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Philosophy of Biology

Edited by John Wilkins (University of Sydney, University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Justin Bzovy (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. added 2014-04-18
    Neil Tennant (forthcoming). The Logical Structure of Evolutionary Explanation and Prediction: Darwinism's Fundamental Schema. Biology and Philosophy:1-45.
    We present a logically detailed case-study of Darwinian evolutionary explanation. Special features of Darwin’s explanatory schema made it an unusual theoretical breakthrough, from the point of view of the philosophy of science. The schema employs no theoretical terms, and puts forward no theoretical hypotheses. Instead, it uses three observational generalizations—Variability, Heritability and Differential Reproduction—along with an innocuous assumption of Causal Efficacy, to derive Adaptive Evolution as a necessary consequence. Adaptive Evolution in turn, with one assumption of scale (‘Deep Time’), implies (...)
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  2. added 2014-04-16
    Maximiliano Martinez & Maurizio Esposito (2014). Multilevel Causation and the Extended Synthesis. Biological Theory 9.
    In this article we argue that the classical—linear and bottom-up directed—models of causation in biology, and the ‘‘proximate/ultimate’’ dichotomy, are inappropriate to capture the complexity inherent to biological processes. We introduce a new notion of ‘‘multilevel causation’’ where old dichotomies such as proximate/ultimate and bottom-up/ top-down are reinterpreted within a multilevel, web-like, approach. In briefly reviewing some recent work on complexity, EvoDevo, carcinogenesis, autocatalysis, comparative genomics, animal regeneration, phenotypic plasticity, and niche construction, we will argue that such reinterpretation is a (...)
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  3. added 2014-04-15
    Gregg Caruso (2014). Science and Religion: 5 Questions. Automatic Press/VIP.
    Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? Is Intelligent Design a scientific theory? How do the various faith traditions view the relationship between science and religion? What, if any, are the limits of scientific explanation? What are the most important open questions, problems, or (...)
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  4. added 2014-04-14
    Kristin Andrews & Brian Huss (forthcoming). Anthropomorphism, Anthropectomy, and the Null Hypothesis. Biology and Philosophy:1-19.
    We examine the claim that the methodology of psychology leads to a bias in animal cognition research against attributing “anthropomorphic” properties to animals (Sober in Thinking with animals: new perspectives on anthropomorphism. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 85–99, 2005; de Waal in Philos Top 27:225–280, 1999). This charge is examined in light of a debate on the role of folk psychology between primatologists who emphasize similarities between humans and other apes, and those who emphasize differences. We argue that while (...)
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  5. added 2014-04-14
    Kim Wallen & Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2011). Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse. Hormones and Behavior 59:780-792.
    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly (...)
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  6. added 2014-04-14
    Stephen Jay Gould & Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1999). Individuality and Adaptation Across Levels of Selection: How Shall We Name and Generalize the Unit of Darwinism? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21):11904-09.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a piece of (...)
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  7. added 2014-04-14
    the Biology Group & Gender Study (1988). The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology. Hypatia 3 (1):61-76.
  8. added 2014-04-12
    Étienne Bimbenet (forthcoming). The Fallacy of Human Animality in Advance. Environmental Philosophy.
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  9. added 2014-04-11
    H. Siepel (forthcoming). Objective Selection of Indicator Species for Nature Management. Symposium.
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  10. added 2014-04-11
    Thomas C. Scott-Phillips, Kevin N. Laland, David M. Shuker, Thomas E. Dickins & Stuart A. West, The Niche Construction Perspective: A Critical Appraisal.
    Niche construction refers to the activities of organisms that bring about changes in their environments, many of which are evolutionarily and ecologically consequential. Advocates of niche construction theory (NCT) believe that standard evolutionary theory fails to recognize the full importance of niche construction, and consequently propose a novel view of evolution, in which niche construction and its legacy over time (ecological inheritance) are described as evolutionary processes, equivalent in importance to natural selection. Here, we subject NCT to critical evaluation, in (...)
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  11. added 2014-04-11
    Ala Samarapungavan (2011). Ontological Assumptions About Species and Their Influence on Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Biology. In Roger S. Taylor & Michel Ferrari (eds.), Epistemology and Science Education: Understanding the Evolution Vs. Routledge. 77--94.
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  12. added 2014-04-11
    Kevin N. Laland (2009). Niche Construction, Human Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Psychology. In Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oup Oxford.
