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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri, St. Louis)
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  1. added 2015-08-02
    Patrick R. Frierson (forthcoming). Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Experimental Psychology. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
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  2. added 2015-08-01
    Tom Cochrane (forthcoming). Mikko Salmela and Christian von Scheve , Collective Emotions: Perspectives From Psychology, Philosophy, and Sociology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-7.
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  3. added 2015-07-31
    Rex Welshon (forthcoming). Reply to Lukasz Kurowski's “Ownership Unity, Neural Substrates, and Philosophical Relevance. Philosophical Psychology:1-5.
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  4. added 2015-07-31
    Hannes Rakoczy, Tanya Behne, Annette Clüver, Stephanie Dallmann, Sarah Weidner & Michael Waldmann (2015). The Side-Effect Effect in Children Is Robust and Not Specific to the Moral Status of Action Effects. PLoS ONE 10:1-10.
    Adults’ intentionality judgments regarding an action are influenced by their moral evaluation of this action. This is clearly indicated in the so-called side-effect effect: when told about an action (e.g. implementing a business plan) with an intended primary effect (e.g. raise profits) and a foreseen side effect (e.g. harming/helping the environment), subjects tend to interpret the bringing about of the side effect more often as intentional when it is negative (harming the environment) than when it is positive (helping the environment). (...)
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  5. added 2015-07-31
    Elise Cardinale, Elizabeth Finger, Julia Schechter, Ilana Jurkowitz, R. J. R. Blair & Abigail Marsh (2014). The Moral Status of an Action Influences its Perceived Intentional Status in Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits. In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy: Volume 1. Oxford University Press 131-151.
    Moral judgments about an action are influenced by the action’s intentionality. The reverse is also true: judgments of intentionality can be influenced by an action’s moral valence. For example, respondents judge a harmful side-effect of an intended outcome to be more intentional than a helpful side-effect. Debate continues regarding the mechanisms underlying this “side-effect effect” and the conditions under which it will persist. The research behind this chapter tested whether the side-effect effect is intact in adolescents with psychopathic traits, who (...)
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  6. added 2015-07-30
    Peter J. Marshall & Andrew N. Meltzoff (forthcoming). Body Maps in the Infant Brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  7. added 2015-07-30
    Cortland J. Dahl, Antoine Lutz & Richard J. Davidson (forthcoming). Reconstructing and Deconstructing the Self: Cognitive Mechanisms in Meditation Practice. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  8. added 2015-07-29
    Caroline T. Arruda & Daniel J. Povinelli (forthcoming). Chimps as Secret Agents. Synthese.
    We provide an account of chimpanzee-specific agency within the context of philosophy of action. We do so by showing that chimpanzees are capable of what we call reason-directed action, even though they may be incapable of more full-blown action, which we call reason-considered action. Although chimpanzee agency does not possess all the features of typical adult human agency, chimpanzee agency is evolutionarily responsive to their environment and overlaps considerably with our own. As such, it is an evolved set of capacities (...)
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  9. added 2015-07-29
    Eric Dietrich (2015). Excellent Beauty: The Naturalness of Religion and the Unnaturalness of the World. Columbia.
    This is a book about us and our science. Science is so natural to humans that to be human is to do science. But surprisingly, our science has given us two ideas that utterly change the way we ought to see ourselves and the universe we grew up in. Stated baldly, the two ideas are evolution and mystery. I use the term “mystery” carefully. The mysteries explored here are truths which science has discovered but which we can only weakly understand. (...)
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  10. added 2015-07-29
    Todd R. Davies (1991). Knowledge Bases and Neural Network Synthesis. In Hozumi Tanaka (ed.), Artificial Intelligence in the Pacific Rim: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence. IOS Press, Inc. 717-722.
    We describe and try to motivate our project to build systems using both a knowledge based and a neural network approach. These two approaches are used at different stages in the solution of a problem, instead of using knowledge bases exclusively on some problems, and neural nets exclusively on others. The knowledge base (KB) is defined first in a declarative, symbolic language that is easy to use. It is then compiled into an efficient neural network (NN) representation, run, and the (...)
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  11. added 2015-07-29
    Todd R. Davies & Stuart J. Russell (1987). A Logical Approach to Reasoning by Analogy. In John P. McDermott (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI'87). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. 264-270.
