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  1. Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert (2008). Knowledge‐Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology. Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
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  2. Lonnie W. Aarssen (2010). Darwinism and Meaning. Biological Theory 5 (4):296-311.
    Darwinism presents a paradox. It discredits the notion that one’s life has any intrinsic meaning, yet it predicts that we are designed by Darwinian natural selection to generally insist that it must—and so necessarily designed to misunderstand and doubt Darwinism. The implications of this paradox are explored here, including the question of where then does the Darwinist find meaning in life? The main source, it is proposed, is from cognitive domains for meaning inherited from sentient ancestors—domains that reveal our evolved (...)
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  3. Stephen T. Abedon (2013). Are Archaeons Incapable of Being Parasites or Have We Simply Failed to Notice? Bioessays 35 (6):501-501.
  4. Robert Ackermann (1968). Mechanism and the Philosophy of Biology. Southern Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):143-151.
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  5. Margo I. Adler & Russell Bonduriansky (forthcoming). Why Do the Well-Fed Appear to Die Young? Bioessays:n/a-n/a.
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  6. Ramsey Affifi (2015). Generativity in Biology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):149-162.
    The behavior of an organism, according to Merleau-Ponty, lays out a milieu through which significant phenomena of varying degrees of optimality elicit adjustment. This leads to the dialectical co-emergence of milieu and aptitude that is both the product and the condition of life. What is present as a norm soliciting optimization is species-specific, but it also depends on the needs of the organism and its prior experience. Although a rich entry point into biological phenomenology, Merleau-Ponty’s work does not adequately describe (...)
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  7. Wilfred Eade Agar (1943). A Contribution to the Theory of the Living Organism. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press in Association with Oxford University Press.
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  8. Jeremy C. Ahouse (1998). The Web of Life: A New Understanding of Living Systems by Fritjof Capra. Complexity 3 (5):50-52.
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  9. I. D. Akopian (1987). Filosofskie Osnovaniia Edinstva Biologicheskogo I Fizicheskogo Znaniia. Izd-Vo an Armianskoi Ssr.
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  10. L. El Alaoui, J. Francoise & M. Landau (2012). Reduced Models for Unidirectional Block Conduction and Their Geometrical Setting. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):131-137.
    This article revisits a reduced model of cardiac electro-physiology which was proposed to understand the genesis of unidirectional block pathology and of ectopic foci. We underline some specificities of the model from the viewpoint of dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. We point out that essentially the same properties are shared by a simpler system more accessible to analysis. With this simpler system, it becomes possible to give a new presentation of the phenomenon in a phase plane with time moving slow (...)
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  11. Victoria N. Alexander (2011). Essential Readings in Biosemiotics: Anthology and Commentary – By Donald Favareau. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (4):412-414.
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  12. Colin Allen (2002). Book Revie. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):695-702.
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  13. Linda Amos (2004). Book Review: Essential Cell Biology Volume 1: Cell Structure and Volume 2: Cell Function, A Practical Approach. [REVIEW] Bioessays 26 (11):1255-1256.
  14. Ron Amundson (2002). Book Revie. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):679-694.
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  15. Søren S. L. Andersen (1999). Balanced Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics During the Cell Cycle: A Contemporary View. Bioessays 21 (1):53-60.
  16. B. Andrieu (2002). The Thinking Body-A Philosophical, Epistemological Movement in the Field of Biology, 1950-2000. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 56 (222):557-582.
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  17. Mike Appleby (1997). Darwin Was My Grandmother. Philosophy Now 18:19-21.
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  18. Aldo M. Araújo (1998). A Influência de Theodosius Dobzhansky No Desenvolvimento da Genética No Brasil. Episteme 3 (7):43-54.
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  19. Gilbert Argoud & Jean-Yves Guillaumin (1999). Edited volumes-sciences exactes et sciences appliquees a alexandrie. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):245-245.
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  20. A. M. Arias (2002). The Tangled Field By Nathaniel C. Comfort. Bioessays 24 (5):476-478.
