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  1. Ferdinando Abbri (1996). Chemical Lectures of HT Scheffer. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):135-148.
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  2. Peter Achinstein (1994). Jean Perrin and Molecular Reality. Perspectives on Science 2:396-427.
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  3. G. Adomian (1991). An Analytical Solution of the Stochastic Navier-Stokes System. Foundations of Physics 21 (7):831-843.
    This paper, using the author's decomposition method and recent generalizations, presents algorithms for an analytic solution of the stochastic Navier-Stokes system without linearization, perturbation, discretization, or restrictive assumptions on the nature of stochasticity. The pressure, forces, velocities, and initial/boundary conditions can be stochastic processes and are not limited to white noise. Solutions obtained are physically realistic because of the avoidance of assumptions made purely for mathematical tractability by usual methods. Certain extensions and further generalizations of the decomposition method have provided (...)
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  4. F. M. Akeroyd, D. Baird, T. Benfey, P. Duhem, R. B. King, J. Kovac, J. G. Mcevoy, J. Morrell, R. K. Nesbet & J. L. Ramsey (2000). Authors Index Volume 2. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (265).
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  5. F. Michael Akeroyd (2008). Mechanistic Explanation Versus Deductive-Nomological Explanation. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):39-48.
    This paper discusses the important paper by Paul Thagard on the pathway version of mechanistic explanation that is currently used in chemical explanation. The author claims that this method of explanation has a respectable pedigree and can be traced back to the Chemical Revolution in the arguments used by the Lavoisier School in their theoretical duels with Richard Kirwan, the proponent of a revised phlogistonian theory. Kirwan believed that complex chemical reactions could be explained by recourse to affinity tables that (...)
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  6. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). Reply to Psarros: Popper and Chemistry. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 31 (1):127-131.
    In this article I reply to criticism of my published work by N. Psarros (Journal for the General Philosophy of Science 28: 297–305,1997). I show that I had already answered the first criticism in my published work and not overlooked his supposed refutation. However I offer a plausible argument which he could have used to strengthen his claim. Psarros cites my work on Hopkins in his opening paragraph, but then makes no further reference to it in the text. I indicated (...)
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  7. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). Why Was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry? Hyle 6 (2):161 - 173.
    This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time when the (...)
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  8. F. Michael Akeroyd (1997). Conceptual Aspects of Theory Appraisal: Some Biochemical Examples. Hyle 3 (1):95 - 102.
    This paper considers papers on conceptual analysis by Laudan (1981) and Whitt (1989) and relates them to three biochemical episodes: (1) the modern 'biochemical explanation' of acupuncture; (2) the chemio-osmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation; (3) the theory of the complete digestion of proteins in the gut. The advantages of including philosophical debate in chemical/biochemical undergraduate courses is then discussed.
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  9. Michael Akeroyd (2004). Predictions, Retrodictions and Chemistry: A 20th Century Example. Studia Philosophica 4:26.
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  10. Timothy L. Alborn (1989). Negotiating Notation: Chemical Symbols and British Society, 1831–1835. Annals of Science 46 (5):437-460.
    One of the central debates among British chemists during the 1830s concerned the use of symbols to represent elements and compounds. Chemists such as Edward Turner, who desired to use symbolic notation mainly for practical reasons, eventually succeeded in fending off metaphysical objections to their approach. These objections were voiced both by the philosopher William Whewell, who wished to subordinate the chemists' practical aims to the rigid standard of algebra, and by John Dalton, whose hidebound opposition to abbreviated notation symbolized (...)
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  11. Peter Atkins (2004). Ponderable Matter: Explanation in Chemistry. In John Cornwell (ed.), Explanations: Styles of Explanation in Science. Oxford University Press. 111.
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  12. Minh-Thu Dinh Audouin (2013). The New Challenges of Current Chemical Practices. In Jean-Pierre Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies, and Concepts. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
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  13. Richard F. W. Bader & Chérif F. Matta (2013). Atoms in Molecules as Non-Overlapping, Bounded, Space-Filling Open Quantum Systems. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):253-276.
    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) uses physics to define an atom and its contribution to observable properties in a given system. It does so using the electron density and its flow in a magnetic field, the current density. These are the two fields that Schrödinger said should be used to explain and understand the properties of matter. It is the purpose of this paper to show how QTAIM bridges the conceptual gulf that separates the observations of chemistry (...)
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  14. Davis Baird (1993). Analytical Chemistry and the 'Big' Scientific Instrumentation Revolution. Annals of Science 50 (3):267-290.
