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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri St. Louis)
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  1. added 2015-04-27
    Marcin Miłkowski (2015). Evaluating Artificial Models of Cognition. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):43-62.
    Artificial models of cognition serve different purposes, and their use determines the way they should be evaluated. There are also models that do not represent any particular biological agents, and there is controversy as to how they should be assessed. At the same time, modelers do evaluate such models as better or worse. There is also a widespread tendency to call for publicly available standards of replicability and benchmarking for such models. In this paper, I argue that proper evaluation ofmodels (...)
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  2. added 2015-04-27
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Radical Empiricism, Critical Realism, and American Functionalism: James and Sellars. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):129-53.
    As British and American idealism waned, new realisms displaced them. The common background of these new realisms emphasized the problem of the external world and the mind-body problem, as bequeathed by Reid, Hamilton, and Mill. During this same period, academics on both sides of the Atlantic recognized that the natural sciences were making great strides. Responses varied. In the United States, philosophical response focused particularly on functional psychology and Darwinian adaptedness. This article examines differing versions of that response in William (...)
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  3. added 2015-04-27
    Ghita Holmström-Hintikka & Raimo Tuomela (1997). Contemporary Action Theory.
  4. added 2015-04-26
    Zeynep Barlas & Sukhvinder S. Obhi (2014). Cultural Background Influences Implicit but Not Explicit Sense of Agency for the Production of Musical Tones. Consciousness and Cognition 28:94-103.
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  5. added 2015-04-26
    Chelsea M. Stillman, Halley Feldman, Caroline G. Wambach, James H. Howard & Darlene V. Howard (2014). Dispositional Mindfulness is Associated with Reduced Implicit Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 28:141-150.
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  6. added 2015-04-25
    John Danaher (forthcoming). Why AI Doomsayers Are Like Sceptical Theists and Why It Matters. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    An advanced artificial intelligence could pose a significant existential risk to humanity. Several research institutes have been set-up to address those risks. And there is an increasing number of academic publications analysing and evaluating their seriousness. Nick Bostrom’s superintelligence: paths, dangers, strategies represents the apotheosis of this trend. In this article, I argue that in defending the credibility of AI risk, Bostrom makes an epistemic move that is analogous to one made by so-called sceptical theists in the debate about the (...)
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  7. added 2015-04-25
    Sarah Wellen & David Danks (forthcoming). Adaptively Rational Learning. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    Research on adaptive rationality has focused principally on inference, judgment, and decision-making that lead to behaviors and actions. These processes typically require cognitive representations as input, and these representations must presumably be acquired via learning. Nonetheless, there has been little work on the nature of, and justification for, adaptively rational learning processes. In this paper, we argue that there are strong reasons to believe that some learning is adaptively rational in the same way as judgment and decision-making. Indeed, overall adaptive (...)
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  8. added 2015-04-25
    Christian Ebner, Henning Schroll, Gesche Winther, Michael Niedeggen & Fred H. Hamker (forthcoming). Open and Closed Cortico-Subcortical Loops: A Neuro-Computational Account of Access to Consciousness in the Distractor-Induced Blindness Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  9. added 2015-04-24
    Till Grüne-Yanoff & Ralph Hertwig (forthcoming). Nudge Versus Boost: How Coherent Are Policy and Theory? Minds and Machines:1-35.
    If citizens’ behavior threatens to harm others or seems not to be in their own interest , it is not uncommon for governments to attempt to change that behavior. Governmental policy makers can apply established tools from the governmental toolbox to this end . Alternatively, they can employ new tools that capitalize on the wealth of knowledge about human behavior and behavior change that has been accumulated in the behavioral sciences . Two contrasting approaches to behavior change are nudge policies (...)
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  10. added 2015-04-17
    Umut Baysan (forthcoming). Realization Relations in Metaphysics. Minds and Machines.
    “Realization” is a technical term that is used by metaphysicians, philosophers of mind, and philosophers of science to denote some dependence relation that is thought to obtain between higher-level properties and lower-level properties. It is said that mental properties are realized by physical properties; functional and computational properties are realized by first-order properties that occupy certain causal/functional roles; dispositional properties are realized by categorical properties; so on and so forth. Given this wide usage of the term “realization”, it would be (...)
