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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri, St. Louis)
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  1. added 2015-05-25
    Hanoch Ben-Yami (2014). Voluntary Action and Neural Causation. Cognitive Neuroscience 5:217-218.
    I agree with Nachev and Hacker’s general approach. However, their criticism of claims of covert automaticity can be strengthened. I first say a few words on what voluntary action involves and on the consequent limited relevance of brain research for the determination of voluntariness. I then turn to Nachev and Hacker’s discussion of possible covert automaticity and show why the case for it is weaker than they allow.
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  2. added 2015-05-24
    Peter M. Todd & Henry Brighton (forthcoming). Building the Theory of Ecological Rationality. Minds and Machines:1-22.
    While theories of rationality and decision making typically adopt either a single-powertool perspective or a bag-of-tricks mentality, the research program of ecological rationality bridges these with a theoretically-driven account of when different heuristic decision mechanisms will work well. Here we described two ways to study how heuristics match their ecological setting: The bottom-up approach starts with psychologically plausible building blocks that are combined to create simple heuristics that fit specific environments. The top-down approach starts from the statistical problem facing the (...)
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  3. added 2015-05-23
    Colbey Celahan (2015). Drug Rehabilitation Centers. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Special Issue 1.
    If you are suffering from drug and alcohol addiction, you may need to find an inpatient drug rehab center.Drug Rehabilitation centers centers can give you the intensive therapy and tools you need to defeat alcohol and drug addiction.
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  4. added 2015-05-17
    Lisa Bortolotti & Kengo Miyazono (forthcoming). The Ethics of Delusional Belief. Erkenntnis.
    In this paper we address the ethics of adopting delusional beliefs and we apply consequentialist and deontological considerations to the epistemic evaluation of delusions. Delusions are characterised by their epistemic shortcomings and they are often defined as false and irrational beliefs. Despite this, when agents are overwhelmed by negative emotions due to the effects of trauma or previous adversities, or when they are subject to anxiety and stress as a result of hypersalient experience, the adoption of a delusional belief can (...)
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  5. added 2015-05-16
    Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza (forthcoming). From Clumsy Failure to Skillful Fluency: A Phenomenological Analysis of and Eastern Solution to Sport’s Choking Effect. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-25.
    Excellent performance in sport involves specialized and refined skills within very narrow applications. Choking throws a wrench in the works of finely tuned performances. Functionally, and reduced to its simplest expression, choking is severe underperformance when engaging already mastered skills. Choking is a complex phenomenon with many intersecting facets: its dysfunctions result from the multifaceted interaction of cognitive and psychological processes, neurophysiological mechanisms, and phenomenological dynamics. This article develops a phenomenological model that, complementing empirical and theoretical research, helps understand and (...)
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  6. added 2015-05-15
    Uri Hasson, Janice Chen & Christopher J. Honey (forthcoming). Hierarchical Process Memory: Memory as an Integral Component of Information Processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  7. added 2015-05-15
    Lisa Bortolotti & Kengo Miyazono (forthcoming). Recent Work on the Nature and Development of Delusions. Philosophy Compass.
    In this paper we review two debates in the current literature on clinical delusions. One debate is about what delusions are. If delusions are beliefs, why are they described as failing to play the causal roles that characterise beliefs, such as being responsive to evidence and guiding action? The other debate is about how delusions develop. What processes may lead people to form delusions and maintain them in the face of challenges and counter-evidence? Do the formation and maintenance of delusions (...)
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  8. added 2015-05-13
    A. Naji & M. Ramdani (forthcoming). Toward a Better Self-Regulation: Degree of Certainty Through Fuzzy Logic in a Formative Assessment. AI and Society.
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  9. added 2015-05-12
    Paweł Gładziejewski (forthcoming). Predictive Coding and Representationalism. Synthese:1-24.
    According to the predictive coding theory of cognition , brains are predictive machines that use perception and action to minimize prediction error, i.e. the discrepancy between bottom–up, externally-generated sensory signals and top–down, internally-generated sensory predictions. Many consider PCT to have an explanatory scope that is unparalleled in contemporary cognitive science and see in it a framework that could potentially provide us with a unified account of cognition. It is also commonly assumed that PCT is a representational theory of sorts, in (...)
