About this topic
Summary

The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible, that is, with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes use to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:
3982 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 3982
Material to categorize
  1. Dietrich Brandt (2007). The Global Technology Laboratory. AI and Society 21 (4):453-470.
    During the past two centuries, the impact of technology on society has been more fundamental and far-reaching than any visionary, philosopher or science fiction author of the past could have ever imagined. The world as a whole and all its societies have been changing through the processes of developing, adapting and implementing technology.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Dietrich Brandt & Christina Rose (2004). Global Networking and Universal Ethics. AI and Society 18 (4):334-343.
    The Congress on Information and Communication during the 2000 World Engineers’ Convention in Hannover, Germany, passed a document on trends, challenges, and tasks of information and communication technologies as a set of proposals and guidelines for engineers and society which assumes validity worldwide. In 2002, the Executive Board of the Association of Engineers VDI (Germany) passed the new document Fundamentals of Engineering Ethics, which also claims universal validity, on how to deal with conflicting professional responsibilities. Thus the global validity of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Eva Brandt (2004). Action Research in User-Centred Product Development. AI and Society 18 (2):113-133.
    Technological development and increased international competition have imposed a significant burden on the product development function of many companies. The growing complexity of products demands a larger product development team with people having various competencies. Simultaneously the importance of good quality, usability and customisation of products is growing, and many companies want to involve customers and users directly in the development work. Both the complexity and quality demand new ways of working that support collaboration between people with various competencies, interests (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Christian Brassac (2006). Computers and Knowledge: A Dialogical Approach. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (3):249-270.
    Artificial intelligence researchers interested in knowledge and in designing and implementing digitized artifacts for representing or sharing knowledge play a crucial role in the development of a knowledge-based economy. They help answer the question of how the computer devices they develop can be appropriated by the collectives that manage the flow of knowledge and the know-how underlying human organizations. A dialogical, constructivist view of interaction processes permits theorizing the role of digital tools, seen as sociotechnical devices that serve both as (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Michael E. Bratman (1992). Planning and the Stability of Intention. Minds and Machines 2 (1):1-16.
    I sketch my general model of the roles of intentions in the planning of agents like us-agents with substantial resource limitations and with important needs for coordination. I then focus on the stability of prior intentions: their rational resistance to reconsideration. I emphasize the importance of cases in which one's nonreconsideration of a prior intention is nondeliberative and is grounded in relevant habits of reconsideration. Concerning such cases I argue for a limited form of two-tier consequentialism, one that is restricted (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Michael E. Bratman, Brian Harvey, Vincent Wan & Alice Meulen (1992). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 2 (2).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. D. Braun (1997). David F. Austin, What's the Meaning of'This'? A Puzzle About Demonstrative Belief. Minds and Machines 7:297-302.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. David Braun (1997). Review of Austin (1990) and Yourgrau (1990). [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7:297-302.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Manuel Bremer (2008). David Smith and Amie Thomasson, Editors, Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind. Minds and Machines 18 (3):417-419.
  10. Manuel Bremer (2008). Peter Carruthers, Consciousness: Essays From a Higher-Order Perspective. Minds and Machines 18 (3):409-411.
  11. Manuel Bremer (2008). Shaun Gallagher, How the Body Shapes the Mind. Minds and Machines 18 (3):413-415.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Manuel Bremer (2008). Sergei Nirenburg, Victor Raskin, Ontological Semantics. Minds and Machines 18 (2):293-295.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Manuel Bremer (2005). Book Reviews:Franz Baader Et Al. (Eds.), The Description Logic Handbook, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, XVII+555 Pp., $130, ISBN 0-52178-176-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 15 (1):123-126.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Manuel Bremer (2005). Book Reviews:Patrick Blackburn, Maarten de Rijke and Yde Venema, Modal Logic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, XXII + 554 Pp., US$53.00, ISBN 0-52152-714-7 (Paperback). [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 15 (1):126-129.