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  11. added 2015-04-17
    Sebastian Rödl (forthcoming). Joint Action and Recursive Consciousness of Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-11.
    In a series of essays, Bratman defines a concept, which we may call the concept of Bratmanian action by many. Our discussion of this concept, in section 1, reveals that it is not the one called to mind by the usual examples of joint action. Section 2 lays alongside it a different concept of doing something together. According to it, many are doing A together if and only if the principle of the actions in which they are doing A is (...)
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  12. added 2015-04-17
    Danny Frederick (2015). Book Review: Robert Audi, 'Moral Perception'. [REVIEW] Reason Papers 37 (1):164-69.
    I summarise Robert Audi's 'Moral Perception.' I concede that there is such a thing as moral perception. However, moral perceptions are culturally-relative, which refutes Audi’s claims that moral perception may ground moral knowledge and that it provides inter-subjectively accessible grounds which make ethical objectivity possible. Audi's attempt to avoid the refutation tends to convert rational disputes into ad hominem ones. I illustrate that with the example of the ethics of prostitution.
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  13. added 2015-04-17
    Fiona Macpherson (2015). The Structure of Experience, the Nature of the Visual, and Type 2 Blindsight‌. Consciousness and Cognition 32:104 - 128.
    Unlike those with type 1 blindsight, people who have type 2 blindsight have some sort of consciousness of the stimuli in their blind field. What is the nature of that consciousness? Is it visual experience? I address these questions by considering whether we can establish the existence of any structural—necessary—features of visual experience. I argue that it is very difficult to establish the existence of any such features. In particular, I investigate whether it is possible to visually, or more generally (...)
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  14. added 2015-04-16
    John Danaher (forthcoming). Why AI Doomsayers Are Like Sceptical Theists and Why It Matters. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    An advanced artificial intelligence (a “superintelligence”) could pose a significant existential risk to humanity. Several research institutes have been set-up to address those risks. And there is an increasing number of academic publications analysing and evaluating their seriousness. Nick Bostrom’s Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies represents the apotheosis of this trend. In this article, I argue that in defending the credibility of AI risk, Bostrom makes an epistemic move that is analogous to one made by so-called sceptical theists in the debate (...)
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  15. added 2015-04-16
    Fernando Martinez-Manrique (2014). Systematicity and Conceptual Pluralism. In Paco Calvo John Symons (ed.), The Architecture of Cognition: Rethinking Fodor and Pylyshyn's Systematicity Challenge. MIT Press. 305-334.
    The systematicity argument only challenges connectionism if systematicity is a general property of cognition. I examine this thesis in terms of properties of concepts. First, I propose that Evans's Generality Constraint only applies to attributions of belief. Then I defend a variety of conceptual pluralism, arguing that concepts share two fundamental properties related to centrality and belief-attribution, and contending that there are two kinds of concepts that differ in their compositional properties. Finally, I rely on Dual Systems Theory and on (...)
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  16. added 2015-04-14
    Nikil Mukerji (forthcoming). Autonomous Killer Drones. In Ezio Di Nucci & Filippo Santoni de Sio (eds.), Drones and Responsibility: Legal, Philosophical and Socio-Technical Perspectives on the Use of Remotely Controlled Weapons. Ashgate.
    In this paper, I address the question whether drones, which may soon possess the ability to make autonomous choices, should be allowed to make life-and-death decisions and act on them. To this end, I examine an argument proposed by Rob Sparrow, who dismisses the ethicality of what he calls “killer robots”. If successful, his conclusion would extend to the use of what I call autonomous killer drones, which are special kinds of killer robots. In Sparrow’s reasoning, considerations of responsibility occupy (...)
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  17. added 2015-04-14
    James Andow & Florian Cova (forthcoming). Why Compatibilist Intuitions Are Not Mistaken: A Reply to Feltz and Millan. Philosophical Psychology.
    In the past decade, a number of empirical researchers have suggested that laypeople have compatibilist intuitions. In a recent paper, Feltz and Millan (in press) have challenged this conclusion by claiming that most laypeople are only compatibilists in appearance, and are rather willing to attribute free will no matter what. As evidence for this claim, they have shown that an important proportion of laypeople still attribute free will to agents in fatalistic universes. In this paper we first argue that Feltz (...)