    We analyze the logical form of the domain knowledge that grounds analogical inferences and generalizations from a single instance. The form of the assumptions which justify analogies is given schematically as the "determination rule", so called because it expresses the relation of one set of variables determining the values of another set. The determination relation is a logical generalization of the different types of dependency relations defined in database theory. Specifically, we define determination as a relation between schemata of first (...)
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  12. added 2015-07-29
    Jerry R. Hobbs, William Croft, Todd Davies, Douglas Edwards & Kenneth Laws (1987). Commonsense Metaphysics and Lexical Semantics. Computational Linguistics 13 (3&4):241-250.
    In the TACITUS project for using commonsense knowledge in the understanding of texts about mechanical devices and their failures, we have been developing various commonsense theories that are needed to mediate between the way we talk about the behavior of such devices and causal models of their operation. Of central importance in this effort is the axiomatization of what might be called commonsense metaphysics. This includes a number of areas that figure in virtually every domain of discourse, such as granularity, (...)
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  13. added 2015-07-28
    Richard Moore (2015). A Common Intentional Framework for Ape and Human Communication. Current Anthropology 56 (1):71-72.
  14. added 2015-07-28
    Richard Moore, Josep Call & Michael Tomasello (2015). Production and Comprehension of Gestures Between Orang-Utans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in a Referential Communication Game. PLoS ONE:pone.0129726.
    Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the ‘communicator’ could see but not obtain hidden food, the ‘donor’ could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its location for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they responded only (...)
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  15. added 2015-07-28
    Richard Moore & Claudio Tennie (2015). Cognitive Mechanisms Matter - but They Do Not Explain the Absence of Teaching in Chimpanzees. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38:e50.
  16. added 2015-07-26
    Franco Pestilli, Gerardo Viera & Marisa Carrasco (2007). How Do Attention and Adaptation Affect Contrast Sensitivity? Journal of Vision 7 (9).
    Attention and adaptation are both mechanisms that optimize visual performance. Attention optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to attended stimuli while decreasing them for unattended stimuli; adaptation optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to changing stimuli while decreasing them for unchanging stimuli. We investigated whether and how the adaptation state and the attentional effect on contrast sensitivity interact. We measured contrast sensitivity with an orientation-discrimination task, in two adaptation conditions—adapt to 0% or (...)
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  17. added 2015-07-25
    Jie Jiang, Huib Aldewereld, Virginia Dignum, Shuzheng Wang & Ziv Baida (2015). Regulatory Compliance of Business Processes. AI and Society 30 (3):393-402.
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  18. added 2015-07-25
    Sjoukje A. Osinga, Mark R. Kramer & Gert Jan Hofstede (2015). Sustainable Animal Welfare: Does Forcing Farmers Into Transition Help? AI and Society 30 (3):403-413.
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  19. added 2015-07-25
    Francesca Bordogna (2001). The Physiology and Psychology of Temperament: Pragmatism in Context. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 37:3-25.
    This paper traces William James's famous “temperament thesis” according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their “temperaments.” It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's (...)
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  20. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean & Don Howard (2014). Artificial Moral Agents: Creative, Autonomous, Social. An Approach Based on Evolutionary Computation. In Johanna Seibt, Raul Hakli & Marco Nørskov (eds.), Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications.
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  21. added 2015-07-21
    Ioan Muntean (2014). Computation and Scientific Discovery? A Bio-Inspired Approach. In Hiroki Sayama (ed.), Artificial Life 14. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems.
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  22. added 2015-07-20
    Aviva Berkovich-Ohana (forthcoming). A Case Study of a Meditation-Induced Altered State: Increased Overall Gamma Synchronization. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-16.
    This study presents two case reports of altered states spontaneously occurring during meditation in two proficient practitioners. These states, known as fruition, are common within the Mahasi School of Theravada Buddhism, and are considered the culmination of contemplation-induced stages of consciousness. Here, electrophysiological measures of these experiences were measured, with the participant’s personal reports used to guide the neural analyzes. The preliminary results demonstrate an increase in global long-range gamma synchronization during the fruition states, compared to the background meditation. The (...)
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  23. added 2015-07-20
    Sadhvi Batra, Jacqueline Anne Sullivan, Beverly Williams & David Geldmacher (forthcoming). Qualitative Assessment of Self-Identity in Advanced Dementia. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice.