    By a close examination of changes in analytical chemistry between the years 1920 and 1950, I document the case that natural science has undergone and continues to undergo a major revolution. The central feature of this transformation is the rise in importance of scientific instrumentation. Prior to 1920, analytical chemists determined the chemical constitution of some unknown by treating it with a series of known compounds and observing the kind of reactions it underwent. After 1950, analytical chemists determined the chemical (...)
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  15. Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2005). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 2. Hyle 11 (1):3 - 4.
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  16. Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 1. Hyle 10 (2):63 - 64.
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  17. Stefania Bandini, Alessandro Mosca & Matteo Palmonari (2007). Model-Based Chemical Compound Formulation. In L. Magnani & P. Li (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science, Technology, and Medicine. Springer. 413--430.
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  18. Aparajito Basu (2006). Chemical Research in India (1876–1918). Annals of Science 52 (6):591-600.
    The first Indian institution for scientific research was founded in 1876. The period 1876–1918 was a time of gestation for Indian chemistry, in which pure research gradually replaced the need-based, result-oriented research formerly promoted by the British regime. This formative period in Indian chemistry came to an end after the First World War and was succeeded by a rapid expansion of chemical research. The educational and political background against which these changes took place, and the influence of European chemistry on (...)
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  19. Juan Bautista Bengoetxea, Oliver Todt & José Luis Luján (2014). Similarity and Representation in Chemical Knowledge Practices. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):215-233.
    This paper argues for the theoretical and practical validity of similarity as a useful epistemological tool in scientific knowledge generation, specifically in chemistry. Classical analyses of similarity in philosophy of science do not account for the concept’s practical significance in scientific activities. We recur to examples from chemistry to counter the claim of authors like Quine or Goodman to the effect that similarity must be excluded from scientific practices . In conclusion we argue that more recent conceptualizations of the notion (...)
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  20. Jutta Berger (1997). Chemische Mechanik Und Kinetik: Die Bedeutung der Mechanischen Wärmetheorie Für Die Theorie Chemischer Reaktionen. Annals of Science 54 (6):567-584.
    Summary The first systematic studies on the velocity of chemical reactions (now called reaction rates) were published in the 1850s and 1860s. Inquiring about the course of chemical change, their authors established empirical equations on the basis of their measurement results. But these laws, which represented reaction velocities as proportional to the actual concentration of the reagents, could not be given a physical foundation. The chemists themselves regarded their propositions as mere ad hoc hypotheses. In 1867 Leopold Pfaundler formulated a (...)
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  21. S. Bergia, F. Cannata, A. Cornia & R. Livi (1980). On the Actual Measurability of the Density Matrix of a Decaying System by Means of Measurements on the Decay Products. Foundations of Physics 10 (9-10):723-730.
    The density matrix ρ describing a decaying system can be expressed in terms of correlations among observables belonging to the subsystems. Due to this structure and to the difficulties in measuring higher rank tensors of decay products for a single decay event, it is found that the mean value of ρ cannot be determined, in general, from measurements on the decay products. We also discuss the consequences of this conclusion as far as tests of quantum mechanics are concerned.
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  22. José Ramón Bertomeu Sánchez (2004). Book Review: Lavoisier in Italia. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 6 (2):191-195.
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  23. Nalini Bhushan (2004). Introduction. Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):3-9.
  24. John E. Bloor & W. H. Eugen Schwarz (2006). Book Review. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):293-303.
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  25. Geoffrey Blumenthal (2013). Kuhn and the Chemical Revolution: A Re-Assessment. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):93-101.
    A recent paper by Hoyningen-Huene argues that the Chemical Revolution is an excellent example of the success of Kuhn’s theory. This paper gives a succinct account of some counter-arguments and briefly refers to some further existing counter-arguments. While Kuhn’s theory does have a small number of more or less successful elements, it has been widely recognised that in general Kuhn’s theory is a “preformed and relatively inflexible framework” (1962, p. 24) which does not fit particular historical examples well; this paper (...)
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  26. Victor Boantza & Ofer Gal (2011). The ‘Absolute Existence’ of Phlogiston: The Losing Party's Point of View. British Journal for the History of Science 44 (3):317-342.
    Long after its alleged demise, phlogiston was still presented, discussed and defended by leading chemists. Even some of the leading proponents of the new chemistry admitted its ‘absolute existence’. We demonstrate that what was defended under the title ‘phlogiston’ was no longer a particular hypothesis about combustion and respiration. Rather, it was a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions and the empirical practices associated with them. Lavoisier's gravimetric reduction, in the eyes of the phlogistians, annihilated the autonomy of chemistry together (...)