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  18. added 2015-04-13
    Robert Hopkins (forthcoming). Sartre. In Amy Kind (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Imagination. Routledge.
    In The Imaginary Sartre offers a systematic, insightful and heterodox account of imagining in many forms. Beginning with four ‘characteristics’ he takes to capture the phenomenology of imagining, he draws on considerations both philosophical and psychological to describe the deeper nature of the state that has those features. The result is a view that remains the most potent challenge to the Humean orthodoxy that to this day dominates both philosophical and psychological thinking on the topic.
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  19. added 2015-04-13
    Caroline Catmur (forthcoming). Understanding Intentions From Actions: Direct Perception, Inference, and the Roles of Mirror and Mentalizing Systems. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  20. added 2015-04-13
    C. W. G. Clifford, I. Mareschal, Y. Otsuka & T. L. Watson (forthcoming). A Bayesian Approach to Person Perception. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  21. added 2015-04-13
    André Aßfalg & Lena Nadarevic (2015). A Word of Warning: Instructions and Feedback Cannot Prevent the Revelation Effect. Consciousness and Cognition 34:75-86.
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  22. added 2015-04-13
    Talis Bachmann & Jaan Aru (2015). Comments on How Mack Et Al. See Iconic Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 34:73-74.
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  23. added 2015-04-13
    Jonathan Davidov & Zvi Eisikovits (2015). Free Will in Total Institutions: The Case of Choice Inside Nazi Death Camps. Consciousness and Cognition 34:87-97.
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  24. added 2015-04-13
    James Ogilvy (2011). Human Enhancement and the Computational Metaphor. Journal of Evolution and Technology 22 (1):81-96.
    This paper affirms human enhancement in principle, but questions the inordinate attention paid to two particular forms of enhancement: life extension and raising IQ. The argument is not about whether these enhancements are possible or not; instead, I question the aspirations behind the denial of death and the stress on one particular type of intelligence: the logico-analytic. Death is a form of finitude, and finitude is a crucially defining part of human life. As for intelligence, Howard Gardner and Daniel Goleman (...)
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  25. added 2015-04-13
    Russell Blackford (2010). Editorial. Journal of Evolution and Technology 21 (2).
    n issue 20 of The Journal of Evolution and Technology, we published “Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and Transhumanism” by Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, a leading Nietzsche scholar and the author of Metaphysics Without Truth: On the Importance of Consistency within Nietzsche’s Philosophy. Issue 21, our “Nietzsche and European Posthumanisms” issue, was prepared following a call for papers in response. We published a mix of short responses and full-length peer-reviewed articles. Meanwhile, we also invited Stefan Sorgner to reply to the papers in the (...)
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  26. added 2015-04-13
    Russell Blackford (2008). Editorial: Celebrating Our Past, Imagining Our Future. Journal of Evolution and Technology 20 (1).
    As described elsewhere on this journal’s website, The Journal of Evolution and Technology was founded in 1998 as The Journal of Transhumanism, and was originally published by the World Transhumanist Association. In November 2004, JET moved under the umbrella of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies , an organization that seeks to contribute to our understanding of the impact of emerging technologies on individuals and societies. Prior to my appointment, in January 2008, as JET’s editor-in-chief, I’d had four distinguished (...)
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  27. added 2015-04-12
    Christopher Mole (2014). Attention to Unseen Objects. Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (11-12):41-56.
    Can one pay attention to objects without being conscious of them? Some years ago there was evidence that had been taken to show that the answer is 'yes'. That evidence was inconclusive, but there is recent work that makes the case more compellingly: it now seems that it is indeed possible to pay attention to objects of which one is not conscious. This is bad news for theories in which the connection between attention and consciousness is taken to be an (...)
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  28. added 2015-04-12
    Olle Blomberg (2011). Conceptions of Cognition for Cognitive Engineering. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 21 (1):85-104.
    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and (...)
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  29. added 2015-04-11
    David A. Jopling (2001). Placebo Insight. Journal of Clinical Psychology 57 (1):19-36.
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  30. added 2015-04-10
    William Short, Alistair Welchman & Wilson Shearin (2014). Deleuze and the Enaction of Nonsense. In Tom Froese & Massimiliano Cappuccio (eds.), Enactive Cognition at the Edge of Sense-Making. 238-265.
