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The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible, that is, with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes use to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
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  1. Carl Martin Allwood & David Hakken (2001). Deconstructing 'Use': Diverse Discourses on 'Users' and 'Usability'in Information System Development and Reconstructing a Viable Use Discourse. AI and Society 15:169-199.
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  2. Bruno Amoroso & Sergio Gomez Y. Paloma (1994). Globilization and Regional Scenarios: EU and Mediterranean From Marginalization to Co-Development. AI and Society 8 (2):186-196.
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  3. Parthasarathi Banerjee (2003). Narration, Discourse and Dialogue: Issues in the Management of Inter-Cultural Innovation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 17 (3-4):207-224.
    Knowledge issues in the management of innovations are addressed properly when the importance of language and in particular of utterances are recognised. This is a new paradigm of management, named here as management by utterance. Unspoken knowledge is not communicated and unspeakable tacit knowledge cannot be of much use in such innovations. Knowledge can be utilised in innovations when its generation and sharing are accomplished through linguistic acts such as a narration or a drama. Discourse necessarily takes a back seat. (...)
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  4. Parthasarathi Banerjee & Krishna K. Bhardwaj (2002). Constructivist Management of Knowledge, Communication and Enterprise Innovation: Lessons From Indian Experience. [REVIEW] AI and Society 16 (1-2):49-72.
    Prime movers of enterprise innovation are inside the organisation. The enterprise NIIT, studied in this paper, tells us how elicitation and recognition of knowledge and its contents set an enterprise on the move. Recognised knowledge is actionable. Each act of recognition is an addition to knowledge content, and such additions took place in NIIT through acts of communications and self-searching. These contents form a large collage that cannot be strewn into a single novelistic episode. Perspectives and context, motives and suggestions (...)
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  5. Axel Barceló Aspeitia, Ángeles Eraña & Robert Stainton (2010). The Contribution of Domain Specificity in the Highly Modular Mind. Minds and Machines 20 (1):19-27.
    Is there a notion of domain specificity which affords genuine insight in the context of the highly modular mind, i.e. a mind which has not only input modules, but also central ‘conceptual’ modules? Our answer to this question is no. The main argument is simple enough: we lay out some constraints that a theoretically useful notion of domain specificity, in the context of the highly modular mind, would need to meet. We then survey a host of accounts of what domain (...)
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  6. J. A. Barnden (1996). Philip P. Hanson (Ed.), Information, Language, and Cognition. Minds and Machines 6:95-100.
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  7. Christoph Bartneck, Tomohiro Suzuki, Takayuki Kanda & Tatsuya Nomura (2007). The Influence of People's Culture and Prior Experiences with Aibo on Their Attitude Towards Robots. AI and Society 21 (1-2):217-230.
    This paper presents a cross-cultural study on peoples’ negative attitude toward robots. 467 participants from seven different countries filled in the negative attitude towards robots scale survey which consists of 14 questions in three clusters: attitude towards the interaction with robots, attitude towards social influence of robots and attitude towards emotions in interaction with robots. Around one half of them were recruited at local universities and the other half was approached through Aibo online communities. The participants’ cultural background had a (...)
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  8. Bert Baumgaertner (2013). Smooth Yet Discrete: Modeling Both Non-Transitivity and the Smoothness of Graded Categories With Discrete Classification Rules. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines:1-18.
    Many of our categorization experiences are non-transitive. For some objects a, b and c, a and b can appear indistinguishable, and likewise b and c, but a and c can appear distinguishable. Many categories also appear to be smooth; transitions between cases are not experienced as sharp, but rather as continuous. These two features of our categorization experiences tend to be addressed separately. Moreover, many views model smoothness by making use of infinite degrees. This paper presents a methodological strategy that (...)
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  9. Anthony F. Beavers & Derek Jones (2014). Philosophy in the Age of Information: A Symposium on Luciano Floridi's The Philosophy of Information. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 24 (1):1-3.
  10. Rahmatollah Beheshti & Gita Sukthankar (forthcoming). A Hybrid Modeling Approach for Parking and Traffic Prediction in Urban Simulations. AI and Society.