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  27. Jan C. A. Boeyens (forthcoming). Wave-Mechanical Model for Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry:1-16.
    The strength and defects of wave mechanics as a theory of chemistry are critically examined. Without the secondary assumption of wave–particle duality, the seminal equation describes matter waves and leaves the concept of point particles undefined. To bring the formalism into line with the theory of special relativity, it is shown to require reformulation in hypercomplex algebra that imparts a new meaning to electron spin as a holistic spinor, eliminating serious current misconceptions in the process. Reformulation in the curved space–time (...)
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  28. Paul A. Bogaard (1978). The Limitations of Physics as a Chemical Reducing Agent. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:345 - 356.
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  29. Conal Boyce (2014). Using Logic to Define the Aufbau–Hund–Pauli Relation: A Guide to Teaching Orbitals as a Single, Natural, Unfragmented Rule-Set. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):93-106.
    The general chemistry curriculum includes a prelude that consumes nearly all of the first semester and occupies the first third of the typical textbook. This necessary prelude to the main event is comparable in scope to precalculus though not broken out as a formal ‘prechemistry’ course. Atomic orbitals account for much of this prelude-to-chemistry. By tradition, orbital theory is conveyed to the student in three disjunct pieces, presented in the following illogical order: the Pauli principle, the Aufbau principle, and Hund’s (...)
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  30. John Bradley (1955). On the Operational Interpretation of Classical Chemistry. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 6 (21):32-42.
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  31. J. Brakel (1986). The Chemistry of Substances and the Philosophy of Mass Terms. Synthese 69 (3):291 - 324.
  32. Per Bro (1997). Chemical Reaction Automata. Complexity 2 (3):38-44.
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  33. Wh Brock (1990). Essays on Chemical Ideas. History of Science 30 (90):439-442.
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  34. Brown, Thomas Eisner & Robert H. Whittaker (1970). Allomones and Kairomones: Transspecific Chemical Messengers. BioScience 20 (1):21-22.
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  35. Otávio Bueno (2004). The Drexler-Smalley Debate on Nanotechnology: Incommensurability at Work? Hyle 10 (2):83 - 98.
    In a recent debate, Eric Drexler and Richard Smalley have discussed the chemical and physical possibility of constructing molecular assemblers - devices that guide chemical reactions by placing, with atomic precision, reactive molecules. Drexler insisted on the mechanical feasibility of such assemblers, whereas Smalley resisted the idea that such devices could be chemically constructed, because we do not have the required control. Underlying the debate, there are differences regarding the appropriate goals, methods, and theories of nanotechnology, and the appropriate way (...)
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  36. John W. Burbidge (2002). Chemism and Chemistry. The Owl of Minerva 34 (1):3-17.
    In order to answer the debate whether Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature is just an extension of his logic (Halper and Winfield) or combines thought with its other (Maker), this paper considers what Hegel writes about chemism (in the logic) and about chemical process (in the philosophy of nature). The logical argument can be constructed without reference to experience, from paradoxes that emerge within an original concept. In the philosophy of nature, however, an initial concept is analyzed, but its instantiation reflects (...)
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  37. Julia R. Bursten (2012). Pauling's Defence of Bent-Equivalent Bonds: A View of Evolving Explanatory Demands in Modern Chemistry. Annals of Science 69 (1):69-90.
    Summary Linus Pauling played a key role in creating valence-bond theory, one of two competing theories of the chemical bond that appeared in the first half of the 20th century. While the chemical community preferred his theory over molecular-orbital theory for a number of years, valence-bond theory began to fall into disuse during the 1950s. This shift in the chemical community's perception of Pauling's theory motivated Pauling to defend the theory, and he did so in a peculiar way. Rather than (...)
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  38. E. F. Caldin (1959). Theories and the Development of Chemistry. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (39):209-222.
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  39. Ana Carneiro & Natalie Pigeard (1997). Chimistes Alsaciens À Paris au 19ème Siècle: Un Réseau, Une École? Annals of Science 54 (6):533-546.
    Summary During the nineteenth century French chemistry was marked by an outstanding number of Alsation chemists whose scientific contributions cannot be ignored. Especially following the Franco-Prussian War, their regional origin was given a particular importance as a means of affirming their singularity on the French scientific scene. However, some questions may be raised: can we distinguish the Alsatians from other French chemists before 1870? Were they a homogeneous group sharing a common origin? The aim of this article therefore, is, to (...)