    This study aimed to understand the preserved elements of self-identity in persons with moderate to severe dementia attributable to Alzheimer’s disease. A semi-structured interview was developed to explore the narrative self among residents with dementia in a residential care facility and residents without dementia in an independent living setting. The interviews were transcribed verbatim from audio recordings and analyzed for common themes, while being sensitive to possible differences between the groups. The participants with dementia showed evidence of self-reference even though (...)
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  24. added 2015-07-20
    Berit Brogaard (2015). The Self-Locating Property Theory of Color. Minds and Machines 25 (2):133-147.
    The paper reviews the empirical evidence for highly significant variation across perceivers in hue perception and argues that color physicalism cannot accommodate this variability. Two views that can accommodate the individual differences in hue perception are considered: the self-locating property theory, according to which colors are self-locating properties, and color relationalism, according to which colors are relations to perceivers and viewing conditions. It is subsequently argued that on a plausible rendition of the two views, the self-locating theory has a slight (...)
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  25. added 2015-07-20
    Maria Brincker (1014). Navigating Beyond “Here & Now” Affordances—on Sensorimotor Maturation and “False Belief” Performance. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    How and when do we learn to understand other people's perspectives and possibly divergent beliefs? This question has elicited much theoretical and empirical research. A puzzling finding has been that toddlers perform well on so-called implicit false belief (FB) tasks but do not show such capacities on traditional explicit FB tasks. I propose a navigational approach, which offers a hitherto ignored way of making sense of the seemingly contradictory results. The proposal involves a distinction between how we navigate FBs as (...)
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  26. added 2015-07-19
    Aileen Chau, Andres M. Salazar, Frank Krueger, Irene Cristofori & Jordan Grafman (2015). The Effect of Claustrum Lesions on Human Consciousness and Recovery of Function. Consciousness and Cognition 36:256-264.
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  27. added 2015-07-19
    Charlotte Vanden Bulcke, Geert Crombez, Wouter Durnez & Stefaan Van Damme (2015). Is Attentional Prioritization on a Location Where Pain is Expected Modality-Specific or Multisensory? Consciousness and Cognition 36:246-255.
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  28. added 2015-07-19
    Jeffrey A. Gibbons, Jennifer K. Hartzler, Andrew W. Hartzler, Sherman A. Lee & W. Richard Walker (2015). The Fading Affect Bias Shows Healthy Coping at the General Level, but Not the Specific Level for Religious Variables Across Religious and Non-Religious Events. Consciousness and Cognition 36:265-276.
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  29. added 2015-07-19
    Joseph M. Barnby, Neil W. Bailey, Richard Chambers & Paul B. Fitzgerald (2015). How Similar Are the Changes in Neural Activity Resulting From Mindfulness Practice in Contrast to Spiritual Practice? Consciousness and Cognition 36:219-232.
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  30. added 2015-07-19
    David B. Pillemer, Kristina L. Steiner, Kie J. Kuwabara, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen & Connie Svob (2015). Vicarious Memories. Consciousness and Cognition 36:233-245.
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  31. added 2015-07-19
    Michelle Carr & Tore Nielsen (2015). Daydreams and Nap Dreams: Content Comparisons. Consciousness and Cognition 36:196-205.
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  32. added 2015-07-17
    Eric Dietrich, Synopsis of Excellent Beauty: The Naturalness of Religion and the Unnaturalness of the World.
    This is a synopsis of my book Excellent Beauty: The naturalness of religion and the unnaturalness of the world (Columbia University Press). The synopsis discusses the book's two main theses: religion is an evolutionary adaptation and, as a consequence, humans are not at the center of the universe. The result of this latter point is that the universe contains profound and beautiful mysteries at which we humans can marvel but which we cannot explain away.
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  33. added 2015-07-16
    E. K. Ackermann (2015). Amusement, Delight, and Whimsy: Humor Has Its Reasons That Reason Cannot Ignore. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):405-411.
    Context: The idea for this article sprang from a desire to revive a conversation with the late Ernst von Glasersfeld on the heuristic function - and epistemological status - of forms of ideations that resist linguistic or empirical scrutiny. A close look into the uses of humor seemed a thread worth pursuing, albeit tenuous, to further explore some of the controversies surrounding the evocative power of the imaginal and other oblique forms of knowing characteristic of creative individuals. Problem: People generally (...)
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  34. added 2015-07-16
    P. Boytchev (2015). Author’s Response: Does Understanding Deconstruction Require Its Deconstruction? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):367-369.