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  13. added 2014-04-11
    Jennifer A. Lau (2008). Beyond the Ecological: Biological Invasions Alter Natural Selection on a Native Plant Species. In Carolyn Merchant (ed.), Ecology. Humanity Books. 89--4.
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  14. added 2014-04-11
    R. J. Van Aarde, S. Ferreira, T. Jackson, B. Page, Y. De Beer, K. Gough, R. Guldemond, J. Junker, P. Olivier & T. Ott (2008). Elephant Population Biology and Ecology. In R. J. Scholes & K. G. Mennell (eds.), Elephant Management: A Scientific Assessment for South Africa. Wits University Press.
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  15. added 2014-04-11
    Bryson Brown (2004). David N. Stamos, The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 24 (5):371-374.
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  16. added 2014-04-11
    David N. Stamos (2003). The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology. Lexington Books.
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  17. added 2014-04-11
    P. Dee Boersma, Peter Kareiva, William F. Fagan, J. Alan Clark & Jonathan M. Hoekstra (2001). How Good Are Endangered Species Recovery Plans? The Effectiveness of Recovery Plans for Endangered Species Can Be Improved Through Incorporation of Dynamic, Explicit Science in the Recovery Process, Such as Strongly Linking Species' Biology to Recovery Criteria. Bioscience 51 (8):643-649.
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  18. added 2014-04-11
    A. Townsend Peterson & David A. Vieglais (2001). Predicting Species Invasions Using Ecological Niche Modeling: New Approaches From Bioinformatics Attack a Pressing Problem A New Approach to Ecological Niche Modeling, Based on New Tools Drawn From Biodiversity Informatics, is Applied to the Challenge of Predicting Potential Species' Invasions. Bioscience 51 (5):363-371.
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  19. added 2014-04-11
    Heltne Paul (1998). Basic Concepts of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Hastings Center Report 28 (6).
  20. added 2014-04-11
    Börje Ekstig (1994). Condensation of Developmental Stages and Evolution Shortening of Developmental Stages is a Direct Response to Natural Selection, Independent of Environmental Changes. Bioscience 44 (3):158-164.
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  21. added 2014-04-11
    Bruce S. Lieberman (1993). Development and Evolution Evolutionary Developmental Biology B. K. Hall. Bioscience 43 (4):252-253.
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  22. added 2014-04-11
    Philip D. Gingerich (1993). The Nature of Species The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species Marc Ereshefsky. Bioscience 43 (3):179-180.
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  23. added 2014-04-11
    Marvalee H. Wake (1992). Historical Ecology and Evolution Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior: A Research Program in Comparative Biology Daniel R. Brooks Deborah A. McLennan. Bioscience 42 (2):138-140.
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  24. added 2014-04-11
    Norman Arnheim, Tom White & William E. Rainey (1990). The Virtually Unlimited Uses of PCR in Evolutionary Biology, Zoology, Botany, Animal Behavior, Conservation Biology, Environmental Science, and Ecology. Bioscience 4:174-182.
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  25. added 2014-04-11
    Malcolm Nicolson (1988). Modeling Nature. Episodes in the History of Population Ecology, by Sharon E. Kingsland; The Background of Ecology: Concept and Theory, by Robert P. McIntosh; Saving the Prairies. The Life Cycle of the Founding School of American Plant Ecology 1895-1955, by Ronald C. Tobey; and Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, by Donald Worster. [REVIEW] History of Science 26:183-200.
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  26. added 2014-04-11
    Patrick Colgan (1986). Animal Population Biology Behavioural Ecology: Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour R. M. Sibly R. M. Smith. Bioscience 36 (10):682-683.
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  27. added 2014-04-11
    Philip N. Lehner (1986). Ecology for Poets Ecology and Field Biology Roger J. Lederer. Bioscience 36 (3):196-197.
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  28. added 2014-04-11
    Francisco J. Ayala (1981). Integrating Population Genetics/Ecology Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: An Introduction Jonathan Roughgarden. Bioscience 31 (1):69-69.
  29. added 2014-04-11
    T. C. Foin & S. K. Jain (1977). Ecosystems Analysis and Population Biology: Lessons for the Development of Community Ecology. Bioscience 27 (8):532-538.
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  30. added 2014-04-11
    George R. Carmody (1970). Population Genetics Evolution of the Genetics of Populations, Vol. 2. The Theory of Gene Frequencies S. Wright. Bioscience 20 (22):1226-1227.