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  40. Michael T. Casey (1961). The Structure of Chemistry. Philosophical Studies 11:331-331.
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  41. Michael T. Casey (1958). An Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics. Philosophical Studies 8:240-240.
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  42. Mauro Causá, Andreas Savin & Bernard Silvi (2014). Atoms and Bonds in Molecules and Chemical Explanations. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):3-26.
    The concepts of atoms and bonds in molecules which appeared in chemistry during the nineteenth century are unavoidable to explain the structure and the reactivity of the matter at a chemical level of understanding. Although they can be criticized from a strict reductionist point of view, because neither atoms nor bonds are observable in the sense of quantum mechanics, the topological and statistical interpretative approaches of quantum chemistry (quantum theory of atoms in molecules, electron localization function and maximum probability domain) (...)
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  43. Alan Chalmers (2012). Guest Editorial. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):3-6.
    Guest editorial Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s10698-012-9147-z Authors Alan Chalmers, Unit for History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.
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  44. José Antonio Chamizo (2013). Technochemistry: One of the Chemists' Ways of Knowing. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):157-170.
    In this article, from the characterization of technoscience of the English historian J. Pickstone and the recognition of the importance of models and modelling in research and teaching of chemistry, the term technochemistry is introduced as a way of chemical knowledge. With the above new possibilities, rethinking the chemistry curriculum is opened.
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  45. Hasok Chang (2010). The Hidden History of Phlogiston: How Philosophical Failure Can Generate Historiographical Refinement. Hyle 16 (2):47 - 79.
    Historians often feel that standard philosophical doctrines about the nature and development of science are not adequate for representing the real history of science. However, when philosophers of science fail to make sense of certain historical events, it is also possible that there is something wrong with the standard historical descriptions of those events, precluding any sensible explanation. If so, philosophical failure can be useful as a guide for improving historiography, and this constitutes a significant mode of productive interaction between (...)
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  46. M. Chayut, J. Edwards, C. J. Giunta, U. Klein, H. Kragh, P. Laszlo, S. Le Vent, V. N. Ostrovsky, N. Psarros & S. Psillos (2001). Authors Index Volume 3. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (273).
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  47. Michael Chayut (2001). From the Periphery: The Genesis of Eugene P. Wigner's Application of Group Theory to Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):55-78.
    This paper traces the origins of Eugene Wigner's pioneering application of group theory to quantum physics to his early work in chemistry and crystallography. In the early 1920s, crystallography was the only discipline in which symmetry groups were routinely used. Wigner's early training in chemistry, and his work in crystallography with Herman Mark and Karl Weissenberg at the Kaiser Wilhelm institute for fiber research in Berlin exposed him to conceptual tools which were absent from the pedagogy available to physicists for (...)
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  48. Michael Chayut (1991). J. J. Thomson: The Discovery of the Electron and the Chemists. Annals of Science 48 (6):527-544.
    This article examines the origins and development of J. J. Thomson's chemical thought, and the reception of his theories by chemists. Thomson's interest in chemical combination and atomic theories of matter dates from his formative schooldays at Owens College, Manchester. These themes constituted a persistent leitmotif in the development of Thomson's style of thought, and provided a powerful stimulus which enabled him to enunciate the concept of electrons as fundamental particles. Thomson's influence on chemists during the years 1903 to 1923 (...)
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  49. E. H. Y. Chu & T. Featherstone (1981). Chemical Mutagens: Assessing Risks and Developing Tests Banbury Report 1: Assessing Chemical Mutagens: The Risk to Humans Victor K. McElheny Seymour Abrahamson Banbury Report 2: Mammalian Cell Mutagenesis: The Maturation of Test Systems Abraham W. Haie J. Patrick O'Neill Victor K. McElheny. [REVIEW] BioScience 31 (11):843-844.
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  50. Donald Cotter (2008). A Disciplinary Immigrant. Alexander Smith at the University of Chicago, 1894–1911. Annals of Science 65 (2):221-256.
    Summary The publication in 1906 of Alexander Smith's Introduction to general inorganic chemistry inaugurated a decisive change in chemical pedagogy in the US, the effects of which are still evident. The nature and extent of Smith's innovations are described through a comparison of his text to its source material and contemporaries. His authoritative command of and whole-hearted commitment to the intellectual framework of Ionist physical chemistry set his text apart from its American competitors, while his efforts to make the tools (...)
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