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Phenomenology

Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
About this topic
Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2001) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1989) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger 1967) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Sartre 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
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Subcategories:
Edmund Husserl (8,742 | 2,014)
Max Scheler (319)
History/traditions: Phenomenology
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  1. G. A. (1976). Phenomenology and Philosophical Understanding. Review of Metaphysics 30 (2):355-356.
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  2. Olivier Abel & Paul Marinescu (2013). Introduction: On the Proper Use of Phenomenology Paul Ricoeur Centenary. Studia Phaenomenologica 13 (1):11-17.
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  3. Pierre Adler (2008). Situating Frege's Look Into Language. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 8 (1):157-224.
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  4. Evandro Agazzi (2001). Illness as Lived Experience and as the Object of Medicine. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka & Evandro Agazzi (eds.), Life Interpretation and the Sense of Illness Within the Human Condition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 3--15.
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  5. Kevin Aho (2007). Logos and the Poverty of Animals. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 7:109-126.
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  6. A. Ainley (1993). The Invisible of the Flesh: Merleau-Ponty and Irigaray. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 28 (1):20-29.
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  7. Mónica E. Alarcón Dávila (2012). Kinästhetisches Bewusstsein und sinnliche Reflexion im Tanz. Studia Phaenomenologica 12:253-262.
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  8. Roxana Albu (2002). Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic. Studia Phaenomenologica 2 (1-2):304-307.
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  9. Roxana Albu (2001). Heidegger toward the Turn. Studia Phaenomenologica 1 (1-2):373-378.
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  10. H. Alderman (1971). Heidegger on Nature of Metaphysics. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 2 (3):12-22.
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  11. Iw Alexander (1970). Debiran, M and Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (1):24-37.
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  12. Iw Alexander (1970). What is Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (1):3-3.
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  13. Meena Alexander (1978). Embodied Space in Temporal Self-Image. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 9 (1):26-33.
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  14. Robert Alexander (2012). Ogkorhythm. Continental Philosophy Review 45 (3):403-410.
    We have invented, discovered as we were shaping it, and set free from Marc Richir’s philosophy a fundamental element of comprehensibility regarding his phenomenology, which we have called ogkorhythm. The pertinence of this fundamental ogkorhythmic element is also to be found in its great problematic density, giving clarity to that which should be understood by space/time itself in contemporary French phenomenology and, in the context of this contribution, in the work of Max Loreau and Henri Maldiney. Our work mainly concerns (...)
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  15. Luigi Alici (2009). Le lieu d'Augustin : l'interprétation de Jean-Luc Marion. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):295-315.
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  16. Jeffner Allen (1978). Fundamental Paradigms for the Study of Intersubjectivity. Research in Phenomenology 8 (1):263-272.
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  17. R. Allen (1991). Governance by Emotion. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 22:15-29.
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  18. William Allen (2011). Repulsive Image: The Idea of Literature After Blanchot. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 42:139-159.
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  19. Robert E. Allinson (2001). A Metaphysics for the Future. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  20. Lorenzo Altieri (2013). Genèse d'une hérésie: la phénoménologie herméneutique de Paul Ricoeur. Studia Phaenomenologica 13 (1):187-208.
    In this essay I revisit Ricœur’s famous greffe in light of Husserl’s method. In other words, I try to highlight the anti-idealist interpretation of phenomenology exposed by Ricœur in his early project and in some later works, in order to present the necessity of the graft of hermeneutics onto the worn out body of western reflexive philosophy. This surgery has a radical effect on the “Subject”: far from provoking a “rejection crisis”, the hermeneutical graft provides the Cogito with a new (...)
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  21. to Thomas Jj Altizer (2008). Thinking Through the Death of God: A Critical Companion. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 39 (1).
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  22. Ethel Alvarenga (1994). A noção de sujeito como aparece nas Meditações. Discurso 24:47-56.
    O objetivo deste texto é apresentar duas possíveis interpretações relativas ao que é revelado pelo argumento do cogito apresentado nas Meditações de Descartes, mostrando que, se aceitarmos a tese wittgensteiniana relativa ao sentido das expressões linguísticas, então será necessário concluir que ambas as interpretações envolvem pelo menos uma dificuldade cuja solução não é possível de ser dada no interior de uma filosofia da consciência.
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  23. Marcelo Alves (2010). Da Virtude ao Terror: o itinerário de um pensador revolucionário. Princípios 15 (23):89-116.
    Há uma espécie de drama de consciência no interior do pensamento iluminista em relaçáo à Revoluçáo Francesa: de um lado, aceita, de bom grado, fazer da queda do Antigo Regime um de seus mais belos e significativos frutos; de outro, recusa, por vezes enojado, os meios violentos utilizados para tanto e náo aceita, ou custa a aceitar, filiaçáo ideológica com eles. Esta violência “excessiva” seria exclusivamente obra da massa, segundo o elitismo iluminista. O percurso realizado neste artigo procura explicitar, no (...)
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  24. L. Alweiss (1999). The Presence of Husserl. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 30:59-75.
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  25. L. Amoroso (1995). Method and Discourse, Path and Language. Filosofia 46 (3):171-184.
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  26. Bruce Anderson (2002). Basic Economic Variables. Journal of Macrodynamic Analysis 2:37-60.
    When I lectured on Lonergan’s economic writings at Boston College, Fordham, or Woodstock, people asked the same questions: What’s the big deal about Lonergan’s economics? How does it differ from mainstream economics? What’s Lonergan’s solution to poverty? This paper is a move towards answering those questions.
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  27. John M. Anderson (1977). ?...Since the Time We Are a Dialogue and Able to Hear From One Another? Man and World 10 (2):115-136.
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  28. R. J. Anderson, J. A. Hughes & W. W. Sharrock (1985). The Relationship Between Ethnomethodology and Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 16 (3).