  11. David Benyon, Aaron Quigley, Brian O'Keefe & Giuseppe Riva (forthcoming). Presence and Digital Tourism. AI and Society:1-9.
    This paper provides an introduction to digital tourism as mediated by presence research as a means to create substantive user experiences (UX) for visitors. Tourism is a rich and varied socio-economic activity that permeates our global society. Digital tourism is the digital support of the tourist experience. In this paper we introduce and survey both fields and introduce a number of examples of tourist experiences based on our blended spaces approach. Cutting across this is the sense of presence that visitors (...)
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  12. Johan Berglund (2009). Discourses on Age: Confronting Disputed Concepts by Means of Dialogue. [REVIEW] AI and Society 23 (1):117-121.
    The article explores approaches to discourses concerning age, with different agendas and national contexts. The Dialogue Seminar Method is introduced, as a means of facilitating reflection and access to tacit knowledge. Democratic dialogue requires orchestration, and enables horizontal communication and collective reflection.
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  13. Joanna Berzowska (2006). Personal Technologies: Memory and Intimacy Through Physical Computing. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (4):446-461.
    In this paper, I present an overview of personal and intimate technologies within a pedagogical context. I describe two courses that I have developed for Computation Arts at Concordia University: “Tangible Media and Physical Computing” and “Second Skin and Soft Wear.” Each course deals with different aspects of physical computing and tangible media in a Fine Arts context. In both courses, I introduce concepts of soft computation and intimate reactive artifacts as artworks. I emphasize the concept of memory (contrasting computer (...)
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  14. Steven Best (2006). Genetic Science, Animal Exploitation, and the Challenge for Democracy. AI and Society 20 (1):6-21.
    As the debates over cloning and stem cell research indicate, issues raised by biotechnology combine research into the genetic sciences, perspectives and contexts articulated by the social sciences, and the ethical and anthropological concerns of philosophy. Consequently, I argue that intervening in the debates over biotechnology requires supra-disciplinary critical philosophy and social theory to illuminate the problems and their stakes. In addition, debates over cloning and stem cell research raise exceptionally important challenges to bioethics and a democratic politics of communication.
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  15. Marie-Laure Betbeder, Philippe Cottier, Colin Schmidt & Pierre Tchounikine (2006). Dialogue in Context, Towards a Referential Approach in Collective Learning. AI and Society 20 (3):314-330.
    In this article, we present research in the making of a collective work environment within the framework of a distance education course. We base our theoretical and methodological standpoints on examples of dialogical discourses recorded within the framework of this CSCL system called Symba. In fact, the results of previous research lead us to rethink our vision of the study of collaborative moments between participants in a computer-supported human learning environment that proposes several communication tools. Redefining the methodological process aiming (...)
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  16. Marco C. Bettoni (1995). Kant and the Software Crisis: Suggestions for the Construction of Human-Centred Software Systems. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (4):396-401.
    -/- In this article I deal with the question “How could we renew and enrich computer technology with Kant's help?”. By this I would like to invite computer scientists and engineers to initiate or intensify their cooperation with Kant experts. -/- What I am looking for is a better “method of definition” for software systems, particularly for the development of object-oriented and knowledge-based systems. -/- After a description of the “software crisis”, I deal first with the question why this crisis (...)
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  17. A. K. Bhatt & D. Pant (forthcoming). Automatic Apple Grading Model Development Based on Back Propagation Neural Network and Machine Vision, and its Performance Evaluation. AI and Society.
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  18. Ashutosh Kumar Bhatt, Durgesh Pant & Richa Singh (2014). An Analysis of the Performance of Artificial Neural Network Technique for Apple Classification. AI and Society 29 (1):103-111.
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  19. Prof Wolfgang Bibel (1989). The Technological Change of Reality: Opportunities and Dangers. [REVIEW] AI and Society 3 (2):117-132.
    This essay discusses the trade-off between the opportunities and the dangers involved in technological change. It is argued that Artificial Intelligence technology, if properly used, could contribute substantially to coping with some of the major problems the world faces because of the highly complex interconnectivity of modern human society.In order to lay the foundation for the discussion, the symptoms of general unease which are associated with current technological progress, the concept of reality, and the field of Artificial Intelligence are very (...)