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  21. Andre Ariew (2008). As a Metaphysical Thesis: Mayr and Sober. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press. 64.
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  22. Michael H. Arnold, Joseph H. Hulse & F. W. G. Baker (1988). Nayudamma Memorial Symposium – Madras, India, 15–17 December 1986. Bioessays 8 (4):130-132.
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  23. Jon Arrizabalaga (2005). History of Disease and the Longue Durée. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (1):41 - 56.
    This paper summarizes Grmek's theoretical contribution to history of disease and explores to what extent the longue durée could still be a useful concept in order to better understand past perceptions of, and reactions to, diseases. The case of the medical responses to epidemic disease in pre-industrial Europe is synthetically expounded in order to illustrate this issue.
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  24. Marc Artiga (2014). Signaling Without Cooperation. Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):357-378.
    Ethological theories usually attribute semantic content to animal signals. To account for this fact, many biologists and philosophers appeal to some version of teleosemantics. However, this picture has recently came under attack: while mainstream teleosemantics assumes that representational systems must cooperate, some biologists and philosophers argue that in certain cases signaling can evolve within systems lacking common interest. In this paper I defend the standard view from this objection.
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  25. David J. Asai (1994). Loading the Dice. Designing Antibodies (1993). By RUTH D. MAYFORTH. Academic Press, San Diego. Viii+207pp. $49.95, $42.50.ISBN 0‐12‐48 1025‐X. [REVIEW] Bioessays 16 (6):447-448.
  26. Giorgio A. Ascoli (2007). Biomedical Research Funding: When the Game Gets Tough, Winners Start to Play. Bioessays 29 (9):933-936.
  27. Robin Attfield (2012). Synthetic Biology, Deontology and Synthetic Bioethics. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):29 - 32.
    Paul Thompson argues that current synthetic biology amounts to synthetic genomics, comprising a ?platform? technology, and that Christopher Preston's deontological objections based on its supposed rejection of the historical process of evolution miscarry. This makes it surprising that Thompson's normative ethic consists in a deontological appeal to Kantian duties of imperfect obligation. Construed as obligations subject to choice, such constraints risk being excessively malleable where the ethical objections to deployment of this technology concern land rights and/or exploitation. Thompson's advocacy of (...)
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  28. Dominique Aubel & Martin Fussenegger (2010). Mammalian Synthetic Biology – From Tools to Therapies. Bioessays 32 (4):332-345.
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  29. Hellmut G. Augustin, Detlef H. Kozian & Robert C. Johnson (1994). Differentiation of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of the Constitutive and Activated Endothelial Cell Phenotypes. Bioessays 16 (12):901-906.
  30. Francisco J. Ayala (1982). Beyond Darwinism? The Challenge of Macroevolution to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:275 - 291.
    The theory of punctuated equilibrium has been proposed as a challenge to the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory. Two important issues are raised. The first is scientific: whether morphological change as observed in the paleontological record is essentially always associated with speciation events. This paper argues that there is at present no empirical support for this claim: the alleged evidence is based on a definitional fallacy. The second issue is epistemological: whether macroevolution is an autonomous field of study, independent from (...)
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  31. Francisco J. Ayala (1971). Life Sciences Biology and the Future of Man P. Handler. BioScience 21 (1):41-42.
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  32. Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.) (2010). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..
    This collection of specially commissioned essays puts top scholars head to head to debate the central issues in the lively and fast growing field of philosophy ...
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  33. Giovanni Felice Azzone (1998). The Cement of Medical Thought. Evolutionary Emergence and Downward Causation. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):163 - 187.
    The aetio-pathogenetic sequences and the physio-pathological patterns of diabetes, emphysema, cholera, circulatory shock and thrombosis have been analysed with respect to an evolutionary interpretation. The diseases, although reflecting alterations of processes that can always be described in physico-chemical language, occur only at the level of biological systems which reflects the decodification of genomic project: the teleonomic projects that have been developed during evolution. The concepts of evolutionary emergence and of downward causation have been used to discuss the relationship between the (...)
