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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri St. Louis)
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  1. added 2014-11-23
    Jakob Hohwy (forthcoming). Prediction Error Minimization, Mental and Developmental Disorder, and Statistical Theories of Consciousness. In Rocco Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    This chapter seeks to recover an approach to consciousness from a general theory of brain function, namely the prediction error minimization theory. The way this theory applies to mental and developmental disorder demonstrates its relevance to consciousness. The resulting view is discussed in relation to a contemporary theory of consciousness, namely the idea that conscious perception depends on Bayesian metacognition; this theory is also supported by considerations of psychopathology. This Bayesian theory is first disconnected from the higher-order thought theory, and (...)
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  2. added 2014-11-22
    Ema Sullivan-Bissett (forthcoming). Implicit Bias, Confabulation, and Epistemic Innocence. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  3. added 2014-11-21
    Elena Clare Cuffari, Ezequiel Di Paolo & Hanne De Jaegher (forthcoming). From Participatory Sense-Making to Language: There and Back Again. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-37.
    The enactive approach to cognition distinctively emphasizes autonomy, adaptivity, agency, meaning, experience, and interaction. Taken together, these principles can provide the new sciences of language with a comprehensive philosophical framework: languaging as adaptive social sense-making. This is a refinement and advancement on Maturana’s idea of languaging as a manner of living. Overcoming limitations in Maturana’s initial formulation of languaging is one of three motivations for this paper. Another is to give a response to skeptics who challenge enactivism to connect “lower-level” (...)
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  4. added 2014-11-20
    Jeffrey White, Autonomous Reboot: The Challenges of Artificial Moral Agency and the Ends of Machine Ethics.
    Ryan Tonkens (2009) has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents (AMAs) satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe - both "rational" and "free" - while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of Machine Ethics to create AMAs that are perfectly, not merely reliably, ethical. Challenges for machine ethicists have also been presented by Anthony Beavers and Wendell Wallach, who have pushed for the reinvention of traditional ethics in order to avoid "ethical nihilism" due to (...)
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  5. added 2014-11-20
    Renatas Berniunas & Vilius Dranseika (forthcoming). Folk Concepts of Person and Identity: A Response to Nichols and Bruno. Philosophical Psychology.
    In a paper in Philosophical Psychology, Nichols & Bruno (2010) claim that the folk judge that psychological continuity is necessary for personal identity. In this article we attempt to evaluate this claim. First, we argue that it is likely that in thinking about hypothetical cases of transformations folk do not use a unitary concept of personal identity but rely on different concepts of a person and of identity of an individual. Identity can be ascribed even when post-transformation individuals are no (...)
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  6. added 2014-11-20
    Jeffrey White (201?). An Information Processing Model of Psychopathy. In Unknown (ed.), moral psychology. Nova. 1-53.
    Psychopathy is increasingly in the public eye. However, it is yet to be fully and effectively understood. Within the context of the DSM-IV, for example, it is best regarded as a complex family of disorders. The upside is that this family can be tightly related along common dimensions. Characteristic marks of psychopaths include a lack of guilt and remorse for paradigm case immoral actions, leading to the common conception of psychopathy rooted in affective dysfunctions. An adequate portrait of psychopathy is (...)
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  7. added 2014-11-20
    Jeffrey White (2013). Models of Moral Cognition. In Lorenzo Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology, 1. springer. last 20.
    3 Abstract This paper is about modeling morality, with a proposal as to the best 4 way to do it. There is the small problem, however, in continuing disagreements 5 over what morality actually is, and so what is worth modeling. This paper resolves 6 this problem around an understanding of the purpose of a moral model, and from 7 this purpose approaches the best way to model morality.
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  8. added 2014-11-19
    Hannes Rakoczy (forthcoming). Comparative Metaphysics: The Development of Representing Natural and Normative Regularities in Human and Non-Human Primates. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-15.
    How do human children come up to carve up and think of the world around them in its most general and abstract structure? And to which degree are these general forms of viewing the world shared by other animals, notably by non-human primates? In response to these questions of what could be called comparative metaphysics, this paper discusses new evidence from developmental and comparative research to argue for the following picture: human children and non-human primates share a basic framework of (...)
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  9. added 2014-11-18
    Geert Keil (1998). Was Roboter nicht können. Die Roboterantwort als knapp misslungene Verteidigung der starken KI-These. In Andreas Engel Peter Gold (ed.), Der Mensch in der Perspektive der Kognitionswissenschaften. 98-131.