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  10. added 2015-05-12
    Kengo Miyazono, Lisa Bortolotti & Matthew Broome (2015). Prediction-Error and Two-Factor Theories of Delusion Formation: Competitors or Allies? In Niall Galbraith (ed.), Aberrant Beliefs and Reasoning. Psychology Press. 34-54.
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  11. added 2015-05-11
    Nicoletta Pireddu (2015). In the Beginning Was the Symbol. The European Legacy 20 (3):284-288.
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  12. added 2015-05-11
    Caroline Moul, David Hawes & Mark Dadds (2015). The Moral Brain: Psychopathology. In Jean Decety & Thalia Wheatly (eds.), The Moral Brain. The MIT Press. 253-264.
    This chapter considers two systems that are fundamental to human behavior: learning and the allocation of attention. We review the evidence to suggest that there may be deficits in these systems in a subset of children with antisocial behavior problems-those with high levels of callous-unemotional traits-and explore how altered function of these systems might contribute to the development of immoral behavior.
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  13. added 2015-05-11
    Rheanna J. Remmel & Andrea L. Glenn (2015). Immorality in the Adult Brain. In Jean Decety & Thalia Wheatly (eds.), The Moral Brain. The MIT Press. 239-251.
    In this chapter we explore the different ways that morality has been studied and measured as well as the ways that it has been found to be deficient in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.
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  14. added 2015-05-11
    Samuel H. Pillsbury (2013). Why Psychopaths Are Responsible. In Kent A. Kiehl & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Handbook on Psychopathy and Law. Oxford University Press. 297-318.
  15. added 2015-05-11
    Paul Litton (2013). Criminal Responsiblity and Psychopathy: Do Psychopaths Have a Right to Excuse? In Kent A. Kiehl & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Handbook on Psychopathy and Law. Oxford University Press. 275-296.
  16. added 2015-05-10
    Joel S. Snyder, Breanne D. Yerkes & Michael A. Pitts (forthcoming). Testing Domain-General Theories of Perceptual Awareness with Auditory Brain Responses. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  17. added 2015-05-10
    Sebo Uithol, Daniel C. Burnston & Pim Haselager (2014). Why We May Not Find Intentions in the Brain. Neuropsychologia 56:129-139.
  18. added 2015-05-08
    Hansjörg Neth, Chris R. Sims & Wayne D. Gray (forthcoming). Rational Task Analysis: A Methodology to Benchmark Bounded Rationality. Minds and Machines:1-24.
    How can we study bounded rationality? We answer this question by proposing rational task analysis —a systematic approach that prevents experimental researchers from drawing premature conclusions regarding the rationality of agents. RTA is a methodology and perspective that is anchored in the notion of bounded rationality and aids in the unbiased interpretation of results and the design of more conclusive experimental paradigms. RTA focuses on concrete tasks as the primary interface between agents and environments and requires explicating essential task elements, (...)
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  19. added 2015-05-08
    Gerhard Schurz & Paul D. Thorn (forthcoming). The Revenge of Ecological Rationality: Strategy Selection by Meta-Induction Within Changing Environments. Minds and Machines:1-29.
    ccording to the paradigm of adaptive rationality, successful inference and prediction methods tend to be local and frugal. As a complement to work within this paradigm, we investigate the problem of selecting an optimal combination of prediction methods from a given toolbox of such local methods, in the context of changing environments. These selection methods are called meta-inductive (MI) strategies, if they are based on the success-records of the toolbox-methods. No absolutely optimal MI strategy exists—a fact that we call the (...)
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  20. added 2015-05-07
    Marcin Miłkowski, Social Intelligence: How to Integrate Research? A Mechanistic Perspective. Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014).
    Is there a field of social intelligence? Many various disciplines ap-proach the subject and it may only seem natural to suppose that different fields of study aim at explaining different phenomena; in other words, there is no spe-cial field of study of social intelligence. In this paper, I argue for an opposite claim. Namely, there is a way to integrate research on social intelligence, as long as one accepts the mechanistic account to explanation. Mechanistic inte-gration of different explanations, however, comes (...)
