physicians in the community to help market the company's brand-name drugs.Although presented as educational, and even though they provide educational content, these events are intended to influence decisions about drug selection in ways that are not based on the suitability and effectiveness of the product, but on the prestige and persuasiveness of the speaker. A number of state legislatures and most academic medical (...)
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  14. Michael Boylan (2007). Medical Pharmaceuticals and Distributive Justice. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (01):30-44.
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  15. David B. Brushwood (2001). From Confrontation to Collaboration: Collegial Accountability and the Expanding Role of Pharmacists in the Management of Chronic Pain. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (s4):69-93.
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  16. Nancy L. Buc (1992). RU 486, the FDA and Free Enterprise. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (3):224-225.
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  17. Joan Buckley & Séamus Ó Tuama (2005). International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics 14 (2):127–141.
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  18. William C. Buhles (2011). Compassionate Use A Story of Ethics and Science in the Development of a New Drug. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (3):304-315.
    In early 1984, the AIDS epidemic was less than four years old. Chemists at the pharmaceutical company Syntex, situated in the rolling green hills near Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, had recently synthesized a new antiviral drug (Martin et al. 1983). The drug, at first given the awkward chemical abbreviation DHPG, later came to be known by the generic name ganciclovir. Ganciclovir was a potent drug for the treatment of herpes virus infection (such as genital herpes or chickenpox), but (...)
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  19. D. M. Burley & T. B. Binns (eds.) (1985). Pharmaceutical Medicine. E. Arnold.
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  20. A. Byrne (2000). Access to Experimental Drugs in Terminal Illness. Ethical Issues: Udo Schuklenk, New York, Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1998, 228 Pages, US$60. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (2):148-149.
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  21. Joao Calinas-Correia (2013). Big Pharma: A Story of Success in a Market Economy. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):305-309.
    In this paper, I will argue that the current discussions about regulating certain activities concerning the pharmaceutical industry do miss a crucial point. The Pharmaceutical Industry is a story of success, providing a wealth of new discoveries and applied technologies, which have greatly enhanced our lives. The current call for strict regulation of the Pharmaceutical Industry makes the unwarranted assumption that such regulation will not disturb the mechanisms of the Industry’s success. I will claim that a centralised regulation profoundly transforms (...)
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  22. Laura Calkins (2010). Detained and Drugged: A Brief Overview of the Use of Pharmaceuticals for the Interrogation of Suspects, Prisoners, Patients, and Pows in the Us. Bioethics 24 (1):27-34.
    Using medical literature citations, Congressional hearings, and declassified documents this paper examines the uses of pharmaceuticals in the interrogation of vulnerable populations. From the use of IV relaxants on criminal suspects during the 1920s to the Global War on Terror, the nexus of drugs, testing, and interrogations will be explored in both the domestic and international contexts.
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  23. Philip J. Candilis (2000). Organizational Ethics and the High Cost of Medicines. HEC Forum 12 (4):303-310.
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  24. Vanessa Carbonell (forthcoming). How to Put Prescription Drug Ads on Your Syllabus. Teaching Philosophy 37 (3).
  25. Ashish Chandra & Gary A. Holt (1999). Pharmaceutical Advertisements: How They Deceive Patients. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 18 (4):359 - 366.
    Pharmaceutical advertising is one of the most important kinds of advertising that can have a direct impact on the health of a consumer. Hence, this necessitates the fact that it is essential for advertisers of such products to take special care and additional responsibility when devising the promotional strategies of these products. In reality, it has been observed that pharmaceutical product advertisers often promoted their products to achieve their own goals at the potential risk of having an adverse effect on (...)
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  26. Pepe Lee Chang (2006). Who's in the Business of Saving Lives? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (5):465 – 482.
    There are individuals, including children, dying needlessly in poverty-stricken third world countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented if pharmaceutical companies provided the drugs needed to save their lives. Some believe that because pharmaceutical companies have the power to save lives, and because they can do so with little effort, they have a special obligation. I argue that there is no distinction, with respect to obligations and responsibilities, between pharmaceutical companies and other types of companies. As a result, to (...)
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  27. Jillian Clare Cohen & Patricia Illingworth (2003). The Dilemma of Intellectual Property Rights for Pharmaceuticals: The Tension Between Ensuring Access of the Poor to Medicines and Committing to International Agreements. Developing World Bioethics 3 (1):27–48.
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  28. Lindsay Cole, Jennifer Kesselheim & Aaron Kesselheim (2012). Ethical Issues in New Drug Prescribing. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):77-83.
    We use the format of a hypothetical case study to review issues related to pharmaceutical product approval and physician prescribing practices. In this case, a new FDA-approved drug is recommended for a patient who subsequently experiences an adverse event that may or may not be related to the prescription. This case raises a number of ethical and legal considerations physicians routinely face when deciding whether to recommend such drugs for their patients. Despite the need for ongoing observation by the regulatory (...)