    Upshot: I describe my perception of deconstruction, including the controversial point of view that deconstruction is actually construction. I also provide more details about the some of the design decisions in the software, and how these affected the students’ experience.
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  35. added 2015-07-16
    T. Hug (2015). Towards a Delightful Critique of Pure Reason. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):414-416.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Amusement, Delight, and Whimsy: Humor Has Its Reasons that Reason Cannot Ignore” by Edith K. Ackermann. Upshot: Ackermann’s target article strikes a chord by thinking together oblique and rational aspects of knowing in constructivism. Her target article points out uses of humor and various ways of making sense of our experience that have been underestimated in constructivist discourse. While I can agree on the main lines of her argument, I want to argue for further (...)
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  36. added 2015-07-16
    C. Kynigos (2015). Designing Constructionist E-Books: New Mediations for Creative Mathematical Thinking? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):305-313.
    Context: The article discusses design strategies for infusing constructionism and creativity into widely recognised media such as e-books. Problem: E-books have recently included constructionist widgets but we do not yet have creative designs for readers who may want to both read and tinker with an e-book. Method: The generation and study of a community of interest collaboratively designing e-books, with a strong constructionist element. Results: Some first examples of social creativity in the collaborative design process are discussed in the article, (...)
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  37. added 2015-07-16
    J. Mason (2015). Bringing Reflection to the Fore Using Narrative Construction. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):334-335.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Building Bridges to Algebra through a Constructionist Learning Environment” by Eirini Geraniou & Manolis Mavrikis. Upshot: In striving to support transition or bridging between arithmetic and algebra through software, Geraniou & Mavrikis come up against the need for learners not simply to “reflect” on what they have been doing, but to withdraw from action every so often, consider what actions have been effective, and construct their own narrative to hold together actions and goals and (...)
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  38. added 2015-07-16
    N. Panorkou & A. Maloney (2015). Authors’ Response: Planting Seeds of Mathematical Abstraction. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):352-354.
    Upshot: We consider that elementary students’ situated activities with geometric transformations and animation contain the seeds of complex, and eventually, mathematically generalizable and abstract reasoning. Further studies can explore such technologically-based activities’ potential as building blocks for flexible, creative, and formalized knowledge.
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  39. added 2015-07-16
    S. Delarivière & J. Frans (2015). Computational Explanation in Cognitive Sciences: The Mechanist Turn. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):426-429.
    Upshot: The computational theory of mind has been elaborated in many different ways throughout the last decades. In Explaining the Computational Mind, Milkowski defends his view that the mind can be explained as computational through his defense of mechanistic explanation. At no point in this book is there explicit mention of constructivist approaches to this topic. We will, nevertheless, argue that it is interesting for constructivist readers.
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  40. added 2015-07-16
    K. Peppler (2015). Tool Selection and Its Impact on Collaborative Learning. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):398-399.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Learning about Urban Sustainability with Digital Stories: Promoting Collaborative Creativity from a Constructionist Perspective” by Maria Daskolia, Chronis Kynigos & Katerina Makri. Upshot: Daskolia, Kynigos and Makri’s article offers us a view into potential applications of constructionist learning theory to help students conceive of and collaborate on solutions to today’s complex problems. This work in many ways parallels the efforts of those investigating systems thinking and highlights the importance of digital production in that process. (...)
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  41. added 2015-07-16
    H. Gash & T. McCloughlin (2015). Embedding Technology in Pedagogy. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):297-298.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Beyond Technocentrism: Supporting Constructionism in the Classroom” by Karen Brennan. Upshot: Brennan describes strategies designed to help teachers use Scratch in their classrooms, emphasising interfaces between the tool and its users, between users and between hope and happening. Previous work with similar aims identified apparently significant cultural approaches to initiating constructionist practice. Questions arise about the development of practice from technocentric to pedagogic over time that may have some answers in the data accumulated.
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  42. added 2015-07-16
    W. Holmes (2015). Deconstructionism” - A Neglected Stage in the Constructivist Learning Process? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):366-367.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructionism and Deconstructionism” by Pavel Boytchev. Upshot: Boytchev identifies “deconstruction” as a neglected but essential stage in the constructivist learning process. Drawing on two studies, one in a university and one in a secondary school, for which software was designed to facilitate constructionist student learning, the author argues that the first phase of learning is the decomposition of knowledge into smaller yet meaningful and reusable entities, which are used as building blocks to construct both (...)