  15. Manuel E. Bremer (2003). Do Logical Truths Carry Information? Minds and Machines 13 (4):567-575.
    The paper deals with the question whether logical truth carry information. On the one hand it seems that we gain new information by drawing inferences or arriving at some theorems. On the other hand the formal accounts of information and information content which are most widely known today say that logical truth carry no information at all. The latter is shown by considering these accounts. Then several ways to deal with the dilemma are distinguished, especially syntactic and ontological solutions. A (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. William F. Brewer, Clark A. Chinn & Ala Samarapungavan (1998). Explanation in Scientists and Children. Minds and Machines 8 (1):119-136.
    In this paper we provide a psychological account of the nature and development of explanation. We propose that an explanation is an account that provides a conceptual framework for a phenomenon that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomenon, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomenon follows from the framework. We propose that explanations in everyday life are judged on the criteria of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Philip Brey (2005). The Epistemology and Ontology of Human-Computer Interaction. Minds and Machines 15 (3-4):383-398.
    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic: computers are used as information-processing and problem-solving tools that extend human cognition, thereby creating hybrid cognitive systems consisting of a human processor and an artificial processor that process information in tandem. In this role, computer systems extend human cognition. Next, (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. S. Bringsjord & William Patterson (1995). Review of John Searle's The Rediscovery of the Mind,". [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 5:302-307.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Selmer Bringsjord (2000). John Searle, the Mystery of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 10 (3):457-459.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Selmer Bringsjord & David A. Ferrucci (1998). Reply to Glymour and Thayse. Minds and Machines 8 (2):313-315.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Selmer Bringsjord & Michael Zenzen (2002). Toward a Formal Philosophy of Hypercomputation. Minds and Machines 12 (2):241-258.
    Does what guides a pastry chef stand on par, from the standpoint of contemporary computer science, with what guides a supercomputer? Did Betty Crocker, when telling us how to bake a cake, provide an effective procedure, in the sense of `effective' used in computer science? According to Cleland, the answer in both cases is ``Yes''. One consequence of Cleland's affirmative answer is supposed to be that hypercomputation is, to use her phrase, ``theoretically viable''. Unfortunately, though we applaud Cleland's ``gadfly philosophizing'' (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (17 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Paul Bohan Broderick (2007). Andy Clark, Natural Born Cyborgs. Minds and Machines 17 (1):117-120.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Paul Bohan Broderick (2006). Dispositional Versus Epistemic Causality. Minds and Machines 16 (3).
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Paul Bohan Broderick (2006). Book Review. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 16 (1):101-105.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Paul Bohan Broderick, Johannes Lenhard & Arnold Silverberg (2006). Dispositional Versus Epistemic Causality. Minds and Machines 16 (3).
    Noam Chomsky and Frances Egan argue that David Marr’s computational theory of vision is not intentional, claiming that the formal scientific theory does not include description of visual content. They also argue that the theory is internalist in the sense of not describing things physically external to the perceiver. They argue that these claims hold for computational theories of vision in general. Beyond theories of vision, they argue that representational content does not figure as a topic within formal computational theories (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Peter Brödner (2007). From Taylorism to Competence-Based Production. AI and Society 21 (4):497-514.
    During the four decades of my professional career, manufacturing has been subdued to a radical change from objectifying to subjectifying work. The evolution of the originally prevailing Taylor model with its functionally divided and highly mechanised work processes culminated in the 1980s in the rise and fall of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) contested by the alternative approach of human-centred production systems. The change process then went through phases of confusion and experimentation, in which competence-based manufacturing strategies and structures have been (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Peter Brödner (1989). In Search of the Computer-Aided Craftsman. AI and Society 3 (1):39-46.
    Profound changes in world markets are resulting in conflict between traditional structures of production and new market requirements. The right answers to this challenge are heavily disputed. One option is to replace human work still further by artificially intelligent technology without changing basic structures of production. In contrast to this strategy, alternative production concepts seek to combine the unique human capabilities of perception, evaluation and decision making in unstructured situations with appropriately designed computer systems. Empirical evidence from the use of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Berit Brogaard (2002). Andy Clark,Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, VII + 210 Pp., $18.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-513857-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 12 (1):151-156.