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  31. added 2014-04-11
    Morris Goodman (1965). Cladogenesis, Which Means Phylogenetic Branching, is the Term Used to Describe the Broad Sweep of the Multiplication and Diverging Adaptive Special-Izations of Species. Anagenesis, Which Means Progressive or" Upward" Evolution, is a Partic-Ular Kind of Phyletic Change, Epitomized by the Evolutionary Development Of. In. In Karl W. Linsenmann (ed.), Proceedings. St. Louis, Lutheran Academy for Scholarship. 70.
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  32. added 2014-04-09
    Ss Schweber (1989). Herschel, John and Darwin, Charles-a Study in Parallel Lives. Journal of the History of Biology 22 (1):1-71.
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  33. added 2014-04-08
    Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2006). Response to Puts and Dawood's 'The Evolution of Female Orgasm: Adaptation or Byproduct?'--Been There. Twin Studies and Human Genetics 9 (4).
  34. added 2014-04-08
    Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2002). Evolutionary Psychology: A View From Evolutionary Biology. Psychological Inquiry 13 (2).
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  35. added 2014-04-08
    Ed Rudolph (1990). Sprague, Isaac, Delineator and Naturalist. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (1):91-126.
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  36. added 2014-04-08
    Jf Crow (1990). Wright, Sewall Place in 20th-Century Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (1):57-89.
  37. added 2014-04-08
    Holmes Rolston Iii (1990). Biology and Philosophy in Yellowstone. Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):241-258.
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  38. added 2014-04-08
    F. Smith (1990). Darwin, Charles Ill Health. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (3):443-459.
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  39. added 2014-04-08
    Scott M. Lanyon & Matthew H. Nitecki (1990). Spring Systematics Symposium Field Museum of Natural History Saturday, May 12, 1990 Evolutionary Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 5 (126).
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  40. added 2014-04-08
    Eric T. Juengst (1990). Social and Conceptual Issues in Human Genetics. Biology and Philosophy 5 (509).
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  41. added 2014-04-08
    John Beatty (1990). The Structure of Biological Science. Biology and Philosophy 5 (197).
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  42. added 2014-04-08
    S. Bocking (1990). Forbes, Stephen, Reighard, Jacob and the Emergence of Aquatic Ecology in the Great-Lakes Region. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (3):461-498.
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  43. added 2014-04-07
    Jordan Bartol (forthcoming). Biochemical Kinds. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Chemical kinds (e.g. gold) are generally treated as having timelessly fixed identities. Biological kinds (e.g. goldfinches) are generally treated as evolved and/or evolving entities. So what kind of kind is a biochemical kind? This paper defends the thesis that biochemical molecules are clustered chemical kinds, some of which–namely, evolutionarily conserved units–are also biological kinds.On this thesis, a number of difficulties that have recently occupied philosophers concerned with proteins and kinds are shown to be resolved or dissolved.
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  44. added 2014-04-07
    Alfred I. Tauber & Elias L. Khalil (1994). Organism and the Origins of Self. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.
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  45. added 2014-04-07
    Cor Van Der Weele (1993). Explaining Embryological Development: Should Integration Be the Goal? Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):385-397.
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  46. added 2014-04-07
    A. Wilkins (1987). Evolution-No Old Synthesis and No New Paradigm-Reply. Bioessays 6 (4):187-188.
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  47. added 2014-04-07
    B. Goodwin (1985). What Are the Causes of Morphology. Bioessays 5:32-36.
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  48. added 2014-04-06
    Roger Sansom (forthcoming). What Are the Implications of Evolvable Molecules? Biology and Philosophy:1-8.
    James Shapiro’s view of evolution is inspired by looking at the molecular mechanisms of mutation. Finding these systems to be intelligent and the mutations non-gradual, Shapiro concludes that neither the role of DNA in development, nor and the role of natural selection in evolution are what we thought them to be. The cases discussed are interesting and may require some modification of theory in biology, but this reviewer finds many of Shapiro’s conclusions unwarranted.
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  49. added 2014-04-06
    Alain Touwaide (1994). Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms, Sections III-IV. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (1):155.
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  50. added 2014-04-06
    M. Ruse (1994). But is It Research-What Price Interdisciplinary Interests-Response. Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):252-252.
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1 — 50 / 606