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  1. Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert (2008). Knowledge‐Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology. Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
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  2. Lonnie W. Aarssen (2010). Darwinism and Meaning. Biological Theory 5 (4):296-311.
    Darwinism presents a paradox. It discredits the notion that one’s life has any intrinsic meaning, yet it predicts that we are designed by Darwinian natural selection to generally insist that it must—and so necessarily designed to misunderstand and doubt Darwinism. The implications of this paradox are explored here, including the question of where then does the Darwinist find meaning in life? The main source, it is proposed, is from cognitive domains for meaning inherited from sentient ancestors—domains that reveal our evolved (...)
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  3. Stephen T. Abedon (2013). Are Archaeons Incapable of Being Parasites or Have We Simply Failed to Notice? Bioessays 35 (6):501-501.
  4. Margo I. Adler & Russell Bonduriansky (forthcoming). Why Do the Well-Fed Appear to Die Young? Bioessays:n/a-n/a.
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  5. Ramsey Affifi (forthcoming). Generativity in Biology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-14.
    The behavior of an organism, according to Merleau-Ponty, lays out a milieu through which significant phenomena of varying degrees of optimality elicit adjustment. This leads to the dialectical co-emergence of milieu and aptitude that is both the product and the condition of life. What is present as a norm soliciting optimization is species-specific, but it also depends on the needs of the organism and its prior experience. Although a rich entry point into biological phenomenology, Merleau-Ponty’s work does not adequately describe (...)
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  6. Victoria N. Alexander (2011). Essential Readings in Biosemiotics: Anthology and Commentary – By Donald Favareau. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (4):412-414.
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  7. Colin Allen (2002). Book Revie. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):695-702.
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  8. Linda Amos (2004). Book Review: Essential Cell Biology Volume 1: Cell Structure and Volume 2: Cell Function, A Practical Approach. [REVIEW] Bioessays 26 (11):1255-1256.
  9. Ron Amundson (2002). Book Revie. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):679-694.
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  10. Søren S. L. Andersen (1999). Balanced Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics During the Cell Cycle: A Contemporary View. Bioessays 21 (1):53-60.
  11. Mike Appleby (1997). Darwin Was My Grandmother. Philosophy Now 18:19-21.
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  12. Gilbert Argoud & Jean-Yves Guillaumin (1999). Edited volumes-sciences exactes et sciences appliquees a alexandrie. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):245-245.
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  13. A. M. Arias (2002). The Tangled Field By Nathaniel C. Comfort. Bioessays 24 (5):476-478.
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  14. Michael H. Arnold, Joseph H. Hulse & F. W. G. Baker (1988). Nayudamma Memorial Symposium – Madras, India, 15–17 December 1986. Bioessays 8 (4):130-132.
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  15. Jon Arrizabalaga (2005). History of Disease and the Longue Durée. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (1):41 - 56.
    This paper summarizes Grmek's theoretical contribution to history of disease and explores to what extent the longue durée could still be a useful concept in order to better understand past perceptions of, and reactions to, diseases. The case of the medical responses to epidemic disease in pre-industrial Europe is synthetically expounded in order to illustrate this issue.
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  16. Marc Artiga (2014). Signaling Without Cooperation. Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):357-378.
    Ethological theories usually attribute semantic content to animal signals. To account for this fact, many biologists and philosophers appeal to some version of teleosemantics. However, this picture has recently came under attack: while mainstream teleosemantics assumes that representational systems must cooperate, some biologists and philosophers argue that in certain cases signaling can evolve within systems lacking common interest. In this paper I defend the standard view from this objection.
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  17. David J. Asai (1994). Loading the Dice. Designing Antibodies (1993). By RUTH D. MAYFORTH. Academic Press, San Diego. Viii+207pp. $49.95, $42.50.ISBN 0‐12‐48 1025‐X. [REVIEW] Bioessays 16 (6):447-448.
  18. Giorgio A. Ascoli (2007). Biomedical Research Funding: When the Game Gets Tough, Winners Start to Play. Bioessays 29 (9):933-936.
  19. Robin Attfield (2012). Synthetic Biology, Deontology and Synthetic Bioethics. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):29 - 32.
