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Summary See the category "Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence."
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  1. Alison Adam (2000). Deleting the Subject: A Feminist Reading of Epistemology in Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 10 (2):231-253.
    This paper argues that AI follows classical versions of epistemology in assuming that the identity of the knowing subject is not important. In other words this serves to `delete the subject''. This disguises an implicit hierarchy of knowers involved in the representation of knowledge in AI which privileges the perspective of those who design and build the systems over alternative perspectives. The privileged position reflects Western, professional masculinity. Alternative perspectives, denied a voice, belong to less powerful groups including women. Feminist (...)
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  2. Richard Adams (2004). Intelligent Advertising. AI and Society 18 (1):68-81.
    Digital media is getting smarter. Home electrical goods are getting smarter. This article explores how one aspect of content is beginning to reflect this—digital advertising. It is becoming increasingly important for advertisers to target consumers as individuals and in communities of interest rather than by demographic. This article explores the impact of smart systems and artificial intelligence (AI) on advertising and examines different approaches to creating intelligent and smart content and how behaviour is fast becoming the guiding principle for new (...)
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  3. Zed Adams (ed.) (forthcoming). Truth & Understanding: Essays in Honor of John Haugeland.
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  4. Mannino Adriano, David Althaus, Jonathan Erhardt, Lukas Gloor, Adrian Hutter & Thomas Metzinger (2015). Künstliche Intelligenz: Chancen und Risiken. Diskussionspapiere der Stiftung Für Effektiven Altruismus 2:1-17.
    Die Übernahme des KI-Unternehmens DeepMind durch Google für rund eine halbe Milliarde US-Dollar signalisierte vor einem Jahr, dass von der KI-Forschung vielversprechende Ergebnisse erwartet werden. Spätestens seit bekannte Wissenschaftler wie Stephen Hawking und Unternehmer wie Elon Musk oder Bill Gates davor warnen, dass künstliche Intelligenz eine Bedrohung für die Menschheit darstellt, schlägt das KI-Thema hohe Wellen. Die Stiftung für Effektiven Altruismus (EAS, vormals GBS Schweiz) hat mit der Unterstützung von Experten/innen aus Informatik und KI ein umfassendes Diskussionspapier zu den Chancen (...)
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  5. Jarmo J. Ahonen (1994). On Qualitative Modelling. AI and Society 8 (1):17-28.
    Fundamental assumptions behind qualitative modelling are critically considered and some inherent problems in that modelling approach are outlined. The problems outlined are due to the assumption that a sufficient set of symbols representing the fundamental features of the physical world exists. That assumption causes serious problems when modelling continuous systems. An alternative for intelligent system building for cases not suitable for qualitative modelling is proposed. The proposed alternative combines neural networks and quantitative modelling.
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  6. Samuel Alexander (2013). Fast-Collapsing Theories. Studia Logica (1):1-21.
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
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  7. Gillian Allard (2003). Brokers and Bricoleurs: Entrepreneurship in Wales' Online Music Scene. [REVIEW] AI and Society 17 (1):12-24.
    The power of some new entrants to the music industry derives from their position as brokers in computer-mediated environments. Brokers act instrumentally to exploit their position within a network which, in turn, depends on their ability to build and sustain links (and, in computer-mediated environments, hyperlinks). Bricolage in computer-mediated entrepreneurship refers to the intuitive manipulation of resources in order to achieve (perhaps tacit) goals. Without careful stewardship of the new intellectual wealth thus created, bricolage may profit neither the individual nor (...)
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  8. Carl Martin Allwood & David Hakken (2001). ?Use? Discourses in System Development: Can Communication Be Improved? [REVIEW] AI and Society 15 (3):169-199.
    This paper aims to provide a basis for renewed talk about ‘use’ in computing. Four current ‘discourse arenas’ are described. Different intentions manifest in each arena are linked to failures in ‘translation’, different terminologies crossing disciplinary and national boundaries non-reflexively. Analysis of transnational use discourse dynamics shows much miscommunication. Conflicts like that between the ‘Scandinavian System Development School’ and the ‘usability approach’ have less current salience. Renewing our talk about use is essential to a participatory politics of information technology and (...)