  29. Berit Brogaard (2002). Andy Clark, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, Vii+ 210 Pp., $18.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-513857-0. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 12 (1):151-156.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Ron Broglio (2011). Thinking About Stuff: Posthumanist Phenomenology and Cognition. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (2):187-192.
    Emerging digital technologies, such as sensors and pervasive computing, provide a robust interplay between digital and physical space. Architecture as a disciplinary endeavor has subsumed the capacities of these technologies without allowing the difference these technologies afford to challenge fundamental notions of architecture, such as cognition, visibility, and presence. This essay explores the inverse of the architectural ground by exploring the cognitive capacity for non-animate entities. The implication of this posthuman phenomenology is that entities themselves pose questions and that “stuff” (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Cyril Brom, Jiří Lukavský & Rudolf Kadlec (2010). Episodic Memory for Human-Like Agents and Human-Like Agents for Episodic Memory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (02):227-244.
  32. M. Brown & G. Paliouras (1996). Roger C. Schank, Alex Kass, and Christopher K. Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Case-Based Explanation. Minds and Machines 6:279-285.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Trevor Brown & Dietrich Brandt (forthcoming). How High Growth Economies Impact Global Information Technology Departments. AI and Society:1-7.
    By the very nature of information technology (IT), change and dynamism have always been significant drivers on its path to further development—and it has traditionally been the Western countries leading these. Now the picture is changing. The new high growth economies of the world (also known as BRIC countries) are increasingly pressing forward as active IT development drivers. Internal IT organizations of international companies are experiencing these global shifts firsthand and are facing changes in their traditional roles. This exploratory research (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Derek Browne (1996). Cognitive Versatility. Minds and Machines 6 (4):507-23.
    Jerry Fodor divides the mind into peripheral, domain-specific modules and a domaingeneral faculty of central cognition. John Tooby and Lisa Cosmides argue instead that the mind is modular all the way through; cognition consists of a multitude of domain-specific processes. But human thought has a flexible, innovative character that contrasts with the inflexible, stereotyped performances of modular systems. My goal is to discover how minds that are constructed on modular principles might come to exhibit cognitive versatility.Cognitive versatility is exhibited in (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Will N. Browne & Richard J. Hussey (2009). Emotional Cognitive Steps Towards Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (02):203-211.
  36. Christoph Brunner (2011). Nice-Looking Obstacles: Parkour as Urban Practice of Deterritorialization. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (2):143-152.
    Most academic publications refer to Parkour as a subversive and embodied tactic that challenges hegemonic discourses of discipline and control. Architecture becomes the playful ground where new ways to move take form. These approaches rarely address the material and embodied relations that occur in these practices and remain on the discursive plane of cultural signifiers. A theory of movement between bodies as the founding aspect of Parkour unfolds alternative concepts of body, space, time and movement beyond the discursive. Movement becomes (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Willi Bruns (1996). Grasping, Communicating, Understanding: Connecting Reality and Virtuality. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (1):6-14.
    Several simulation projects in the area of production and logistics indicated that, although we have sophisticated input and output devices for computer supported modelling, physical models still play an important role for cognition and communication. We therefore introduce the concept of a Graspable User Interface that aims at combining two model worlds, the one inside the computer and a corresponding physical one in the outside world. Sensored user hands will couple physical objects of the real world with virtual objects, thus (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Paul D. B. Bujac & John Kerins (2009). Developing and Implementing a Sparse Ontology with a Visual Index for Personal Photograph Retrieval. AI and Society 24 (4):383-392.
    The advent of digital cameras has provided photographers, with varying levels of expertise, the opportunity to accumulate large repositories of digital images. However, this expansion has also brought the attendant difficulty of image retrieval. This paper reviews the considerable work already carried out on image retrieval and identifies critical constraints in attempting to handle the underlying semantics of photographic images. The authors address the issue of how an amateur photographer, storing several thousand images a year, can effectively and efficiently manage (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Seth Bullock & Peter M. Todd (1999). Made to Measure: Ecological Rationality in Structured Environments. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (4):497-541.