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  29. Lisa Cosgrove & Emily E. Wheeler (2013). Drug Firms, the Codification of Diagnostic Categories, and Bias in Clinical Guidelines. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):644-653.
    The possibility that industry is exerting an undue influence on the culture of medicine has profound implications for the profession's public health mission. Policy analysts, investigative journalists, researchers, and clinicians have questioned whether academic-industry relationships have had a corrupting effect on evidence-based medicine. Psychiatry has been at the heart of this epistemic and ethical crisis in medicine. This article examines how commercial entities, such as pharmaceutical companies, influence psychiatric taxonomy and treatment guidelines. Using the conceptual framework of institutional corruption, we (...)
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  30. Thana Cristina de Campos & Thomas Pogge (2012). INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical Firms and the Right to Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):183-187.
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  31. Richard T. de George (2005). Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):549-575.
    The pharmaceutical industry has in recent years come under attack from an ethical point of view concerning its patents and thenon-accessibility of life-saving drugs for many of the poor both in less developed countries and in the United States. The industry has replied with economic and legal justifications for its actions. The result has been a communication gap between the industry on the one hand and poor nations and American critics on the other. This paper attempts to present and evaluate (...)
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  32. M. N. G. Dukes (2005). The Law and Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Elsevier.
    As one of the most massive and successful business sectors, the pharmaceutical industry is a potent force for good in the community, yet its behaviour is frequently questioned: could it serve society at large better than it has done in the recent past? Its own internal ethics, both in business and science, may need a careful reappraisal, as may the extent to which the law - administrative, civil and criminal - succeeds in guiding (and where neccessary contraining) it. The rules (...)
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  33. Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg & Julian Savulescu (2012). Natural Selection, Childrearing, and the Ethics of Marriage (and Divorce): Building a Case for the Neuroenhancement of Human Relationships. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):561-587.
    We argue that the fragility of contemporary marriages—and the corresponding high rates of divorce—can be explained (in large part) by a three-part mismatch: between our relationship values, our evolved psychobiological natures, and our modern social, physical, and technological environment. “Love drugs” could help address this mismatch by boosting our psychobiologies while keeping our values and our environment intact. While individual couples should be free to use pharmacological interventions to sustain and improve their romantic connection, we suggest that they may have (...)
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  34. Andrew Edgar (2013). The Dominance of Big Pharma: Power. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):295-304.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a normative model for the assessment of the exercise of power by Big Pharma. By drawing on the work of Steven Lukes, it will be argued that while Big Pharma is overtly highly regulated, so that its power is indeed restricted in the interests of patients and the general public, the industry is still able to exercise what Lukes describes as a third dimension of power. This entails concealing the conflicts of interest (...)
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  35. Alexandre Erler (2012). One Man's Authenticity is Another Man's Betrayal: A Reply to Levy. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):257-265.
    This article responds to Neil Levy's recent suggestion that: (1) the use of pharmaceutical enhancers can be understood as promoting our authenticity, no matter which of the two main contemporary conceptions of authenticity we adopt; and that (2) we do not need to decide between these two rival models (the ‘self-discovery’ and the ‘self-creation’ conception) in order to assess the common worry that enhancements will undermine our authenticity. Levy's core argument is based on a comparison between cases of people with (...)
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  36. Why the international market for pharmaceuticals fails & What to Do About It : A. Comparison of Two Alternative Approaches to Global Ethics (2008). Reflecting the Impact of Ethical Theory : Contractarianism, Ethics, and Economics. Christoph Luetge / Civilising the Barbarians? : On the Apparent Necessity of Moral Surpluses; Soeren Buttkereit and Ingo Pies / Social Dilemmas and the Social Contract; Peter Koslowski / Ethical Economy as the Economy of Ethics and as the Ethics of the Market Economy; Ingo Pies and Stefan Hielscher. In Jesús Conill Sancho, Christoph Luetge & Tatjana Schó̈nwälder-Kuntze (eds.), Corporate Citizenship, Contractarianism and Ethical Theory: On Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Company.
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  37. Yuval Feldman, Rebecca Gauthier & Troy Schuler (2013). Curbing Misconduct in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Insights From Behavioral Ethics and the Behavioral Approach to Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):620-628.
    Two insights of psychology on which we would like to draw are that people react to law in more complex ways than rational-choice models assume and that good people sometimes do bad things. With that starting point, this article provides a behavioral perspective on some of the factors that policymakers seeking to reduce the level of misconduct in the pharmaceutical industry should consider. Effective regulation and enforcement need to address the following questions: Who are the regulation's targeted actors — researchers (...)
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  38. Gregg Fields (2013). Parallel Problems: Applying Institutional Corruption Analysis of Congress to Big Pharma. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):556-560.