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  20. M. H. Bickhard (1997). Sean O Nuallain, The Search for Mind: A New Foundation for Cognitive Science. Minds and Machines 7:125-128.
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  21. Mark H. Bickhard (2000). Benny Shanon, the Representational and the Presentational: An Essay on Cognition and the Study of the Mind, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, U.K.: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993, ISBN 0-7450-1095-4; Paramus, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994, VI + 409 Pp., $66.00 (Paper), ISBN 0-13-302225-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (2):313-317.
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  22. John Bickle (2001). Understanding Neural Complexity: A Role for Reduction. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 11 (4):467-481.
    Psychoneural reduction is under attack again, only this time from a former ally: cognitive neuroscience. It has become popular to think of the brain as a complex system whose theoretically important properties emerge from dynamic, non-linear interactions between its component parts. ``Emergence'' is supposed to replace reduction: the latter is thought to be incapable of explaining the brain qua complex system. Rather than engage this issue at the level of theories of reduction versus theories of emergence, I here emphasize a (...)
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  23. Thomas Binder (1996). Learning and Knowing with Artifacts: An Interview with Donald A. Schön. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (1):51-57.
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  24. Thomas Binder (1996). Participation and Reification in Design of Artifacts: An Interview with Etienne Wenger. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (1):101-106.
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  25. Felicia Ramona Birău (forthcoming). Emerging Capital Market Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis of Weak-Form Efficiency in Romania and Hungary in the Context of the Global Financial Crisis. [REVIEW] AI and Society:1-11.
    This paper examines in a comparative manner the weak-form efficiency in the case of two emerging capital markets, the Bucharest Stock Exchange and the Budapest Stock Exchange, in the context of the global financial crisis. The study includes both a theoretical part and a section of original research. Efficient market hypothesis has been an important and widely accepted issue of classical finance for a long period of time. An emerging capital market, like the Bucharest Stock Exchange or the Budapest Stock (...)
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  26. Lynda Birke (2006). Meddling with Medusa: On Genetic Manipulation, Art and Animals. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (1):103-117.
    Turning animals into art through genetic manipulation poses many questions for how we think about our relationship with other species. Here, I explore three rather disparate sets of issues. First, I ask to what extent the production of such living “artforms” really is as transgressive as advocates claim. Whether or not it counts as radical in terms of art I cannot say: but it is not at all radical, I argue, in terms of how we think about our human place (...)
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  27. John Mark Bishop (2009). Why Computers Can't Feel Pain. Minds and Machines 19 (4):507-516.
    The most cursory examination of the history of artificial intelligence highlights numerous egregious claims of its researchers, especially in relation to a populist form of ‘strong’ computationalism which holds that any suitably programmed computer instantiates genuine conscious mental states purely in virtue of carrying out a specific series of computations. The argument presented herein is a simple development of that originally presented in Putnam’s (Representation & Reality, Bradford Books, Cambridge in 1988 ) monograph, “Representation & Reality”, which if correct, has (...)
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  28. Mark Bishop (2009). Why Computers Can't Feel Pain. Minds and Machines 19 (4):507-516.
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  29. Mark Jm Bishop & C. Sdrolia (forthcoming). Rethinking Construction. On Luciano Floridi's 'Against Digital Ontology. Minds and Machines.
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  30. Pradip Kumar Biswas (2011). Networks of Small Enterprises, Architecture of Governance and Incentive Alignment: Some Cases From India. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (4):383-391.
    Networks formed by small enterprises among themselves or with larger ones are common features in many agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in India and probably in many other countries. Through the network, a group of entrepreneurs pool their limited resources including capital, skills and expertise, knowledge and information in order to gain access to various product/input markets and services or to take advantages of some favourable situations or to overcome certain constraints. These networks have a very different governance architecture compared (...)
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  31. Pratik Biswas & Renate Fruchter (2007). Using Gestures to Convey Internal Mental Models and Index Multimedia Content. AI and Society 22 (2):155-168.
    Gestures can serve as external representations of abstract concepts which may be otherwise difficult to illustrate. Gestures often accompany verbal statement as an embodiment of mental models that augment the communication of ideas, concepts or envisioned shapes of products. A gesture is also an indicator of the subject and context of the issue under discussion. We argue that if gestures can be identified and formalized they can be used as a knowledge indexing and retrieval tool and can prove to be (...)