    Theoretiker der Künstlichen Intelligenz und deren Wegbegleiter in der Philosophie des Geistes haben auf unterschiedliche Weise auf Kritik am ursprünglichen Theorieziel der KI reagiert. Eine dieser Reaktionen ist die Zurücknahme dieses Theorieziels zugunsten der Verfolgung kleinerformatiger Projekte. Eine andere Reaktion ist die Propagierung konnektionistischer Systeme, die mit ihrer dezentralen Arbeitsweise die neuronalen Netze des menschlichen Gehirns besser simulieren sollen. Eine weitere ist die sogenannte robot reply. Die Roboterantwort besteht aus zwei Elementen. Sie enthält (a) das Zugeständnis, daß das Systemverhalten eines (...)
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  10. added 2014-11-17
    Richard Brown (2014). Consciousness Doesn't Overflow Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 5 (1399):doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01399.
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  11. added 2014-11-17
    Jacques-Alain Miller (ed.) (2012). Scilicet: L'Ordre Symbolique au Xxie Siècle: Il N'est Plus Ce Qu'il Était: Quelles Conséquences Pour la Cure: Viiie Congrès, Association Mondiale de Psychanalyse. École de la Cause Freudienne.
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  12. added 2014-11-16
    H. F. Alrøe & E. Noe (2014). Authors' Response: A Perspectivist View on the Perspectivist View of Interdisciplinary Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):88-95.
    Upshot: In our response we focus on five questions that point to important common themes in the commentaries: why start in wicked problems, what kind of system is a scientific perspective, what is the nature of second-order research processes, what does this mean for understanding interdisciplinary work, and how may polyocular research help make real-world decisions.
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  13. added 2014-11-16
    R. Palmaru (2014). Communication and Media Studies in Crisis. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):150-152.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? A Constructivist and Second-order Critique of the Research on Environmental Media Coverage and Its Normative Implications” by Julia Völker & Armin Scholl. Upshot: The present commentary is not intended as a criticism of the arguments presented in Julia Völker and Armin Scholl’s target article. I very much agree with these arguments. I only wish to draw attention to the fact that Völker and Scholl are not writing about (...)
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  14. added 2014-11-16
    W. Callebaut (2014). Beyond a “Levels View” of Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):79-80.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems” by Hugo F. Alrøe & Egon Noe. Upshot: I critically assess Alrøe and Noe’s plea for a “second-order science of interdisciplinary research” from the perspective of a consistently naturalized philosophy of science, arguing that the latter precludes the “levels view” of science implied by the former. I also suggest we avoid the term “polyocularity” as it perpetuates the persistent bias toward vision in our (...)
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  15. added 2014-11-16
    R. Szostak (2014). Seeking Common Ground on the Nature of Interdisciplinarity. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):77-78.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems” by Hugo F. Alrøe & Egon Noe. Upshot: I draw connections between the target article and the broader literature on interdisciplinarity, highlighting areas of both agreement and disagreement. Suggestions are made regarding how interdisciplinary research should proceed.
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  16. added 2014-11-16
    S. Engesser (2014). Beyond Criticizing Objectivism: Three Pragmatic Considerations. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):154-155.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? A Constructivist and Second-order Critique of the Research on Environmental Media Coverage and Its Normative Implications” by Julia Völker & Armin Scholl. Upshot: Criticizing climate communication research for its sometimes objectivist approach appears highly justified. However, three pragmatic questions should be considered. First, is it truly illegitimate to confront a social system with external normative expectations? Second, are all human inferences equally subjective? Third, how can a constructive (...)
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  17. added 2014-11-16
    C. Valenzuela-Moguillansky (2014). Cognitive Science and Phenomenology: A Step Towards the Epistemic Ensō. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):108-109.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature” by Sebastjan Vörös. Upshot: This commentary highlights the contribution of “The Uroboros of Consciousness” to the integration of phenomenology with cognitive sciences by replacing the question of how we want to make such integration. In a very pertinent manner, this article looks at the other side of a coin that until now has been turned to the requirements and criteria of (...)
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  18. added 2014-11-16
    F. Grote (2014). Entropy as a Resource for Double Contingency. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):58-60.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Circular Conditions of Second-order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-based Experiments at the Roots of Observation” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: Observers construct an internal, local state of order for the perspective of their observations, but in doing so they increase the overall entropy of the system they belong to, e.g., society, by adding more options for potential courses of action. Thus, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is not just satisfied in the circular condition of (...)
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  19. added 2014-11-16
    S. Vörös (2014). Author's Response: Of Roses, Serpents, and Circles: Fleshing Out the Bones of Contention. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):112-119.