    Paul Thompson argues that current synthetic biology amounts to synthetic genomics, comprising a ?platform? technology, and that Christopher Preston's deontological objections based on its supposed rejection of the historical process of evolution miscarry. This makes it surprising that Thompson's normative ethic consists in a deontological appeal to Kantian duties of imperfect obligation. Construed as obligations subject to choice, such constraints risk being excessively malleable where the ethical objections to deployment of this technology concern land rights and/or exploitation. Thompson's advocacy of (...)
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  20. Dominique Aubel & Martin Fussenegger (2010). Mammalian Synthetic Biology – From Tools to Therapies. Bioessays 32 (4):332-345.
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  21. Hellmut G. Augustin, Detlef H. Kozian & Robert C. Johnson (1994). Differentiation of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of the Constitutive and Activated Endothelial Cell Phenotypes. Bioessays 16 (12):901-906.
  22. Francisco J. Ayala (1982). Beyond Darwinism? The Challenge of Macroevolution to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:275 - 291.
    The theory of punctuated equilibrium has been proposed as a challenge to the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory. Two important issues are raised. The first is scientific: whether morphological change as observed in the paleontological record is essentially always associated with speciation events. This paper argues that there is at present no empirical support for this claim: the alleged evidence is based on a definitional fallacy. The second issue is epistemological: whether macroevolution is an autonomous field of study, independent from (...)
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  23. Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.) (2010). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..
    This collection of specially commissioned essays puts top scholars head to head to debate the central issues in the lively and fast growing field of philosophy ...
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  24. Giovanni Felice Azzone (1998). The Cement of Medical Thought. Evolutionary Emergence and Downward Causation. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):163 - 187.
    The aetio-pathogenetic sequences and the physio-pathological patterns of diabetes, emphysema, cholera, circulatory shock and thrombosis have been analysed with respect to an evolutionary interpretation. The diseases, although reflecting alterations of processes that can always be described in physico-chemical language, occur only at the level of biological systems which reflects the decodification of genomic project: the teleonomic projects that have been developed during evolution. The concepts of evolutionary emergence and of downward causation have been used to discuss the relationship between the (...)
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  25. Francis Bailly, Françoise Gaill & Rémy Mosseri (1993). Orgons Andbiolons in Theoretical Biology: Phenomenological Analysis and Quantum Analogies. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2).
    In this paper we define two types of formal biological entities corresponding to biological levels of organization, thebiolons and theorgons, the properties of which are phenomenologically analyzed and discussed.We examine then, in a rather speculative manner, how some characteristics of these entities may suggest analogies between properties of biological systems and some special features of quantum systems.
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  26. Anthony J. Baines (1987). Molecules of the Cytoskeleton. The Cytoskeleton: An Introductory Survey. 1986. By M. SCHLIWA. Springer‐Verlag. DM172. Pp. 326. [REVIEW] Bioessays 6 (4):190-190.
  27. A. Baker (2007). Occam's Razor in Science: A Case Study From Biogeography. Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):193-215.
  28. František Baluška (2012). Rethinking Origins of Multicellularity: Convergent Evolution of Epithelia in Plants. Bioessays 34 (12):1085-1085.
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  29. Jonathan Bard (2000). Popper's Philosophy of Science: A Practical Tool for the Working Biologist. Bioessays 22 (2):205.
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  30. Jonathan Bard (1994). How Should We Train PhD Students in the Biosciences? Bioessays 16 (8):529-530.
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  31. Jonathan Bard (1990). What the Books Say: The Fifth Day of Creation. Bioessays 12 (6):303-306.
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  32. Jonathan B. L. Bard (1996). Do Universities Do Too Much Research? Bioessays 18 (1):1-2.
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  33. Michael S. Barker & Paul G. Wolf (2010). Unfurling Fern Biology in the Genomics Age. Bioscience 60 (3):177-185.
    Twenty-first century technology is addressing many of the questions posed by 20th-century biology. Although the new approaches, especially those involving genomic data and bioinformatic tools, were first applied to model organisms, they are now stretching across the tree of life. Here, we review some recent revelations in the ferns. We first examine how DNA sequence data have contributed to our understanding of fern phylogeny. We then address evolution of the fern plastid genome, including reports of high levels of RNA editing. (...)