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  32. Gro Bjerknes & Tone Bratteteig (1988). Computers — Utensils or Epaulets? The Application Perspective Revisited. AI and Society 2 (3):258-266.
    This paper is a discussion about how the Application Perspective works in practice.1 We talk about values and attitudes to system development and computer systems, and we illustrate how they have been carried out in practice by examples from the Florence project.2 The metaphors ‘utensil’ and ‘epaulet’ refer to questions about how we conceive the computer system we are to design in the system development process. Our experience is that, in the scientific community, technical challenges mean making computer systems that (...)
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  33. Michael T. Black (1993). Consensus and Authenticity in Representation: Simulation as Participative Theatre. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (1):40-51.
    Representation was invented as an issue during the 17th century in response to specific developments in the technology of simulation. It remains an issue of central importance today in the design of information systems and approaches to artificial intelligence. Our cultural legacy of thought about representation is enormous but as inhibiting as it is productive. The challenge to designers of representative technology is to reshape this legacy by enlarging the politics rather than the technics of simulation.
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  34. Kathryn Blackmond Laskey, Bruce D'Ambrosio, Tod S. Levitt & Suzanne Mahoney (2000). Limited Rationality in Action: Decision Support for Military Situation Assessment. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):53-77.
    Information is a force multiplier. Knowledge of the enemy's capability and intentions may be of far more value to a military force than additional troops or firepower. Situation assessment is the ongoing process of inferring relevant information about the forces of concern in a military situation. Relevant information can include force types, firepower, location, and past, present and future course of action. Situation assessment involves the incorporation of uncertain evidence from diverse sources. These include photographs, radar scans, and other forms (...)
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  35. D. Blank, L. Meeden & J. Marsgall (1999). ,Stable Encoding of Finite. Minds and Machines 7:57.
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  36. Zach Blas & Micha Cárdenas (2013). Imaginary Computational Systems: Queer Technologies and Transreal Aesthetics. [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (4):559-566.
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  37. Whitby Blay (2013). When is Any Agent a Moral Agent?: Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (1).
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  38. Kenneth R. Blochowiak (1993). The Example of the Unicorn: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Scientific Creativity and the Growth of Knowledge. [REVIEW] AI and Society 7 (1):52-61.
    In the course of researching the question ‘What does it mean for knowledge to grow?’, the author has developed a large and unique compendium of components, some of which are knowledge systems that serve as research and creativity support systems. The self-modifying, self-effecting creative process and the results of developing and working with these systems, using novel methods and drawing on eclectic sources, is discussed.
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  39. Brian P. Bloomfield (1988). Expert Systems and Human Knowledge: A View From the Sociology of Science. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (1):17-29.
    After the setbacks suffered in the 1970s as a result of the ‘Lighthill Report’ (Lighthill, 1973), the science of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has undergone a dramatic revival of fortunes in the 1980s. But despite the obvious enormity and complexity of the problems tackled by AI, it still remains rather parochial in relation to the import of alternative though potentially fruitful ideas from other disciplines. With this in mind, the aim of the present paper is to utilise ideas from the sociology (...)
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  40. Rens Bod (2007). Getting Rid of Derivational Redundancy or How to Solve Kuhn's Problem. Minds and Machines 17 (1):47-66.
    This paper deals with the problem of derivational redundancy in scientific explanation, i.e. the problem that there can be extremely many different explanatory derivations for a natural phenomenon while students and experts mostly come up with one and the same derivation for a phenomenon (modulo the order of applying laws). Given this agreement among humans, we need to have a story of how to select from the space of possible derivations of a phenomenon the derivation that humans come up with. (...)
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  41. Margaret Boden (1997). Douglas Hofstadter and the Fluid Analogies Research Group, Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7 (3):460-464.
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  42. Margaret Boden (1987). Artificial Intelligence: Cannibal or Missionary? [REVIEW] AI and Society 1 (1):17-23.