    Upshot: Following a brief reflection on some terminological issues, I discuss the question of the (ir)rationality of non-dualism, the two aspects of the conceptual dimension of phenomenologisation, and the potential of meditative/contemplative practices in cultivating its experiential/existential dimension. Also, I (re)emphasise that the two-pronged project of phenomenologisation is closely associated with the establishment of second-order science, and purport to show why it might be an important addition to, and elaboration of, the overarching attempt to think and live the fundamental circularity (...)
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  20. added 2014-11-16
    R. Ison (2014). Doing Second-Order R&D. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):130-131.
    Open peer commentary on the article “On Climate Change Research, the Crisis of Science and Second-order Science” by Philipp Aufenvenne, Heike Egner & Kirsten von Elverfeldt. Upshot: Bringing second-order understandings to the doing of climate science is to be welcomed. In taking a second-order turn, it is imperative to reflect on reflection, or report authentically our doings and thus move beyond sterile debates about what ought to be or what second-order doings are or are not. The field of doing second-order (...)
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  21. added 2014-11-16
    M. R. Lissack (2014). Second-Order Science is Enacted Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):35-37.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Umpleby’s approach to second-order science is top-down, and as such, fails to distinguish the cognitive mechanisms that provide the direct enacted link between such science and constructivism. When the idea of “ceteris paribus” holds little meaning to the examined situation, we are in the realm of second-order science, or Science 2. Only Science 2 can deal with emergence, volition, and reflexive anticipation. These three properties (...)
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  22. added 2014-11-16
    P. Aufenvenne, H. Egner & K. Elverfeldt (2014). On Climate Change Research, the Crisis of Science and Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):120-129.
    Context: This conceptual paper tries to tackle the advantages and the limitations that might arise from including second-order science into global climate change sciences, a research area that traditionally focuses on first-order approaches and that is currently attracting a lot of media and public attention. Problem: The high profile of climate change research seems to provoke a certain dilemma for scientists: despite the slowly increasing realization within the sciences that our knowledge is temporary, tentative, uncertain, and far from stable, the (...)
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  23. added 2014-11-16
    J. Stewart (2014). Science Is Not Value-Free. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):28-29.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: The author claims that second-order science leads to “an awareness of our impact on our social and biological environment.” If this is true, it is sheer irresponsibility not to address the possibility that human activity is leading the biosphere to a point of catastrophic collapse. More generally, I hold that science should openly address explicitly value-laden issues.
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  24. added 2014-11-16
    S. A. Umpleby (2014). Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):16-23.
    Context: Philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that deals with methods, foundations, and implications of science. It is a theory of how to create scientific knowledge. Presently, there is widespread agreement on how to do science, namely conjectures, ideally in the form of a mathematical model, and refutations, testing the model using empirical evidence. Problem: Many social scientists are using a conception of science created for the physical sciences. Expanding philosophy of science so that it more successfully encompasses (...)
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  25. added 2014-11-16
    S. Fuller (2014). Ascending to the Second-Order: An Alternative Systems Take on Wicked Problems. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):81-83.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems” by Hugo F. Alrøe & Egon Noe. Upshot: Contrary to Alrøe and Noe, problems are wicked not because they escape the technical expertise of the special sciences but because they reawaken the sciences’ totalizing impulse, which then leads to conflicting cross-disciplinary claims, on the basis of which the state must intervene. This situation is understandable against the backdrop of an “open systems” perspective, in (...)
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  26. added 2014-11-16
    J. Völker & A. Scholl (2014). Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? A Constructivist and Second-Order Critique of the Research on Environmental Media Coverage and Its Normative Implications. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):140-149.
    Problem: First-order scientific research is often not aware of the hidden assumptions provided by an epistemological perspective based upon realism. Beyond philosophical considerations about the epistemological foundations, some practical normative implications deriving from them are crucial: in the field of communication and media studies, some scholars criticize media coverage, e.g., on climate change, as biased and distorted from reality. Method: From a constructivist perspective, the article presents a detailed meta-analysis of the course of argumentation provided by two empirical communication studies (...)
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  27. added 2014-11-16
    B. R. Hornung (2014). Second-Order Science, Unity of Science and Methods of Research. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):30-31.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Umpleby’s target article is important for bridging the gap between the natural and social sciences. While I agree with his claims, his proposals may not reach far enough. Concrete methods of empirical research, which are of crucial importance for a breakthrough, deserve further elaboration.