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  43. added 2015-07-16
    V. Kenny (2015). All Alone, Together? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):412-414.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Amusement, Delight, and Whimsy: Humor Has Its Reasons that Reason Cannot Ignore” by Edith K. Ackermann. Upshot: My commentary on this target article departs from the final part dealing with “Ernst-the-rationalist” and attempts to draw out a series of complications in the ways we may understand Ernst von Glasersfeld’s radical constructivism. Special attention is given to the presence of incommensurability and incompatibility, not only between people but more so within any given individual.
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  44. added 2015-07-16
    K. Brennan (2015). Beyond Technocentrism: Supporting Constructionism in the Classroom. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):289-296.
    Context: In 2015, we are surrounded by tools and technologies for creating and making, thinking and learning. But classroom “learning” is often focused on learning about the tool/technology itself, rather than learning with or through the technology. Problem: A constructionist theory of learning offers useful ways for thinking about how technology can be included in the service of learning in K-12 classrooms. To support constructionism in the classroom, we need to focus on supporting teachers, who necessarily serve as the agents (...)
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  45. added 2015-07-16
    A. Chronaki & C. Kynigos (2015). Humor as a Humble Way to Access the Complexity of Knowledge Construction. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):416-417.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Amusement, Delight, and Whimsy: Humor Has Its Reasons that Reason Cannot Ignore” by Edith K. Ackermann. Upshot: Ackermann tackles “humor” as an agentive participant in the process of knowledge construction. Performing her thesis in her writing, she give a reflective account of how oblique ways of knowing have always been present in debates concerning epistemology, albeit not given equal status as rational ones. As such, her endeavors in this text are geared towards lifting up (...)
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  46. added 2015-07-16
    C. Papademetri-Kachrimani (2015). Author’s Response: School Reform: Is It Indeed Impossible? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):385-387.
    Upshot: Building on the commentator’s responses to the target article and bringing together all the valuable arguments, I pin down the challenges raised by reconsidering the concern Papert had at some point that school reform is impossible.
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  47. added 2015-07-16
    C. Girvan (2015). Changing Teacher Beliefs: Moving Towards Constructionism. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):298-299.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Beyond Technocentrism: Supporting Constructionism in the Classroom” by Karen Brennan. Upshot: If we are to move beyond technocentricism, we need not only to equip teachers with pedagogical approaches but to support a change in their beliefs, values and assumptions. While factors such as assessment practices and institutional norms can limit the impact of professional development by considering the ways in which teachers form their teacher-identity and the factors that can motivate change, we can begin (...)
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  48. added 2015-07-16
    E. K. Ackermann (2015). Author’s Response: Impenetrable Minds, Delusion of Shared Experience: Let’s Pretend. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):418-421.
    Upshot: In view of Kenny’s clinical insights, Hug’s notes on the intricacies of rational vs. a-rational “knowing” in the design sciences, and Chronaki & Kynigos’s notice of mathematics teachers’ meta-communication on experiences of change, this response reframes the heuristic power of bisociation and suspension of disbelief in the light of Kelly’s notion of “as-if-ism” (constructive alternativism. Doing as-if and playing what-if, I reiterate, are critical to mitigating intra-and inter-personal relations, or meta-communicating. Their epistemic status within the radical constructivist framework is (...)
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  49. added 2015-07-16
    A. Hjorth (2015). Body Syntonicity in Multi-Point Rotation? Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):351-352.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Elementary Students’ Construction of Geometric Transformation Reasoning in a Dynamic Animation Environment” by Alan Maloney. Upshot: Parnorkou and Maloney’s article presents an interesting, well-structured and clearly described study of children’s reasoning about mental rotations. Specifically, Parnorkou and Maloney deploy the microworld Graphs ’n Glyphs, and use it as a “window on thinking-in-change” as they observe and interview children who use it. Reading the article raised a few questions for me about the role of body (...)
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  50. added 2015-07-16
    P. Boytchev (2015). Constructionism and Deconstructionism. Constructivist Foundations 10 (3):355-363.
    Context: There is a movement to change education so that it is adequate to social expectations and uses the full potential of technology. However, there has been no significant breakthrough in this area and there is no clear evidence why. Problem: A potential issue explaining why education falls behind is the way educators focus on education. There is a possibility that a significant step in the learning process is routinely neglected. Method: Two different approaches to using IT in education are (...)
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