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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri, St. Louis)
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  1. added 2016-05-27
    Peter Langland-Hassan (forthcoming). Imagining Experiences. Noûs.
    It is often held that in imagining experiences we exploit a special imagistic way of representing mentality—one that enables us to think about mental states in terms of what it is like to have them. According to some, when this way of thinking about the mind is paired with more objective means, an explanatory gap between the phenomenal and physical features of mental states arises. This paper advances a view along those lines, but with a twist. What many take for (...)
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  2. added 2016-05-27
    Laura Schlingloff & Richard Moore (forthcoming). Do Chimpanzees Conform to Cultural Norms? In Kristin Andrews Jacob Beck (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Animal Mind. Routledge
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  3. added 2016-05-27
    James Andow & Florian Cova (2015). Why Compatibilist Intuitions Are Not Mistaken: A Reply to Feltz and Millan. Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):550-566.
    In the past decade, a number of empirical researchers have suggested that laypeople have compatibilist intuitions. In a recent paper, Feltz and Millan have challenged this conclusion by claiming that most laypeople are only compatibilists in appearance and are in fact willing to attribute free will to people no matter what. As evidence for this claim, they have shown that an important proportion of laypeople still attribute free will to agents in fatalistic universes. In this paper, we first argue that (...)
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  4. added 2016-05-27
    Brian Leahy (2015). Simplicity and Elegance in Millikan’s Account of Productivity: Reply to Martinez. Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):503-516.
    This paper responds to a problem, raised by Martinez, for Millikan’s explanation of the interpretability of novel signs in terms of mapping functions. I argue that Martinez’s critique is a logically weakened version of Kripke’s skeptical argument about rule following. Responding to Martinez requires two things. First, we must correctly understand the role of simplicity and elegance in choosing the correct mapping function for a signaling system. Second, we need to understand that mapping functions are descriptions of the features that (...)
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  5. added 2016-05-27
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2014). Cognitive Style and Religiosity: The Role of Conflict Detection. Memory and Cognition 42 (1):1-10.
    Recent research has indicated a negative relation between the propensity for analytic reasoning and religious beliefs and practices. Here, we propose conflict detection as a mechanism underlying this relation, on the basis of the hypothesis that more-analytic people are less religious, in part, because they are more sensitive to conflicts between immaterial religious beliefs and beliefs about the material world. To examine cognitive conflict sensitivity, we presented problems containing stereotypes that conflicted with base-rate probabilities in a task with no religious (...)
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  6. added 2016-05-27
    Etienne P. LeBel & Christopher J. Wilbur (2013). Big Secrets Do Not Necessarily Cause Hills to Appear Steeper. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.
    Slepian, Masicampo, Toosi, and Ambady found that individuals recalling and writing about a big, meaningful secret judged a pictured hill as steeper than did those who recalled and wrote about a small, inconsequential secret. From an embodied cognition perspective, this result was interpreted as suggesting that important secrets weigh people down. Answering to mounting calls for the crucial need of independent direct replications of published findings to ensure the self-correcting nature of our science, we sought to corroborate Slepian et al.’s (...)
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  7. added 2016-05-27
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2013). Belief Bias During Reasoning Among Religious Believers and Skeptics. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 20 (4):806-811.
    We provide evidence that religious skeptics, as compared to believers, are both more reflective and effective in logical reasoning tasks. While recent studies have reported a negative association between an analytic cognitive style and religiosity, they focused exclusively on accuracy, making it difficult to specify potential underlying cognitive mechanisms. The present study extends the previous research by assessing both performance and response times on quintessential logical reasoning problems. Those reporting more religious skepticism made fewer reasoning errors than did believers. This (...)
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  8. added 2016-05-27
    Kevin P. Tobia, Wesley Buckwalter & Stephen Stich (2012). Moral Intuitions: Are Philosophers Experts? Philosophical Psychology:1-10.
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  9. added 2016-05-27
    Gordon Pennycook & Valerie A. Thompson (2012). Reasoning with Base Rates is Routine, Relatively Effortless, and Context Dependent. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 19 (3):528-534.