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  34. Giovanni Felice Azzone (1996). The Nature of Diseases: Evolutionary, Thermodynamic and Historical Aspects. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):83 - 106.
    Physico-chemical sciences are dominated by the deterministic interpretation. Scientific medicine has generally been assigned to the area of functional biology and thence to the physico-chemical sciences. In as much as diseases are alterations of physiological processes, they share the ontological status of the latter. However, many diseases cannot be accommodated within a deterministic interpretation. First, many diseases are initiated by errors in transmission of information and followed by natural selection. These diseases, such as tumoural transformations and autoimmune processes, behave as (...)
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  35. Albert Bachem (1960). Beyond Matter and Mind. New York, Vantage Press.
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  36. Francis Bailly, Françoise Gaill & Rémy Mosseri (1993). Orgons Andbiolons in Theoretical Biology: Phenomenological Analysis and Quantum Analogies. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2):3-11.
    In this paper we define two types of formal biological entities corresponding to biological levels of organization, thebiolons and theorgons, the properties of which are phenomenologically analyzed and discussed.We examine then, in a rather speculative manner, how some characteristics of these entities may suggest analogies between properties of biological systems and some special features of quantum systems.
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  37. Anthony J. Baines (1987). Molecules of the Cytoskeleton. The Cytoskeleton: An Introductory Survey. 1986. By M. SCHLIWA. Springer‐Verlag. DM172. Pp. 326. [REVIEW] Bioessays 6 (4):190-190.
  38. Mario Bajkuša (2004). Stephen Jay Gould, Čovjek po mjeri. Prolegomena 3 (1):97-100.
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  39. A. Baker (2007). Occam's Razor in Science: A Case Study From Biogeography. Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):193-215.
  40. Beth Baker (2000). Recruiting Minorities to the Biological Sciences Biologists Are Trying a Range of Approaches to Diversify Their Field. BioScience 50 (3):191-195.
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  41. Stanley Baker (1978). Collection of Autobiographies Discovery Processes in Modern Biology W. R. Klemm. BioScience 28 (1):52-52.
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  42. Julie A. Baldwin, Diane Ebert-May & Dennis J. Burns (1999). The Development of a College Biology Self-Efficacy Instrument for Nonmajors. Science Education 83 (4):397-408.
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  43. František Baluška (2012). Rethinking Origins of Multicellularity: Convergent Evolution of Epithelia in Plants. Bioessays 34 (12):1085-1085.
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  44. Big Bang (2003). Biology 78, 79; Biological Complexity 73, 133; Function 88, 266" Blind Watchmaker" Hypothesis 133 Buddhism 204 Cambridge Platonists 81, 88. [REVIEW] In Paul K. Moser & Paul Copan (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Routledge. 78--80.
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  45. Marcello Barbieri (2008). Life Is Semiosis. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 4 (1-2):29-52.
    The idea that life is based on signs and codes, i.e., that “Life is semiosis”, has been strongly suggested by the discovery of the genetic code, but so far it has made little impact, and is largely regarded as philosophy rather than science. The main reason for this is that there are at least three basic concepts in modern biology that keep semiosis squarely out of organic life. The first is the classical model that describes the cell as a biological (...)
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  46. Jonathan Bard (2000). Popper's Philosophy of Science: A Practical Tool for the Working Biologist. Bioessays 22 (2):205.
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  47. Jonathan Bard (1994). How Should We Train PhD Students in the Biosciences? Bioessays 16 (8):529-530.
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  48. Jonathan Bard (1990). What the Books Say: The Fifth Day of Creation. Bioessays 12 (6):303-306.
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  49. Jonathan B. L. Bard (1996). Do Universities Do Too Much Research? Bioessays 18 (1):1-2.
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  50. H. Barker (1928). DRIESCH, H. -Die Sittliche Tat. [REVIEW] Mind 37:366.
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