    A working assumption that processes of natural and cultural evolution have tailored the mind to fit the demands and structure of its environment begs the question: how are we to characterize the structure of cognitive environments? Decision problems faced by real organisms are not like simple multiple-choice examination papers. For example, some individual problems may occur much more frequently than others, whilst some may carry much more weight than others. Such considerations are not taken into account when (i) the performance (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. James H. Bunn (2000). The Syntax of Galileo: Reply to Ray Jackendoff. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):137-147.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. James H. Bunn (2000). Universal Grammar or Common Syntax? A Critical Study of Jackendoff's Patterns in the Mind. Minds and Machines 10 (1):119-128.
  42. Ernesto Burattini (2003). Roberto Cordeschi: The Discovery of the Artificial. Behaviour, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. [REVIEW] AI and Society 17 (3-4):393-395.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Robert G. Burton (1999). A Neurocomputational Approach to Abduction. Minds and Machines 9 (2):257-265.
    Recent developments in the cognitive sciences and artificial intelligence suggest ways of answering the most serious challenge to Peirce's notion of abduction. Either there is no such logical process as abduction or, if abduction is a form of inference, it is essentially unconscious and therefore beyond rational control so that it lacks any normative significance. Peirce himself anticipates and attempts to answer this challenge. Peirce argues that abduction is both a source of creative insight and a form of logical inference (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. K. Butler (1997). Jacques Mehler and Susana Franck, Eds., Cognition on Cognition. Minds and Machines 7:303-306.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Keith Butler (1994). Neural Constraints in Cognitive Science. Minds and Machines 4 (2):129-62.
    The paper is an examination of the ways and extent to which neuroscience places constraints on cognitive science. In Part I, I clarify the issue, as well as the notion of levels in cognitive inquiry. I then present and address, in Part II, two arguments designed to show that facts from neuroscience are at a level too low to constrain cognitive theory in any important sense. I argue, to the contrary, that there are several respects in which facts from neurophysiology (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Terrell Ward Bynum (2014). On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism. Minds and Machines 24 (1):123-139.
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls “Informational Structural Realism”, a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information (“dedomena”) as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi’s defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of “Digital Ontology” (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi’s ontology as a starting point, the present (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Béatrice Cahour & Lyn Pemberton (2001). A Model of Conversational Positioning in Collaborative Design Dialogues. AI and Society 15 (4):344-358.
    This paper presents findings from a linguistic and psycho-social analysis of nine design dialogues which sets out to investigate the interweaving of transactional and interpersonal threads in collaborative work. We sketch a model of the participants' positioning towards their own or their partner's design proposals, from association to dissociation towards the proposals, together with the conversational cues which indicate this positioning. Our aim is to integrate the role of interpersonal relationships into the study of co-operation, to stress the importance of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Patrice Caire (2009). Designing Convivial Digital Cities: A Social Intelligence Design Approach. [REVIEW] AI and Society 24 (1):97-114.
    Conviviality has been identified as a key concept necessary to web communities, such as digital cities, and while it has been simultaneously defined in literature as individual freedom realized in personal interdependence, rational and cooperative behavior and normative instrument, no model for conviviality has yet been proposed for computer science. In this article, we raised the question whether social intelligence design could be used to designing convivial digital cities. We first looked at digital cities and identified, from a social intelligence (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Cristian S. Calude (2002). Incompleteness, Complexity, Randomness and Beyond. Minds and Machines 12 (4):503-517.
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems have the same scientific status as Einstein's principle of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA. Our aim is to discuss some new faces of the incompleteness phenomenon unveiled by an information-theoretic approach to randomness and recent developments in quantum computing.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. William Cameron (2008). Ruth Garrett Millikan, Language: A Biological Model. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 18 (1):127-131.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 3982