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  9. Almeida E. CostaF (ed.) (2007). Advances in Artificial Life. ECAL 2007. Springer-Verlag.
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  10. Michael Almeida (1997). Alice G. B. Ter Meulen, Representing Time in Natural Language: The Dynamic inTerpretation of Tense and Aspect. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7 (3):438-442.
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  11. John Altmann, Artificial Brains & Holographic Bodies: Facing the Questions of Progress.
    This essay discusses the ambitious plans of one Dmitry Itskov who by 2045 wishes to see immortality achieved by way of Artificial Brains and Holographic Bodies. I discuss the ethical implications of such a possibility coming to pass.
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  12. M. Anderson, S. L. Anderson & C. Armen (eds.) (2005). Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium Technical Report.
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  13. Daniel Andler (2006). Phenomenology in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence. In H. Dreyfus & M. Wrathall (eds.), A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism.
    Fifty years before the present volume appeared, artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science (Cogsci) emerged from a couple of small-scale academic encounters on the East Coast of the United States. Wedded together like Siamese twins, these nascent research programs appeared to rest on some general assumptions regarding the human mind, and closely connected methodological principles, which set them at such a distance from phenomenology that no contact between the two approaches seemed conceivable. Soon however contact was made, in the form (...)
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  14. Raúl Arrabales (2012). Inner Speech Generation in a Video Game Non-Player Character: From Explanation to Self? International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (02):367-381.
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  15. Janette Aschenwald, Stefan Fink & Gottfried Tappeiner (2001). Brave New Modeling: Cellular Automata and Artificial Neural Networks for Mastering Complexity in Economics. Complexity 7 (1):39-47.
  16. Thomas B.�ck (1997). Evolutionary Computation: Toward a New Philosophy of Machine Intelligence. Complexity 2 (4):28-30.
  17. Bernard J. Baars, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In John H. Mace (ed.), Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology. Blackwell Publishing 177-207.
  18. Carol Baily (2009). Reverse Intergenerational Learning: A Missed Opportunity? [REVIEW] AI and Society 23 (1):111-115.
    Traditional teaching pedagogy has the young learning from the old. To improve learning in a business environment, generational differences have been identified as being potential barriers between people. There is a growing realisation that technology can be used to bridge the gap between young and old using reverse mentoring. Moving beyond the confines of using reverse intergenerational learning as a tool for only learning new IT has not yet gained general acceptance in the wider business environment. Surely this represents a (...)
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  19. Archana Balyan, S. S. Agrawal & Amita Dev (2012). Automatic Phonetic Segmentation of Hindi Speech Using Hidden Markov Model. AI and Society 27 (4):543-549.
    In this paper, we study the performance of baseline hidden Markov model (HMM) for segmentation of speech signals. It is applied on single-speaker segmentation task, using Hindi speech database. The automatic phoneme segmentation framework evolved imitates the human phoneme segmentation process. A set of 44 Hindi phonemes were chosen for the segmentation experiment, wherein we used continuous density hidden Markov model (CDHMM) with a mixture of Gaussian distribution. The left-to-right topology with no skip states has been selected as it is (...)
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  20. Parthasarathi Banerjee (2007). Technology of Culture: The Roadmap of a Journey Undertaken. [REVIEW] AI and Society 21 (4):411-419.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) impacts society and an individual in many subtler and deeper ways than machines based upon the physics and mechanics of descriptive objects. The AI project involves thus culture and provides scope to liberational undertakings. Most importantly AI implicates human ethical and attitudinal bearings. This essay explores how previous authors in this journal have explored related issues and how such discourses have provided to the present world a roadmap that can be followed to engage in discourses with ethical (...)
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  21. Parthasarathi Banerjee (2006). Guest Editorial. AI and Society 21 (1-2):1-4.
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  22. Gary Banham, Artificial Life and the Inhuman Condition.
    Paper published on author's website available at http://www.garybanham.net/PAPERS_files/Artificial%20Life%20and%20the%20Inhuman%20Condition.pdf.
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  23. Gary Banham (2001). Transcendental Philosophy and Artificial Life. CultureMachine 3.