    Dennis Thompson and Lawrence Lessig are leading thinkers in the realm of institutional corruption, the notion that inappropriate dependencies and conflicts of interest undercut the ethical foundations of institutions on which society relies. Both are particularly known for their work on institutional corruption as it affects government and politics. This essay examines the applicability of their writing to the private sector, particularly as it relates to vital and influential industries like pharmaceuticals.
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  39. David Finegold (ed.) (2005). Bioindustry Ethics. Elsevier Academic Press.
    This book is the first systematic, detailed treatment of the approaches to ethical issues taken by biotech and pharmaceutical companies. The application of genetic/genomic technologies raises a whole spectrum of ethical questions affecting global health that must be addressed. Topics covered in this comprehensive survey include considerations for bioprospecting in transgenics, genomics, drug discovery, and nutrigenomics, as well as how to improve stakeholder relations, design ethical clinical trials, avoid conflicts of interest, and establish ethics advisory boards. The expert authors represent (...)
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  40. Jessica Flanigan (2013). An Argument for Permitting Amphetamines and Instant Release Methylphenidate. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):49-51.
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  41. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2009). Autonomy and Coercion in Academic “Cognitive Enhancement” Using Methylphenidate: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 2 (3):163-177.
    There is mounting evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is being used by healthy college students to improve concentration, alertness, and academic performance. One of the key concerns associated with such use of pharmaceuticals is the degree of freedom individuals have to engage in or abstain from cognitive enhancement (CE). From a pragmatic perspective, careful examination of the ethics of acts and contexts in which they arise includes considering coercion and social pressures to enhance cognition. We were interested in understanding how (...)
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  42. Marc‐André Gagnon (2013). Corruption of Pharmaceutical Markets: Addressing the Misalignment of Financial Incentives and Public Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):571-580.
    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives.
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  43. Jean-Paul Gaudillière (2005). Better Prepared Than Synthesized: Adolf Butenandt, Schering Ag and the Transformation of Sex Steroids Into Drugs (1930–1946). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (4):612-644.
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  44. S. Nassir Ghaemi (2013). Postmodern Medicine: An Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Industry and Its Critics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):223-235.
    There is an important cultural context to the relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. I'll label it, for simplicity, "postmodernism" (Kaplan 1993). Any single definition of a large cultural force, like socialism or communism or conservatism or liberalism, is bound to be inadequate in some ways. Yet general concepts can apply to such large forces. Postmodernism can have various nuances, but generally it applies to a way of thinking that is quite common nowadays: a skepticism about truth, knowledge, science, (...)
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  45. Igor Gorlach & Genevieve Pham-Kanter (2013). Brightening Up: The Effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on Existing Regulation of Pharmaceutical Marketing. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):315-322.
    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.
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  46. Garry C. Gray (2013). The Ethics of Pharmaceutical Research Funding: A Social Organization Approach. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):629-634.
    This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways (...)
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  47. Anand Grover, Brian Citro, Mihir Mankad & Fiona Lander (2012). Pharmaceutical Companies and Global Lack of Access to Medicines: Strengthening Accountability Under the Right to Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):234-250.
    Many medicines currently available on the market are simply too expensive for millions around the world to afford. Many medicines available in the developing world are only available to a small percentage of the population due to economic inequities. The profit-seeking behavior of pharmaceutical companies exacerbates this problem. In most cases, the price reductions required to make drugs affordable to a broader class of people in the developing world are not offset by the resultant increase in sales volume. Simply stated, (...)
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  48. Patrick Grüneberg (2010). Die Ambivalenz zwischen Therapie und Leistung. In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Was ist Doping? Fakten und Probleme der aktuellen Diskussion. Transcript. 117--137.
    Die Frage nach der Definition von Doping basiert nicht zuletzt auf naturwissenschaftlicher Forschung. Aus einer naturwissenschaftlichen Perspektive könnte man sogar behaupten, dass die aktuelle Dopingdebatte ihre Ursachen gerade in der pharmazeutischen Forschung hat, da sich das Problem des Dopings erst mit dem Vorhandensein entsprechender Mittel bzw. Methoden zur Leistungssteigerung stellt. Allerdings wird die Frage der Dopingdefinition im Folgenden nicht auf einen naturwissenschaftlichen Referenzrahmen reduziert, wie dies in den aktuellen Dopingdefinitionen häufig der Fall ist. Vielmehr werde ich die spezifische Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher (...)
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  49. Robin Hanson, Warning Labels as Cheap-Talk: Why Regulators Ban Drugs.
    One explanation for drug bans is that regulators know more than consumers about product quality. But why not just communicate the information in their ban, perhaps via a “would have banned” label?Because product labeling is cheap-talk, any small market failure tempts regulators to lie about quality, inducing consumers who suspect such lies to not believe everything they are told. In fact, when regulators expect market failures to result in under-consumption of a drug, and so would not ban it for informed (...)
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  50. Willis W. Harman (1963). The Issue of the Consciousness-Expanding Drugs. Main Currents 20 (September-October):5-14.
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