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  28. added 2014-11-16
    R. D. King (2014). What Kind of Autopoietic System, If Any, Can a Perspective Actually Be? Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):85-87.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems” by Hugo F. Alrøe & Egon Noe. Upshot: The authors propose that a perspective is an autopoietic system. This commentary challenges the feasibility of this claim by pointing out the conceptual difficulties associated with such a proposal. But even granting that a perspective is, or can be, an autopoietic system, what sort of autopoietic system might best ground the authors’ concept of perspective? This (...)
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  29. added 2014-11-16
    H. F. Alrøe & E. Noe (2014). Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):65-76.
    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains (...)
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  30. added 2014-11-16
    K. H. Müller & A. Riegler (2014). A New Course of Action. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):1-6.
    Context: The journal Constructivist Foundations celebrates ten years of publishing articles on constructivist approaches, in particular radical constructivism. Problem: In order to preserve the sustainability of radical constructivism and regain its appeal to new generations of researchers, we set up a new course of action for and with the radical constructivist community to study its innovative potential. This new avenue is “second-order science.” Method: We specify two motivations of second-order science, i.e., the inclusion of the observer, and self-reflexivity that allows (...)
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  31. added 2014-11-16
    A. Ciaunica (2014). Putting Phenomenology to Work “Seriously”- Deep Brain Stimulation and Mental Disorders. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):105-106.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature” by Sebastjan Vörös. Upshot: I present a concrete example of how phenomenology might “seriously” contribute to our understanding of certain aspects of the human mind, by drawing on recent research in psychopathology.
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  32. added 2014-11-16
    M. Füllsack (2014). Author's Response: Verbal Limitations of Observer-Inclusion. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):62-64.
    Upshot: I present reflections on the particularities of second-order science in response to the commentaries on my paper, as well as comments on the limitations of verbal analytical attempts to grasp the implicit circularity of observer-inclusion.
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  33. added 2014-11-16
    J. P. Van Bendegem (2014). Do We Also Need Second-Order Mathematics? Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):34-35.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: The author makes a strong plea for second-order science but somehow mathematics remains out of focus. The major claim of this commentary is that second-order science requires second-order mathematics.
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  34. added 2014-11-16
    Marsha Hewitt (2014). Freud on Religion. Acumen.
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  35. added 2014-11-16
    M. R. Herbers (2014). Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? It Depends. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):155-156.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? A Constructivist and Second-order Critique of the Research on Environmental Media Coverage and Its Normative Implications” by Julia Völker & Armin Scholl. Upshot: The commentary aims to amend Völker and Scholl’s argumentation. Some points should be reconsidered, such as the object of communication research, types of media that are scrutinized and a broader theoretical background.
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  36. added 2014-11-16
    S. Vörös (2014). The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):96-104.
    Context: The burgeoning field of consciousness studies has recently witnessed a revival of first-person approaches based on phenomenology in general and Husserlian phenomenology in particular. However, the attempts to introduce phenomenological methods into cognitive science have raised serious doubts as to the feasibility of such projects. Much of the current debate has revolved around the issue of the naturalisation of phenomenology, i.e., of the possibility of integrating phenomenology into the naturalistic paradigm. Significantly less attention has been devoted to the complementary (...)
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  37. added 2014-11-16
    L. H. Kauffman (2014). Circularity and Distinction. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):55-56.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Circular Conditions of Second-order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-based Experiments at the Roots of Observation” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: The aim of my commentary is to reflect on fundamental issues related to circularity, distinction and the properties of observers.
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  38. added 2014-11-16
    M. Maurer (2014). Why We Need a Pragmatic View on Reality and the Media. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):152-153.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Do the Media Fail to Represent Reality? A Constructivist and Second-order Critique of the Research on Environmental Media Coverage and Its Normative Implications” by Julia Völker & Armin Scholl. Upshot: In their paper, Völker and Scholl use one of my studies as an example of an objectivist research strategy, which they criticize. In this reply, I am trying to introduce a pragmatic perspective on the comparison of real-world indicators and media content. Moreover, I explain (...)
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  39. added 2014-11-16
    E. Balsemão Pires (2014). Systemic-Internal and Theoretical Views on Second-Order Observations. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):56-58.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Circular Conditions of Second-order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-based Experiments at the Roots of Observation” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: I address Füllsack’s main conclusions in his article regarding the meaning of second-order observations. Especially envisaged are the epistemological and ontological difficulties raised by his scrutiny of the merging between systemic-internal conditions of second-order reflexivity and the thematic-theoretical accounts of selection, intentionality and purposiveness in evolutionary systems.