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  21. added 2015-05-05
    J. A. Judge (forthcoming). Jonathan Berger and Gabe Turow , Music, Science, and the Rhythmic Brain: Cultural and Clinical Implications. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-9.
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  22. added 2015-05-05
    Mitchell Herschbach (forthcoming). Direct Social Perception and Dual Process Theories of Mindreading. Consciousness and Cognition.
    The direct social perception (DSP) thesis claims that we can directly perceive some mental states of other people. The direct perception of mental states has been formulated phenomenologically and psychologically, and typically restricted to the mental state types of intentions and emotions. I will compare DSP to another account of mindreading: dual process accounts that posit a fast, automatic “Type 1” form of mindreading and a slow, effortful “Type 2” form. I will here analyze whether dual process accounts’ Type 1 (...)
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  23. added 2015-05-05
    Mitchell Herschbach & William Bechtel (2014). Mental Mechanisms and Psychological Construction. In Lisa Feldman Barrett & James Russell (eds.), The Psychological Construction of Emotion. Guilford Press. 21-44.
  24. added 2015-05-04
    Carey K. Morewedge & Colleen E. Giblin (forthcoming). Explanations of the Endowment Effect: An Integrative Review. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  25. added 2015-05-03
    Andrea C. Samson, Sylvia D. Kreibig, Blake Soderstrom, A. Ayanna Wade & James J. Gross (forthcoming). Eliciting Positive, Negative and Mixed Emotional States: A Film Library for Affective Scientists. Cognition and Emotion:1-30.
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  26. added 2015-05-03
    Daniele Romano, Anna Sedda, Peter Brugger & Gabriella Bottini (2015). Body Ownership: When Feeling and Knowing Diverge. Consciousness and Cognition 34:140-148.
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  27. added 2015-05-01
    Tony Manela (forthcoming). Gratitude and Appreciation. American Philosophical Quarterly.
    This article argues that "gratitude to" and "gratitude that" are fundamentally different concepts. The former (prepositional gratitude) is properly a response to benevolent attitudes, and entails special concern on the part of the beneficiary for a benefactor, while the latter (propositional gratitude) is a response to beneficial states of affairs, and entails no special concern for anyone. Propositional gratitude, it is argued, ultimately amounts to a species of appreciation. The tendency to see prepositional gratitude and propositional “gratitude” as two species (...)
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  28. added 2015-04-29
    Geneviève Desmarais, Pamela Hudson & Eric D. Richards (2015). Influences of Visual and Action Information on Object Identification and Action Production. Consciousness and Cognition 34:124-139.
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  29. added 2015-04-29
    Jeff Yoshimi & David W. Vinson (2015). Extending Gurwitsch’s Field Theory of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 34:104-123.
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  30. added 2015-04-29
    Rouwen Cañal-Bruland, Anoek M. Aertssen, Laurien Ham & John Stins (2015). Size Estimates of Action-Relevant Space Remain Invariant in the Face of Systematic Changes to Postural Stability and Arousal. Consciousness and Cognition 34:98-103.
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  31. added 2015-04-29
    Julian C. Motzkin, Joseph P. Newman, Kent A. Kiehl & Michael Koenigs (2011). Reduced Prefrontal Connectivity in Psychopathy. Journal of Neuroscience 31 (48):17348 –17357.
    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in (...)
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  32. added 2015-04-28
    Tom Cochrane (forthcoming). The Difference Between Emotion and Affect. Physics of Life Reviews.
  33. added 2015-04-28
    Patricia Castello Branco (forthcoming). Post- and Transhumanism. An Introduction. NanoEthics:1-3.
    Robert Ranisch’s and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner’s Post- and Transhumanism. An Introduction provides a broad background for anyone interested in the societal and philosophical repercussions of new technologies. As the title suggests, the volume specifically centers on the trans- and posthumanism debate, which, over the past two decades, has been focusing on the way our highly technological societies raise an entirely new set of questions that urge to be answered and discussed. Of particular importance to this debate is the necessity for (...)