    This chapter examines the ways in which French philosopher Gilles Deleuze offers conceptual resources for an enactive account of language, in particular his extensive consideration of language in The Logic of Sense. Specifically, Deleuze’s distinction between the nonsense of Lewis Carroll’s portmanteau creations and that of Antonin Artaud’s “transla- tion” of Carroll’s Jabberwocky highlights the need for an enactive, rather than merely embodied, approach to sense-making, particularly with regard to the general category of what Jakobson and Halle (1956) call “sound (...)
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  31. added 2015-04-09
    Matt King & Joshua May (forthcoming). Moral Responsibility and Mental Illness. In N. Levy, M. Griffiths & K. Timpe (eds.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge.
    In this chapter, we explore how mental illness affects the aptness for attributing responsibility to individuals as well as the justification for holding them responsible for their acts. We begin in Section 2 by tackling some preliminaries, both to refine our guiding question and the parameters relevant to that inquiry. In Section 3, we consider when mental illness surely excuses. In Section 4, we consider conditions that don’t excuse agents from responsibility. Section 5 looks at how the answer to the (...)
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  32. added 2015-04-09
    Marcin Miłkowski (forthcoming). Satisfaction Conditions in Anticipatory Mechanisms. Biology and Philosophy:1-20.
    The purpose of this paper is to present a general mechanistic framework for analyzing causal representational claims, and offer a way to distinguish genuinely representational explanations from those that invoke representations for honorific purposes. It is usually agreed that rats are capable of navigation because they maintain a cognitive map of their environment. Exactly how and why their neural states give rise to mental representations is a matter of an ongoing debate. I will show that anticipatory mechanisms involved in rats’ (...)
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  33. added 2015-04-09
    Marcin Miłkowski (forthcoming). Explanatory Completeness and Idealization in Large Brain Simulations: A Mechanistic Perspective. Synthese:1-22.
    The claim defended in the paper is that the mechanistic account of explanation can easily embrace idealization in big-scale brain simulations, and that only causally relevant detail should be present in explanatory models. The claim is illustrated with two methodologically different models: Blue Brain, used for particular simulations of the cortical column in hybrid models, and Eliasmith’s SPAUN model that is both biologically realistic and able to explain eight different tasks. By drawing on the mechanistic theory of computational explanation, I (...)
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  34. added 2015-04-07
    Kevin S. Weiner & Kalanit Grill-Spector (forthcoming). The Evolution of Face Processing Networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  35. added 2015-04-07
    Brian A. Wandell & Jonathan Winawer (forthcoming). Computational Neuroimaging and Population Receptive Fields. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  36. added 2015-04-07
    Angelika Lingnau & Paul E. Downing (forthcoming). The Lateral Occipitotemporal Cortex in Action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  37. added 2015-04-07
    Tobias Heed, Verena N. Buchholz, Andreas K. Engel & Brigitte Röder (forthcoming). Tactile Remapping: From Coordinate Transformation to Integration in Sensorimotor Processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  38. added 2015-04-07
    Julie Morand-Ferron & John L. Quinn (forthcoming). The Evolution of Cognition in Natural Populations. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  39. added 2015-04-07
    Marianne E. Klinke (forthcoming). Kristin Zeiler and Lisa Folmarson Käll, Editors. Feminist Phenomenology and Medicine. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-7.
    In Feminist Phenomenology and Medicine, the editors have assembled a collection of papers on important topics that should be addressed in the modern phenomenology of medicine - topics which do not exclusively focus on illness, disability, bodily deterioration or pathologies, as seen for instance in prior work of the philosophers S Kay Toombs, Frederik Svenaeus, and Havi Carel. The contributors met at a congress on feminist phenomenology and medicine in Sweden in 2011, and come from a variety of relevant disciplines (...)
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  40. added 2015-04-07
    Hyeon-Ae Jeon & Angela D. Friederici (forthcoming). Degree of Automaticity and the Prefrontal Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  41. added 2015-04-07
    N. Noy, S. Bickel, E. Zion-Golumbic, M. Harel, T. Golan, I. Davidesco, C. A. Schevon, G. M. McKhann, R. R. Goodman, C. E. Schroeder, A. D. Mehta & R. Malach (forthcoming). Ignition’s Glow: Ultra-Fast Spread of Global Cortical Activity Accompanying Local “Ignitions” in Visual Cortex During Conscious Visual Perception. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  42. added 2015-04-07
    Susan Blackmore (2015). The Implausibility of Astral Bodies and Astral Worlds. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. 393-403.