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  29. Thomas Anderson (2002). Beyond Sartre's Ethics of Authenticity. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 33:138-154.
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  30. Jassen Andreev (2006). Entre Anthropologie et Herméneutique. Studia Phaenomenologica 6:480-483.
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  31. Ignacio Angelelli (1993). Phänomenologie. Review of Metaphysics 47 (2):360-362.
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  32. Lucia Angelino (forthcoming). L'espace comme ouverture enveloppante. Studia Phaenomenologica.
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  33. Emilia Angelova (2009). Rethinking Facticity. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 13 (1):137-140.
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  34. Ian Angus (2006). Dominique Janicaud, On the Human Condition. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 26:263-265.
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  35. Ian Angus (2006). Phenomenology as Critique of Institutions: Movements, Authentic Sociality and Nothingness. Phaenex 1 (1):175-196.
    This essay seeks to demonstrate that the practice of phenomenological philosophy entails a practice of social and political criticism. The original demand of phenomenology is that theoretical and scientific judgments must be based upon the giving of the ‘things themselves’ in self-evident intuition. The continuous radicalization of this demand is what characterizes phenomenological philosophy and determines a practice of social and political criticism which can be traced through four phases: 1. a critique of institutions through the method of unbuilding (Abbau, (...)
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  36. Ian Angus (2004). In Praise of Fire. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 4:21-52.
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  37. Ian H. Angus (1979). Toward a Phenomenology of Rational Action. Man and World 12 (3):298-321.
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  38. Richard E. Aquila (1991). Transcendental Phenomenology. Review of Metaphysics 44 (4):856-857.
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  39. Dan Arbib (2012). Donner la mort ? Phénoménologie et sacrifice Note sur une interprétation de Derrida. Studia Phaenomenologica 12:383-397.
    This article claims to dispute Derrida’s interpretation of Isaac’s sacrifice proposed in Donner la mort by means of three sources: 1) midrashic sources, which impose to read the sacrifice not as a requirement of murder, but as sacrifice of the sacrifice; 2) the phenomenology of Levinas which allows to measure the violence of the interpretation of Derrida and to return the biblical episode to the complications of the relationships between ethics and rationality; 3) the phenomenology of Marion, which, by refusing (...)
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  40. Chrudzimski Arkadiusz (1999). Are Meanings in the Head? Ingarden’s Theory of Meaning. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 30 (3):306-326.
    The title question should be construed as an epistemological and not ontological one. Omitting the difficult problems of the ontology of intentionality we will ask, if all, what is needed to explain the phenomenon of meaningful use of words, could be found “in our private head” interpreted as a sphere of specific privileged access, the sphere that is in the relevant epistemological sense subjective, private or non public. There are many “mentalistic” theories of meaning that force us to the answer: (...)
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  41. P. Sven Arvidson (1998). Bringing Context Into Focus: Parallels in the Psychology of Attention and the Philosophy of Science. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 29 (1):50-91.
    In the experimental psychology of attention, the phenomenon of attentional context has been underappreciated, while focal attention has taken center stage. Similar problems of context are found in certain realist arguments in .the philosophy of science. Through the lens of Aron Gurwitsch's phenomenology of attention, this paper discusses and evaluates the ways in which context is or is not brought into focus in experimental psychology and the philosophy of science. It concludes that recent developments in both realms show promise. Also (...)
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  42. Francisco Gómez Arzapalo (1992). Acerca del fundamento. Revista de Filosofia 73:32-38.
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  43. Anne Freire Ashbaugh (1980). The Role of the Body in the Constitutive Phase of Knowledge. Man and World 13 (2):233-240.
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  44. P. D. Ashworth, Richard Rojcewicz & Amedeo P. Giorgi (1983). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 14 (1):105-123.
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  45. Peter D. Ashworth (2013). The Gift Relationship. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 44 (1):1-36.
    Derrida made the case that the ‘pure gift’ is impossible. Because of the element of obligation and reciprocity involved, gift relationships are inevitably reduced to relationships of economic exchange. This position echoes the exchange theory of the social behaviourists, the cost-benefit analyses of evolutionary psychology, and other reductionist conjectures. In this paper, 18 written accounts of gifting are analysed using established phenomenological tools of reflection. It is shown that the dynamics of the gift relationship are complex and, specifically, reciprocation in (...)
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  46. P. Aspers (2009). Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The Cologne Seminars). Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 9 (2).
    This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their more philosophical and theoretical insights can be used in empirical research. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and concerned about safeguarding the perspective of those studied. The main idea of empirical phenomenology is that scientific (...)
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  47. Don Asselin (1988). Back to Things in Themselves: A Phenomenological Foundation for Classical Realism. By Josef Seifert. Modern Schoolman 66 (1):92-94.
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  48. T. Attig & H. Spiegelberg (1976). How Definitive is Text of Husserls Cartesian Meditations. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 7 (1):3-11.
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  49. Pierre Aubenque (forthcoming). Les Origines de la Doctrine de l'Analogie de L'Être: Sur l'Histoire d'Un Contresens. Les Etudes Philosophiques.
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  50. Pierre Aubenque (2008). La métaphysique dans la culture grecque classique. Les Etudes Philosophiques 4 (4):445-450.
    Résumé — L’article remet en question l’idée courante selon laquelle la métaphysique serait un produit de la culture grecque classique. C’est en effet contre la culture dominante que la métaphysique a dû s’imposer, comme en témoignent la condamnation à mort de Socrate et l’interprétation qu’en donne Platon dans l’allégorie de la caverne. Nietzsche a bien souligné le caractère « superficiel » de la « belle apparence » pour les Grecs, qui ne renvoie à aucune Idée transcendante. L’article cherche plutôt les (...)
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