  24. Steven James Bartlett, The Case for Government by Artificial Intelligence. Willamette University Faculty Research Website: Http://Www.Willamette.Edu/~Sbartlet/Documents/Bartlett_The%20Case%20for%20Government%20by%20Artifici al%20Intelligence.Pdf.
    THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE -/-  Tired of election madness?  The rhetoric of politicians?  Their unreliable promises?  And less than good government? -/- Until recently, it hasn’t been hard for people to give up control to computers. Not very many people miss the effort and time required to do calculations by hand, to keep track of their finances, or to complete their tax returns manually. But relinquishing direct human control to self-driving cars is expected (...)
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  25. Steven James Bartlett, The Species Problem and its Logic: Inescapable Ambiguity and Framework-Relativity.
    For more than fifty years, taxonomists have proposed numerous alternative definitions of species while they searched for a unique, comprehensive, and persuasive definition. This monograph shows that these efforts have been unnecessary, and indeed have provably been a pursuit of a will o’ the wisp because they have failed to recognize the theoretical impossibility of what they seek to accomplish. A clear and rigorous understanding of the logic underlying species definition leads both to a recognition of the inescapable ambiguity that (...)
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  26. Bert Baumgaertner (2012). Vagueness Intuitions and the Mobility of Cognitive Sortals. Minds and Machines 22 (3):213-234.
    One feature of vague predicates is that, as far as appearances go, they lack sharp application boundaries. I argue that we would not be able to locate boundaries even if vague predicates had sharp boundaries. I do so by developing an idealized cognitive model of a categorization faculty which has mobile and dynamic sortals (`classes', `concepts' or `categories') and formally prove that the degree of precision with which boundaries of such sortals can be located is inversely constrained by their flexibility. (...)
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  27. Christian Becker-Asano, Takayuki Kanda, Carlos Ishi & Hiroshi Ishiguro (2011). Studying Laughter in Combination with Two Humanoid Robots. AI and Society 26 (3):291-300.
    To let humanoid robots behave socially adequate in a future society, we started to explore laughter as an important para-verbal signal known to influence relationships among humans rather easily. We investigated how the naturalness of various types of laughter in combination with different humanoid robots was judged, first, within a situational context that is suitable for laughter and, second, without describing the situational context. Given the variety of human laughter, do people prefer a certain style for a robot’s laughter? And (...)
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  28. Nathan Berg & Ulrich Hoffrage (2010). Compressed Environments: Unbounded Optimizers Should Sometimes Ignore Information. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (2):259-275.
    Given free information and unlimited processing power, should decision algorithms use as much information as possible? A formal model of the decision-making environment is developed to address this question and provide conditions under which informationally frugal algorithms, without any information or processing costs whatsoever, are optimal. One cause of compression that allows optimal algorithms to rationally ignore information is inverse movement of payoffs and probabilities (e.g., high payoffs occur with low probably and low payoffs occur with high probability). If inversely (...)
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  29. Maurice Berix (2012). YUTPA as a Design Tool for Public Participation. AI and Society 27 (1):165-172.
    Engaging the public in decision-making processes is commonly accepted as an effective strategy for a better policy making, a better policy support and for narrowing the gap between government and the public. In today’s digitised society, participation via online media is becoming more important. But is this so-called e-participation being used optimally? Or is a better design possible? In my opinion, the answer to these questions is a ‘yes’. Despite numerous efforts in engaging the public with policy deliberation, the actual (...)
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  30. John Bessant & George Tsekouras (2001). Developing Learning Networks. AI and Society 15 (1-2):82-98.
    Considerable interest has been shown in models of inter-organisational collaboration including clusters, networks and recently supply chains. Arguably effective configurations of enterprises can work together to achieve some form of what is termed ‘collective efficiency’ which enables them to cope with the challenges of the current competitive encironment. This paper addresses one aspect of such collective efficiency: the potential acceleration and improvement of the process of knowledge acquisition and capacity building through shared learning. It explores the concept of formal ‘learning (...)
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  31. A. K. Bhatt & D. Pant (2015). Automatic Apple Grading Model Development Based on Back Propagation Neural Network and Machine Vision, and its Performance Evaluation. AI and Society 30 (1):45-56.
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  32. Giorgio Bonmassar & Eric L. Schwartz (1998). Representation is Space-Variant. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):469-470.