    Astral body views posit that an exotic double with a definite location in space—an astral or ethereal body—leaves the normal biological body during out-of-body experiences or after death. In this paper the severe difficulties confronting such a view are reviewed, difficulties concerning not only the nature of the double which travels, but the nature of the world in which it travels. Three exhaustive possibilities are considered: that a physical double travels in the physical world; that a nonphysical double travels in (...)
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  43. added 2015-04-07
    Steve Stewart-Williams (2015). On the Origin of Afterlife Beliefs by Means of Memetic Selection. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Somewhere in the mists of the past, we somehow picked up the idea of an afterlife from our culture. So, where did this idea come from in the first place? The problem is not that there aren’t any plausible theories to explain it; the problem is that there are too many. Some claim that the belief in an afterlife is wishful thinking; others that it’s a way of encouraging socially desirable behavior; and others still that it represents ancient people’s best (...)
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  44. added 2015-04-07
    Leonard Angel (2015). Is There Adequate Empirical Evidence for Reincarnation? An Analysis of Ian Stevenson’s Work. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. 575-583.
    This article reviews the research of “top rebirth scientist” Ian Stevenson on spontaneous past-life memory cases, focusing on three key problems with Stevenson’s work. First, his research of entirely anecdotal case reports contains a number of errors and omissions. Second, like other reincarnation researchers, Stevenson has done no controlled experimental work on such cases; yet only such research could ever resolve whether the correspondences found between a child’s statements and a deceased person’s life exceed what we might find by chance. (...)
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  45. added 2015-04-07
    David L. Wilson (2015). Nonphysical Souls Would Violate Physical Laws. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. 349-367.
    This paper argues that nonphysical souls would violate fundamental physical laws if they were able to influence brain events. Though we have no idea how nonphysical souls might operate, we know quite a bit about how brains work, so we can consider each of the ways that an external force could interrupt brain processes enough to control one’s body. It concludes that there is no way that a nonphysical soul could interact with the brain—neither by introducing new energy into the (...)
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  46. added 2015-04-07
    Carlos J. Álvarez (2015). The Neural Substrate of Emotions and Emotional Processing. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. 171-182.
    Until recently emotion and emotional processing have been largely neglected by experimental psychology and neuroscience more generally. This paper reviews the substantial psychological and neuroscientific evidence that each emotion is localized in specific neural structures, and thus that it is not necessary to invoke souls or spirits to explain emotions or emotional processing often held to be distinctive of a soul. In addition, the paper aims to demonstrate the adaptive and biological value of emotion for humans and other animals. It (...)
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  47. added 2015-04-07
    Susan Blackmore (2015). Out-of-Body Experiences Are Not Evidence for Survival. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. 519-527.
    This paper reviews the evidence that something leaves the body during out-of-body experiences (OBEs) and thus could potentially survive death. First, during OBEs people can purportedly see things at a distance without using the recognized senses. Second, some claim that the double or astral body can be detected. Finally, there is evidence from OBEs occurring near death. This paper evaluates each in turn.
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  48. added 2015-04-07
    Myles Brand (1987). Intending and Acting: Toward a Naturalized Action Theory. Journal of Philosophy 84 (1):49-54.
  49. added 2015-04-07
    D. A. Browne (1975). Can Desires Be Causes of Actions? Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 1 (2):145.
  50. added 2015-04-06
    Maria Serban (forthcoming). The Scope and Limits of a Mechanistic View of Computational Explanation. Synthese:1-26.
    An increasing number of philosophers have promoted the idea that mechanism provides a fruitful framework for thinking about the explanatory contributions of computational approaches in cognitive neuroscience. For instance, Piccinini and Bahar :453–488, 2013) have recently argued that neural computation constitutes a sui generis category of physical computation which can play a genuine explanatory role in the context of investigating neural and cognitive processes. The core of their proposal is to conceive of computational explanations in cognitive neuroscience as a subspecies (...)
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