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  34. added 2015-04-28
    Andrea C. Palk (2015). The Implausibility of Appeals to Human Dignity: An Investigation Into the Efficacy of Notions of Human Dignity in the Transhumanism Debate. South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (1).
    In recent decades, recourse to notions of human dignity has increased extensively within the field of bioethics. In particular, the notion has been utilised in arguments that seek to constrain a variety of biotechnological endeavours, examples of which include human cloning and transhumanism. In this regard, transhumanism is frequently described as an affront to human dignity in a manner that appears to be aimed at halting the possibility of further debate. The efficacy of the concept of human dignity has itself, (...)
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  35. added 2015-04-28
    Danielle Shalet, Invoking the Ghosts in the Machine: Reassessing the Evolution of the Science/Religion Phenomena - Alternative Perspectives.
    This thesis is an in-depth critical analysis of the nature of the science/religion relationship. The purpose of this project is to expose the problems associated with the many fallacies related to these phenomena, and to evaluate the reasons behind certain perceptions. It outlines the damage done through years of misconceiving and misunderstanding the concepts of science and religion, and to address what led to such inadequacies in interpretation, emphasizing the use of insufficient and archaic methodologies. A number of the methodological (...)
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  36. added 2015-04-27
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Radical Empiricism, Critical Realism, and American Functionalism: James and Sellars. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):129-53.
    As British and American idealism waned, new realisms displaced them. The common background of these new realisms emphasized the problem of the external world and the mind-body problem, as bequeathed by Reid, Hamilton, and Mill. During this same period, academics on both sides of the Atlantic recognized that the natural sciences were making great strides. Responses varied. In the United States, philosophical response focused particularly on functional psychology and Darwinian adaptedness. This article examines differing versions of that response in William (...)
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  37. added 2015-04-27
    Marcin Miłkowski (2015). Evaluating Artificial Models of Cognition. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):43-62.
    Artificial models of cognition serve different purposes, and their use determines the way they should be evaluated. There are also models that do not represent any particular biological agents, and there is controversy as to how they should be assessed. At the same time, modelers do evaluate such models as better or worse. There is also a widespread tendency to call for publicly available standards of replicability and benchmarking for such models. In this paper, I argue that proper evaluation ofmodels (...)
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  38. added 2015-04-26
    Chelsea M. Stillman, Halley Feldman, Caroline G. Wambach, James H. Howard & Darlene V. Howard (2014). Dispositional Mindfulness is Associated with Reduced Implicit Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 28:141-150.
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  39. added 2015-04-26
    Zeynep Barlas & Sukhvinder S. Obhi (2014). Cultural Background Influences Implicit but Not Explicit Sense of Agency for the Production of Musical Tones. Consciousness and Cognition 28:94-103.
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  40. added 2015-04-25
    Christian Ebner, Henning Schroll, Gesche Winther, Michael Niedeggen & Fred H. Hamker (forthcoming). Open and Closed Cortico-Subcortical Loops: A Neuro-Computational Account of Access to Consciousness in the Distractor-Induced Blindness Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  41. added 2015-04-25
    Sarah Wellen & David Danks (forthcoming). Adaptively Rational Learning. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    Research on adaptive rationality has focused principally on inference, judgment, and decision-making that lead to behaviors and actions. These processes typically require cognitive representations as input, and these representations must presumably be acquired via learning. Nonetheless, there has been little work on the nature of, and justification for, adaptively rational learning processes. In this paper, we argue that there are strong reasons to believe that some learning is adaptively rational in the same way as judgment and decision-making. Indeed, overall adaptive (...)
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  42. added 2015-04-25
    John Danaher (forthcoming). Why AI Doomsayers Are Like Sceptical Theists and Why It Matters. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    An advanced artificial intelligence could pose a significant existential risk to humanity. Several research institutes have been set-up to address those risks. And there is an increasing number of academic publications analysing and evaluating their seriousness. Nick Bostrom’s superintelligence: paths, dangers, strategies represents the apotheosis of this trend. In this article, I argue that in defending the credibility of AI risk, Bostrom makes an epistemic move that is analogous to one made by so-called sceptical theists in the debate about the (...)