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  34. C. J. Barnard (2011). Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects. Pearson.
  35. Louise Barrett (1996). Believe It or Not. Human Sperm Competition: Copulation, Masturbation and Infidelity (1995). R. Robin Baker and Mark A. Bellis. Chapman and Hall. Pp. Xvi+353. Price £45. ISBN 0‐412‐36920‐6. [REVIEW] Bioessays 18 (4):338-339.
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  36. Lindsay Bashford (1987). Exocytosis: Post‐Receptor Events in Secretory Cells. Bioessays 7 (3):133-134.
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  37. Christopher Bazinet (2004). Endosymbiotic Origins of Sex. Bioessays 26 (5):558-566.
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  38. John Beatty (1990). The Structure of Biological Science. Biology and Philosophy 5 (197).
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  39. William Bechtel & Adele Abrahamsen, Complex Biological Mechanisms: Cyclic, Oscillatory, and Autonomous.
    The mechanistic perspective has dominated biological disciplines such as biochemistry, physiology, cell and molecular biology, and neuroscience, especially during the 20th century. The primary strategy is reductionist: organisms are to be decomposed into component parts and operations at multiple levels. Researchers adopting this perspective have generated an enormous body of information about the mechanisms of life at scales ranging from the whole organism down to genetic and other molecular operations.
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  40. William Bechtel & Adele A. Abrahamsen (2013). Thinking Dynamically About Biological Mechanisms: Networks of Coupled Oscillators. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 18 (4):707-723.
    Explaining the complex dynamics exhibited in many biological mechanisms requires extending the recent philosophical treatment of mechanisms that emphasizes sequences of operations. To understand how nonsequentially organized mechanisms will behave, scientists often advance what we call dynamic mechanistic explanations. These begin with a decomposition of the mechanism into component parts and operations, using a variety of laboratory-based strategies. Crucially, the mechanism is then recomposed by means of computational models in which variables or terms in differential equations correspond to properties of (...)
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  41. L. G. M. Baas Becking (1946). Notes on the Determined and the Undetermined in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 8 (1-2).
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  42. L. G. M. Baas Becking & E. F. Drion (1936). On the Origin of Frequency Distributions in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 1 (3).
  43. Mark Bedau, 1 Arti Cial Life's Working Hypothesis.
    Arti cial life studies computer models of the processes characteristic of complex adaptive systems|processes like self-organization, self-reproduction, adaptation, and evolution. Complex adaptive systems take many forms, each of which di ers from the others in myriad ways. By abstracting away from the diverse details, arti cial life hopes to reveal fundamental principles governing broad classes of complex adaptive systems. This hope rests on arti cial life's working hypoth-.
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  44. Mark A. Bedau (2013). Weak Emergence Drives the Science, Epistemology, and Metaphysics of Synthetic Biology. Biological Theory 8 (4):334-345.
    Top-down synthetic biology makes partly synthetic cells by redesigning simple natural forms of life, and bottom-up synthetic biology aims to make fully synthetic cells using only entirely nonliving components. Within synthetic biology the notions of complexity and emergence are quite controversial, but the imprecision of key notions makes the discussion inconclusive. I employ a precise notion of weak emergent property, which is a robust characteristic of the behavior of complex bottom-up causal webs, where a complex causal web is one that (...)
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  45. Marc Bekoff (1994). But is It Research? What Price Interdisciplinary Interests? Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):249-252.
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  46. Marcia P. Belvin & Jerry C. P. Yin (1997). Drosophila Learning and Memory: Recent Progress and New Approaches. Bioessays 19 (12):1083-1089.
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  47. A. J. Bendich (1987). Problems and Paradigms. Bioessays 6:279-282.
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  48. Steven A. Benner (2013). Synthesis as a Route to Knowledge. Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  49. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent (2009). Synthetic Biology As a Replica of Synthetic Chemistry? Uses and Misuses of History. Biological Theory 4 (4):314-318.
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  50. Michael J. Benton (1999). Reply to Easteal. Bioessays 21 (12):1059-1059.
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