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Phenomenology

Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
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Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2001) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1989) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger 1967) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Sartre 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
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Related categories
Subcategories:
Edmund Husserl (8,822 | 1,978)
Max Scheler (320)
History/traditions: Phenomenology
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  1. G. A. (1976). Phenomenology and Philosophical Understanding. Review of Metaphysics 30 (2):355-356.
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  2. Christopher M. Aanstoos (2015). The Child as Natural Phenomenologist: Primal and Primary Experience in Merleau-Ponty’s Psychology, Written byTalia Welsh. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 46 (1):123-127.
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  3. Olivier Abel & Paul Marinescu (2013). Introduction: On the Proper Use of Phenomenology Paul Ricoeur Centenary. Studia Phaenomenologica 13 (1):11-17.
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  4. O. Adelgundis Jaegerschmid (2001). Conversations with Edmund Husserl, 1931–1938. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 1:331-350.
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  5. Pierre Adler (2008). Situating Frege's Look Into Language. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 8 (1):157-224.
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  6. Hicham-stéphane Afeissa (2007). L’artiste, Ie savant, Ie technicien et Ie politicien: Phénoménologie husserlienne des figures de moralité. Études Phénoménologiques 23 (45/48):149-178.
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  7. Evandro Agazzi (2001). Illness as Lived Experience and as the Object of Medicine. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka & Evandro Agazzi (eds.), Life Interpretation and the Sense of Illness Within the Human Condition. Kluwer Academic Publishers 3--15.
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  8. Kevin Aho (2007). Logos and the Poverty of Animals. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 7:109-126.
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  9. A. Ainley (1993). The Invisible of the Flesh: Merleau-Ponty and Irigaray. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 28 (1):20-29.
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  10. Mónica E. Alarcón Dávila (2012). Kinästhetisches Bewusstsein und sinnliche Reflexion im Tanz. Studia Phaenomenologica 12:253-262.
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  11. Karl Albert (1994). Philosophie Im Schatten von Auschwitz Edith Stein, Theodor Lessing, Walter Benjamin, Paul Ludwig Landsberg.
  12. Roxana Albu (2002). Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic. Studia Phaenomenologica 2 (1-2):304-307.
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  13. Roxana Albu (2001). Heidegger toward the Turn. Studia Phaenomenologica 1 (1-2):373-378.
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  14. H. Alderman (1971). Heidegger on Nature of Metaphysics. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 2 (3):12-22.
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  15. E. Kevin Alexander (2002). Receiving Hands-on Energy-Healing: An Existential Phenomenological Investigation. Dissertation, Duquesne University
    The intent of this existential-phenomenological research is to uncover the lived experience of receiving hands-on energy-healing and what this experience reveals about the nature of embodiment and the relationship with self and others. This study chronicles the researcher's participation in various hands-on-healing modalities, and then explores the presuppositions concerning the energy worldview in healing. First, energy is a metaphor for languaging that particular way of being-in-the-world in which a person experiences a sense of connectedness with self, world, and others, where (...)
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  16. Iw Alexander (1970). Debiran, M and Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (1):24-37.
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  17. Iw Alexander (1970). What is Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (1):3-3.
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  18. Meena Alexander (1978). Embodied Space in Temporal Self-Image. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 9 (1):26-33.
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  19. Robert Alexander (2012). Ogkorhythm. Continental Philosophy Review 45 (3):403-410.
    We have invented, discovered as we were shaping it, and set free from Marc Richir’s philosophy a fundamental element of comprehensibility regarding his phenomenology, which we have called ogkorhythm. The pertinence of this fundamental ogkorhythmic element is also to be found in its great problematic density, giving clarity to that which should be understood by space/time itself in contemporary French phenomenology and, in the context of this contribution, in the work of Max Loreau and Henri Maldiney. Our work mainly concerns (...)
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  20. Luigi Alici (2009). Le lieu d'Augustin : l'interprétation de Jean-Luc Marion. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):295-315.