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  43. added 2015-04-24
    Till Grüne-Yanoff & Ralph Hertwig (forthcoming). Nudge Versus Boost: How Coherent Are Policy and Theory? Minds and Machines:1-35.
    If citizens’ behavior threatens to harm others or seems not to be in their own interest , it is not uncommon for governments to attempt to change that behavior. Governmental policy makers can apply established tools from the governmental toolbox to this end . Alternatively, they can employ new tools that capitalize on the wealth of knowledge about human behavior and behavior change that has been accumulated in the behavioral sciences . Two contrasting approaches to behavior change are nudge policies (...)
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  44. added 2015-04-24
    Sascha Benjamin Fink, Phenomenal Precision and Some Possible Pitfalls – A Commentary on Ned Block. Open MIND.
    Ground Representationism is the position that for each phenomenal feature there is a representational feature that accounts for it. Against this thesis, Ned Block (The Puzzle of Phenomenal Precision, 2015) has provided an intricate argument that rests on the notion of “phenomenal precision”: the phenomenal precision of a percept may change at a different rate from its representational counterpart. If so, there is then no representational feature that accounts for a specific change of this phenomenal feature. Therefore, Ground Representationism cannot (...)
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  45. added 2015-04-24
    James Blair (2007). Aggression, Psychopathy and Free Will From a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 25:321–331.
    This article considers the notion of free will in the context of aggression and psychopathy research. The philosophical literature is very briefly considered to determine under what assumptions free will can be considered to exist. However, as the issue of free will is very difficult to address directly, the prime focus of this article is on issues raised in the philosophical debate, that may be empirically tractable and that are relevant to the understanding of psychopathy. Specifically, the following issues are (...)
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  46. added 2015-04-18
    Miguel López Astorga (2014). Autism Spectrum and Cheaters Detection. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (1):1-10.
    Rutherford and Ray think that human beings have mental mechanisms that help them to detect individuals that, deliberately, do not follow a rule. In the same way, they hold that autism is not a disorder in which these mechanisms are damaged. This idea seems contrary to the thesis, supported by some researchers, that autistic people have a theory of mind deficit. This is because of, if Rutherford and Ray are right, autistic people can detect other people's intentions. In this paper, (...)
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  47. added 2015-04-18
    Robert Henman (2014). Generalized Empirical Method: Is It Needed? Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (1):32-33.
  48. added 2015-04-17
    Sebastian Rödl (forthcoming). Joint Action and Recursive Consciousness of Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-11.
    In a series of essays, Bratman defines a concept, which we may call the concept of Bratmanian action by many. Our discussion of this concept, in section 1, reveals that it is not the one called to mind by the usual examples of joint action. Section 2 lays alongside it a different concept of doing something together. According to it, many are doing A together if and only if the principle of the actions in which they are doing A is (...)
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  49. added 2015-04-17
    Fiona Macpherson (2015). The Structure of Experience, the Nature of the Visual, and Type 2 Blindsight‌. Consciousness and Cognition 32:104 - 128.
    Unlike those with type 1 blindsight, people who have type 2 blindsight have some sort of consciousness of the stimuli in their blind field. What is the nature of that consciousness? Is it visual experience? I address these questions by considering whether we can establish the existence of any structural—necessary—features of visual experience. I argue that it is very difficult to establish the existence of any such features. In particular, I investigate whether it is possible to visually, or more generally (...)
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  50. added 2015-04-17
    Umut Baysan (2015). Realization Relations in Metaphysics. Minds and Machines:1-14.
    “Realization” is a technical term that is used by metaphysicians, philosophers of mind, and philosophers of science to denote some dependence relation that is thought to obtain between higher-level properties and lower-level properties. It is said that mental properties are realized by physical properties; functional and computational properties are realized by first-order properties that occupy certain causal/functional roles; dispositional properties are realized by categorical properties; so on and so forth. Given this wide usage of the term “realization”, it would be (...)
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