    Under shift, caused for example by eye movement, or by relative movement of the subject or object of perception, the cortical representation undergoes very large changes in “size” and “shape.” Space-variance of cortical representation rules out models that fundamentally require linear interpolation between shifted patterns (e.g., Edelman's model) or rigid shift of an invariant retinal stimulus corresponding to shift at the cortex (e.g., the shifter theory of van Essen). Recently, a computational solution of “quasi-shift” invariance for space-variant mappings has been (...)
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  33. Sheryl Brahnam (2012). To Hear—to Say: The Mediating Presence of the Healing Witness. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (1):53-90.
    Illness and trauma challenge self-narratives. Traumatized individuals, unable to speak about their experiences, suffer in isolation. In this paper, I explore Kristeva’s theories of the speaking subject and signification, with its symbolic and semiotic modalities, to understand how a person comes to speak the unspeakable. In discussing the origin of the speaking subject, Kristeva employs Plato’s chora (related to choreo , “to make room for”). The chora reflects the mother’s preparation of the child’s entry into language and forms an interior (...)
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  34. Dietrich Brandt & Janko Cernetic (1998). Human-Centred Appraoches to Control and Information Technology: European Experiences. [REVIEW] AI and Society 12 (1-2):2-20.
    In this paper, the concept of Human-Centred Technology will be described with regard to the different dimensions of workplace, groupwork and networks and in terms of the frameworks of both society and the natural environment. These different aspects of Human-Centred Systems will be illustrated by a series of case studies representing several European countries. The report covers a wide range of research fields. The emphasis is on technology: the roles of control and information technology in enterprises today — including issues (...)
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  35. Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Ethical Robots: The Future Can Heed Us. [REVIEW] AI and Society 22 (4):539-550.
    Bill Joy’s deep pessimism is now famous. Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, his defense of that pessimism, has been read by, it seems, everyone—and many of these readers, apparently, have been converted to the dark side, or rather more accurately, to the future-is-dark side. Fortunately (for us; unfortunately for Joy), the defense, at least the part of it that pertains to AI and robotics, fails. Ours may be a dark future, but we cannot know that on the basis of (...)
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  36. Alan Bundy (1987). AI Bridges and Dreams. AI and Society 1 (1):62-71.
  37. Paola Cantu' & Italo Testa (2011). Algorithms and Arguments: The Foundational Role of the ATAI-Question. In Frans H. van Eemeren, Bart Garssen, David Godden & Gordon Mitchell (eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (pp. 192-203). Rozenberg / Sic Sat
    Argumentation theory underwent a significant development in the Fifties and Sixties: its revival is usually connected to Perelman's criticism of formal logic and the development of informal logic. Interestingly enough it was during this period that Artificial Intelligence was developed, which defended the following thesis (from now on referred to as the AI-thesis): human reasoning can be emulated by machines. The paper suggests a reconstruction of the opposition between formal and informal logic as a move against a premise of an (...)
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  38. Jd Casten (2012). Cybernetic Revelation: Deconstructing Artificial Intelligence. Post Egoism Media.
    Cybernetic Revelation explores the dual philosophical histories of deconstruction and artificial intelligence, tracing the development of concepts like "logos" and the notion of modeling the mind technologically from pre-history to contemporary thinkers such as Slavoj Zizek and Steven Pinker. The writing is clear and accessible throughout, yet the text probes deeply into major philosophers seen by JD Casten as "conceptual engineers." -/- Philosophers covered include: Anaximander, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Philo, Augustine, Shakespeare, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, (...)
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  39. Z. Chen (1994). Knowledge Discovery and System-User Partnership: On a Production “Adversarial Partnership” Approach. [REVIEW] AI and Society 8 (4):341-356.
    We examine the relationship between systems and their users from the knowledge discovery perspective. Recently knowledge discovery in databases has made important progress, but it may also bring some potential problems to database design, such as issues related to database security, because an unauthorised user may derive highly sensitive knowledge from unclassified data. In this paper we point out that there is a need for a comprehensive study on knowledge discovery in human-computer symbiosis. Borrowing terms from algorithm design and artificial (...)
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  40. David Cole (2010). Andy Clark: Supersizing the Mind. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (1):145-147.