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  21. Jeffner Allen (1978). Fundamental Paradigms for the Study of Intersubjectivity. Research in Phenomenology 8 (1):263-272.
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  22. R. Allen (1991). Governance by Emotion. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 22:15-29.
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  23. William Allen (2011). Repulsive Image: The Idea of Literature After Blanchot. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 42:139-159.
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  24. Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, Sporting Embodiment: Sports Studies and the (Continuing) Promise of Phenomenology.
    Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide-ranging, multi-stranded, and interpretatively contested perspective, phenomenology in general has been taken up and utilised in very different ways within different disciplinary fields. (...)
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  25. Robert E. Allinson (2001). A Metaphysics for the Future. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  26. Lorenzo Altieri (2013). Genèse d'une hérésie: la phénoménologie herméneutique de Paul Ricoeur. Studia Phaenomenologica 13 (1):187-208.
    In this essay I revisit Ricœur’s famous greffe in light of Husserl’s method. In other words, I try to highlight the anti-idealist interpretation of phenomenology exposed by Ricœur in his early project and in some later works, in order to present the necessity of the graft of hermeneutics onto the worn out body of western reflexive philosophy. This surgery has a radical effect on the “Subject”: far from provoking a “rejection crisis”, the hermeneutical graft provides the Cogito with a new (...)
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  27. to Thomas Jj Altizer (2008). Thinking Through the Death of God: A Critical Companion. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 39 (1).
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  28. Ethel Alvarenga (1994). A noção de sujeito como aparece nas Meditações. Discurso 24:47-56.
    O objetivo deste texto é apresentar duas possíveis interpretações relativas ao que é revelado pelo argumento do cogito apresentado nas Meditações de Descartes, mostrando que, se aceitarmos a tese wittgensteiniana relativa ao sentido das expressões linguísticas, então será necessário concluir que ambas as interpretações envolvem pelo menos uma dificuldade cuja solução não é possível de ser dada no interior de uma filosofia da consciência.
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  29. Marcelo Alves (2010). Da Virtude ao Terror: o itinerário de um pensador revolucionário. Princípios 15 (23):89-116.
    Há uma espécie de drama de consciência no interior do pensamento iluminista em relaçáo à Revoluçáo Francesa: de um lado, aceita, de bom grado, fazer da queda do Antigo Regime um de seus mais belos e significativos frutos; de outro, recusa, por vezes enojado, os meios violentos utilizados para tanto e náo aceita, ou custa a aceitar, filiaçáo ideológica com eles. Esta violência “excessiva” seria exclusivamente obra da massa, segundo o elitismo iluminista. O percurso realizado neste artigo procura explicitar, no (...)
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  30. Piero Amenta (2010). Pessoa, relações interpessoais e relação conjugal no pensamento de Antonio Rosmini. Philosophical Explorations 3 (11):47-70.
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  31. L. Amoroso (1995). Method and Discourse, Path and Language. Filosofia 46 (3):171-184.
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  32. Bruce Anderson (2002). Basic Economic Variables. Journal of Macrodynamic Analysis 2:37-60.
    When I lectured on Lonergan’s economic writings at Boston College, Fordham, or Woodstock, people asked the same questions: What’s the big deal about Lonergan’s economics? How does it differ from mainstream economics? What’s Lonergan’s solution to poverty? This paper is a move towards answering those questions.
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  33. John M. Anderson (1977). ?...Since the Time We Are a Dialogue and Able to Hear From One Another? Man and World 10 (2):115-136.
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  34. R. J. Anderson, J. A. Hughes & W. W. Sharrock (1985). The Relationship Between Ethnomethodology and Phenomenology. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 16 (3).
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  35. Thomas Anderson (2002). Beyond Sartre's Ethics of Authenticity. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 33:138-154.
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  36. Jassen Andreev (2006). Entre Anthropologie et Herméneutique. Studia Phaenomenologica 6:480-483.