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  40. added 2014-11-16
    M. A. Notturno (2014). Do We Need a Second-Order Science? Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):23-26.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: This article argues that we do not need a new scientific method or a “second-order science” to deal with the facts that the individual characteristics of observers may affect the nature and quality of their observations and that the application of scientific theories may affect the systems they describe. It also argues that Umpleby has not given us good reason to think that we do.
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  41. added 2014-11-16
    E. Buchinger (2014). Second-Order Observation in Social Science: Autopoietic Foundations. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):32-33.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Second-order science requires a specific methodology. It thereby reverses the classical observer-observed relation in favor of the observed - i.e., the first-order observers - if the principle of autopoiesis is acknowledged.
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  42. added 2014-11-16
    S. A. J. Stuart (2014). The Enkinaesthetic Betwixt. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):109-111.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature” by Sebastjan Vörös. Upshot: Vörös proposes that we phenomenologise nature and, whilst I agree with the spirit and direction of his proposal, the 4EA framework, on which he bases his project, is too conservative and is, therefore, unsatisfactory. I present an alternative framework, an enkinaesthetic field, and suggest further ways in which we might explore a non-dichotomised “betwixt” and begin to (...)
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  43. added 2014-11-16
    S. A. Umpleby (2014). The Social and Political Context of Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):133-135.
    Open peer commentary on the article “On Climate Change Research, the Crisis of Science and Second-order Science” by Philipp Aufenvenne, Heike Egner & Kirsten von Elverfeldt. Upshot: Second-order science primarily focuses on perception and cognition. However, social contexts, including political interpretations of science, are also included because they are part of the interpretations of the observer. To understand a scientific theory, it is helpful to understand neurophysiology, the history of the individual and the social and political context in which the (...)
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  44. added 2014-11-16
    P. Gaitsch (2014). The Small Change of Non-Idealistic Correlationism. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):106-108.
    Open peer commentary on the article “The Uroboros of Consciousness: Between the Naturalisation of Phenomenology and the Phenomenologisation of Nature” by Sebastjan Vörös. Upshot: In my commentary, I focus on the main claim that naturalizing transcendental phenomenology should lead to a phenomenologisation of nature. I suggest that this could be spelled out in a non-idealistic correlationism of mind and nature and, more specifically, in a phenomenological investigation into living beings based on the analysis of the embodied mind/lived body.
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  45. added 2014-11-16
    H. von Storch (2014). On Detection and Attribution. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):131-132.
    Open peer commentary on the article “On Climate Change Research, the Crisis of Science and Second-order Science” by Philipp Aufenvenne, Heike Egner & Kirsten von Elverfeldt. Upshot: I discuss the concepts of detection and attribution as they are used in scientific discussions about the cause of global warming.
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  46. added 2014-11-16
    J. J. Hu (2014). New Challenges to New Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):26-28.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: The humanities are gaining a new self-awareness of the role of observers who develop theories, and of the interplays between the theories and the system being studied. This article follows up the target paper with extended challenging questions, inviting more discussion.
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  47. added 2014-11-16
    W. Krauß (2014). First Aid for Climate Research with Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):132-133.
    Open peer commentary on the article “On Climate Change Research, the Crisis of Science and Second-order Science” by Philipp Aufenvenne, Heike Egner & Kirsten von Elverfeldt. Upshot: On an epistemological level, Aufenvenne, Egner and von Elverfeldt argue convincingly for an increasing role for second-order science in climate research. However, the authors partially underestimate the already increasing role of reflexive critique in climate discourse, and they do not yet fully take into account the radical changes in our conception of climate change (...)
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  48. added 2014-11-16
    Elizabeth R. Valentine (2014). Philosophy and History of Psychology: Selected Works of Elizabeth Valentine. Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
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  49. added 2014-11-16
    P. Aufenvenne, H. Egner & K. Elverfeldt (2014). Authors' Response: Communicating Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):135-139.
    Upshot: For communicating second-order science, von Foerster’s ethical imperative provides a viable starting point. Proceeding from this, we plead in favour of emphasising the common grounds of diverging scientific opinions and of various approaches in second-order science instead of focussing on the differences. This will provide a basis for communication and stimulate scientific self-reflection.
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  50. added 2014-11-16
    K. H. Müller & A. Riegler (2014). Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):7-15.
    Context: Many recent research areas such as human cognition and quantum physics call the observer-independence of traditional science into question. Also, there is a growing need for self-reflexivity in science, i.e., a science that reflects on its own outcomes and products. Problem: We introduce the concept of second-order science that is based on the operation of re-entry. Our goal is to provide an overview of this largely unexplored science domain and of potential approaches in second-order fields. Method: We provide the (...)
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