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  41. Tito Conti (2003). Commentary on Developing Work and Quality Improvement Strategies III. AI and Society 17 (2):187-191.
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  42. B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot (2000). What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings of theChurch–Turing thesis (...)
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  43. Jeanne Cornillon & Duska Rosenberg (2004). Dialogue Organisation in Argumentative Debates. AI and Society 19 (1):48-64.
    This paper presents a conceptual framework for the study of social intelligence in a real-life environment. It is focussed on the dialogue organisation in argumentation, in particular how our understanding of dialogue phenomena in mediated communication may help us to support natural interaction in classroom debates. Dialogue organisation is explored in terms of the cohesive structure of dialogue that emerges as the result of information maintenance and change, specified locally by the adjacency pair and turn-taking, and globally by topic threads. (...)
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  44. Keśavacandra Dāśa (1991). Relations in Knowledge Representation: An Interdisciplinary Study in Nyāya, Mīmāṁsā, Vyākaraṇa, Tantra, Modern Linguistics, and Artificial Intelligence in Computer Application. Sri Satguru Publications.
  45. R. Daude, C. Wenk, A. Westerwick, K. Henning & M. Weck (1998). Supporting Skilled Workers at Shopfloor Machine Tools. AI and Society 12 (1-2):29-37.
    The paper describes supportive actions for users of NC machine tools. From the technical point of view, this comprises new input/output media for interaction with the machine as well as new software tools for help systems. From the organisational point of view, concepts for group work are to be supported and a methology for participation of users in the development process is suggested. A software tool for job order planning is presented which combines organisational and technical aspects. One of the (...)
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  46. Nuno David, Jaime Sichman & Helder Coelho (2007). Simulation as Formal and Generative Social Science: The Very Idea. In Carlos Gershenson, Diederik Aerts & Bruce Edmonds (eds.), Worldviews, Science, and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific 266--275.
    The formal and empirical-generative perspectives of computation are demonstrated to be inadequate to secure the goals of simulation in the social sciences. Simulation does not resemble formal demonstrations or generative mechanisms that deductively explain how certain models are sufficient to generate emergent macrostructures of interest. The description of scientific practice implies additional epistemic conceptions of scientific knowledge. Three kinds of knowledge that account for a comprehensive description of the discipline were identified: formal, empirical and intentional knowledge. The use of formal (...)
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  47. Shinichi Doi & Keiji Yamada (2011). Symbiotic Technology for Creating Social Innovation 30 Years in the Future. AI and Society 26 (3):197-204.
    This paper discusses a way to create social innovation around 2040. With such innovation, social restrictions that are regarded as being inevitable in the current society can be eliminated. First, it is necessary to determine how to approach the innovation. Symbiotic technology is one of the promising technologies for achieving social innovation. It is the fusion of scientific technology and socio-technology. Its elemental technologies are classified into two categories: technologies for converging the real and cyber worlds and those for integrating (...)
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  48. K. D. Eason, S. D. P. Harker, R. F. Raven, J. R. Brailsford & A. D. Cross (1995). Expert or Assistant: Supporting Power Engineers in the Management of Electricity Distribution. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (1):91-104.
    A case study is presented of the development of computer-based support tools for power engineers in the electricity supply industry. The objective was to develop an expert system to support witching schedule production. A user-centred approach was followed which led the user community to conclude that a switching schedule production assistant (SSPA) was required which would leave control with the power engineer. Prototype systems were developed and evaluated in user trials which revealed that a significant and more general purpose tool (...)
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  49. Amnon Eden (2010). Susan Schneider (Ed): Science Fiction and Philosophy. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):481-482.
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  50. A. Feigenbaum Edward (1984). Computer-Assisted Decision Making in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2).
    This article reviews the strengths and limitations of five major paradigms of medical computer-assisted decision making (CADM): (1) clinical algorithms, (2) statistical analysis of collections of patient data, (3) mathematical models of physical processes, (4) decision analysis, and (5) symbolic reasoning or artificial intelligence (Al). No one technique is best for all applications, and there is recent promising work which combines two or more established techniques. We emphasize both the inherent power of symbolic reasoning and the promise of artificial intelligence (...)
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