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  37. Ignacio Angelelli (1993). Phänomenologie. Review of Metaphysics 47 (2):360-362.
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  38. Lucia Angelino (forthcoming). L'espace comme ouverture enveloppante. Studia Phaenomenologica.
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  39. Emilia Angelova (2009). Rethinking Facticity. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 13 (1):137-140.
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  40. Ian Angus (2006). Dominique Janicaud, On the Human Condition. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 26:263-265.
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  41. Ian Angus (2006). Phenomenology as Critique of Institutions: Movements, Authentic Sociality and Nothingness. Phaenex 1 (1):175-196.
    This essay seeks to demonstrate that the practice of phenomenological philosophy entails a practice of social and political criticism. The original demand of phenomenology is that theoretical and scientific judgments must be based upon the giving of the ‘things themselves’ in self-evident intuition. The continuous radicalization of this demand is what characterizes phenomenological philosophy and determines a practice of social and political criticism which can be traced through four phases: 1. a critique of institutions through the method of unbuilding (Abbau, (...)
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  42. Ian Angus (2004). In Praise of Fire. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 4:21-52.
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  43. Ian H. Angus (1979). Toward a Phenomenology of Rational Action. Man and World 12 (3):298-321.
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  44. K. Ansell-Pearson (1995). The an-Economy of Time's Giving: Contributions to the Event of Heidegger. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 26:268-278.
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  45. Richard E. Aquila (1991). Transcendental Phenomenology. Review of Metaphysics 44 (4):856-857.
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  46. Dan Arbib (2012). Donner la mort ? Phénoménologie et sacrifice Note sur une interprétation de Derrida. Studia Phaenomenologica 12:383-397.
    This article claims to dispute Derrida’s interpretation of Isaac’s sacrifice proposed in Donner la mort by means of three sources: 1) midrashic sources, which impose to read the sacrifice not as a requirement of murder, but as sacrifice of the sacrifice; 2) the phenomenology of Levinas which allows to measure the violence of the interpretation of Derrida and to return the biblical episode to the complications of the relationships between ethics and rationality; 3) the phenomenology of Marion, which, by refusing (...)
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  47. Chrudzimski Arkadiusz (1999). Are Meanings in the Head? Ingarden’s Theory of Meaning. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 30 (3):306-326.
    The title question should be construed as an epistemological and not ontological one. Omitting the difficult problems of the ontology of intentionality we will ask, if all, what is needed to explain the phenomenon of meaningful use of words, could be found “in our private head” interpreted as a sphere of specific privileged access, the sphere that is in the relevant epistemological sense subjective, private or non public. There are many “mentalistic” theories of meaning that force us to the answer: (...)
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  48. Philip Alexander Armstrong (1995). Reading in Iconography: An Essay on Poussin and Rilke. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    In An Introduction to Metaphysics, Heidegger remarks that "in a certain broad sense the Greeks looked on language from a visual point of view, that is, starting from the written language. It is in writing that the spoken language comes to stand. Language is, i.e. it stands in the written image of the word, in the written signs, the letters, grammata." The question broached here concerns a reading of Heidegger's claims for language--"the written image of the word"--in relation to received (...)
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  49. P. Sven Arvidson (2014). Between Phenomenology and Psychology. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 45 (2):146-167.
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  50. P. Sven Arvidson (1998). Bringing Context Into Focus: Parallels in the Psychology of Attention and the Philosophy of Science. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 29 (1):50-91.
    In the experimental psychology of attention, the phenomenon of attentional context has been underappreciated, while focal attention has taken center stage. Similar problems of context are found in certain realist arguments in .the philosophy of science. Through the lens of Aron Gurwitsch's phenomenology of attention, this paper discusses and evaluates the ways in which context is or is not brought into focus in experimental psychology and the philosophy of science. It concludes that recent developments in both realms show promise. Also (...)
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