    Some of the concerns people have about AI are: its misuses, effect on unemployment, and its potential for dehumanising. Contrary to what most people believe and fear, AI can lead to respect for the enormous power and complexity of the human mind. It is potentially very dangerous for users in the public domain to impute much more inferential power to computer systems, which look common-sensical, than they actually have. No matter how impressive AI programs may be, we must be aware (...)
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  43. Fritz Böhle & Brigitte Milkau (1988). Computerised Manufacturing and Empirical Knowledge. AI and Society 2 (3):235-243.
    What skills are required for working with computer-controlled machines in the manufacturing area? Taking the developments in the machine building sector in Germany as an example, it becomes apparent that a human-centred approach (skill-based manufacturing) offers the companies many advantages over Tayloristic forms of work organisation and automation. Closer observations reveal that skills and qualifications based on empirical knowledge and individual capabilities, such as a feeling for machines and materials, continue to play an important part in the work with computer-controlled (...)
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  44. Karin Bohmann (1989). About the Sense of Social Compatibility. AI and Society 3 (4):323-331.
    The debate in the Federal Republic of Germany on the estimation of the social compatibility of the consequences of technology as a criterion for the evaluation of technical systems has been going on since the mid seventies. The approach presented discusses the normative structurally transcending perspective of the viability and developmental capacity of society. The question of desirable social development as opposed to the technically possible is raised. A criteria system for evaluating social compatibility of new information and communication technologies (...)
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  45. John Bolender (2003). The Genealogy of the Moral Modules. Minds and Machines 13 (2):233-255.
    This paper defends a cognitive theory of those emotional reactions which motivate and constrain moral judgment. On this theory, moral emotions result from mental faculties specialized for automatically producing feelings of approval or disapproval in response to mental representations of various social situations and actions. These faculties are modules in Fodor's sense, since they are informationally encapsulated, specialized, and contain innate information about social situations. The paper also tries to shed light on which moral modules there are, which of these (...)
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  46. Jason Borenstein (2011). Robots and the Changing Workforce. AI and Society 26 (1):87-93.
    The use of robotic workers is likely to continue to increase as time passes. Hence it is crucial to examine the types of effects this occurrence could have on employment patterns. Invariably, as new job opportunities emerge due to robotic innovations, others will be closed off. Further, the characteristics of the workforce in terms of age, education, and income could profoundly change as a result.
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  47. Albert Borgmann (2010). “… or is the Question of Being at Once the Most Basic and the Most Concrete?” On the Ambitions and Responsibilities of Contemporary American Philosophy. AI and Society 25 (1):19-26.
    At its centennial in 2001, the American Philosophical Association bravely proclaimed: “Philosophy Matters.” But does it? It won’t unless it reaches the concreteness of everyday life. To do so was Martin Heidegger’s ambition, and one can read Saul Kripke’s books as an attempt to get mainstream American philosophy beyond its abstractions. At length, Kripke’s efforts, on one reading, failed while Heidegger’s remained incomplete. A theory of commodification can get us closer to the things that matter to us in everyday life.
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  48. Albert Borgmann (2010). Steven Talbott: Devices of the Soul: Battling for Ourselves in an Age of Machines. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):131-132.
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  49. Nick Bostrom (2006). Quantity of Experience: Brain-Duplication and Degrees of Consciousness. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 16 (2):185-200.
    If a brain is duplicated so that there are two brains in identical states, are there then two numerically distinct phenomenal experiences or only one? There are two, I argue, and given computationalism, this has implications for what it is to implement a computation. I then consider what happens when a computation is implemented in a system that either uses unreliable components or possesses varying degrees of parallelism. I show that in some of these cases there can be, in a (...)
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  50. Cheryl Campanella Bracken, Gary Pettey & Mu Wu (forthcoming). Revisiting the Use of Secondary Task Reaction Time Measures in Telepresence Research: Exploring the Role of Immersion and Attention. [REVIEW] AI and Society:1-6.
    In this experimental study, we use secondary task reaction time (STRT) to measure Attention to a media presentation and compare STRT to traditional self-report measures of Telepresence (immersion, social reality, spatial presence, and transportation) and enjoyment. Further, we compare the STRT measure with the composite items of Telepresence–Immersion. The results indicate that STRT may be useful for measuring some sub-dimensions of Telepresence. Implications are discussed.
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