    We tested models of base rate “neglect” using a novel paradigm. Participants judged the probability that a hypothetical person belonged to one of two categories on the basis of either a personality description alone or the personality description and a base rate probability. When base rates and descriptions were congruent, judgments in the BR condition were higher and more uniform than those in the NoBR condition. In contrast, base rates had a polarizing effect on judgments when they were incongruent with (...)
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  10. added 2016-05-27
    Amitai Shenhav, David G. Rand & Joshua D. Greene (2012). Divine Intuition: Cognitive Style Influences Belief in God. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (3):423.
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  11. added 2016-05-27
    Nathaniel D. Daw, Samuel J. Gershman, Ben Seymour, Peter Dayan & Raymond J. Dolan (2011). Model-Based Influences on Humans' Choices and Striatal Prediction Errors. Neuron 69 (6):1204-1215.
    The mesostriatal dopamine system is prominently implicated in model-free reinforcement learning, with fMRI BOLD signals in ventral striatum notably covarying with model-free prediction errors. However, latent learning and devaluation studies show that behavior also shows hallmarks of model-based planning, and the interaction between model-based and model-free values, prediction errors, and preferences is underexplored. We designed a multistep decision task in which model-based and model-free influences on human choice behavior could be distinguished. By showing that choices reflected both influences we could (...)
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  12. added 2016-05-27
    Nicole M. Else-Quest, Janet Shibley Hyde & Marcia C. Linn (2010). Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin 136 (1):103-127.
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 136 of Psychological Bulletin. On page 118 of the article “Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis,” by Nicole M. Else-Quest, Janet Shibley Hyde, and Marcia C. Linn, the images on Figures 1 and 2 are incorrectly reversed. The legends for Figures 1 and 2 are in the correct order.] A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the (...)
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  13. added 2016-05-27
    Liane Young, Antoine Bechara, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio (2010). Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Judgment of Harmful Intent. Neuron 65 (6):845-851.
    Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events, as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver (...)
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  14. added 2016-05-27
    Adam L. Alter, Daniel M. Oppenheimer, Nicholas Epley & Rebecca N. Eyre (2007). Overcoming Intuition: Metacognitive Difficulty Activates Analytic Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (4):569.
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  15. added 2016-05-27
    Jorge Moll & Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza (2007). Moral Judgments, Emotions and the Utilitarian Brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (8):319-321.
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  16. added 2016-05-27
    David M. Amodio, John T. Jost, Sarah L. Master & Cindy M. Yee (2007). Neurocognitive Correlates of Liberalism and Conservatism. Nature Neuroscience 10 (10):1246-1247.
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  17. added 2016-05-27
    Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer (2007). Environments That Make Us Smart Ecological Rationality. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (3):167-171.
    Traditional views of rationality posit general-purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimization. The study of ecological rationality focuses on uncovering the “adaptive toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds employ, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the shaping of environments to engender better decisions.
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  18. added 2016-05-27
    Bertram Gawronski & Galen V. Bodenhausen (2006). Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change. Psychological Bulletin 132 (5):692-731.
    A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation model makes specific assumptions about (...)
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  19. added 2016-05-27
    Joseph P. Simmons & Leif D. Nelson (2006). Intuitive Confidence: Choosing Between Intuitive and Nonintuitive Alternatives. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 135 (3):409-428.
    People often choose intuitive rather than equally valid nonintuitive alternatives. The authors suggest that these intuitive biases arise because intuitions often spring to mind with subjective ease, and the subjective ease leads people to hold their intuitions with high confidence. An investigation of predictions against point spreads found that people predicted intuitive options more often than equally valid nonintuitive alternatives. Critically, though, this effect was largely determined by people's confidence in their intuitions. Across naturalistic, expert, and laboratory samples, against personally (...)
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  20. added 2016-05-27
    Jody M. Shynkaruk & Valerie A. Thompson (2006). Confidence and Accuracy in Deductive Reasoning. Memory and Cognition 34 (3):619-632.
    In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between confidence and accuracy in syllogistic reasoning. Participants judged the validity of conclusions and provided confidence ratings twice for each problem: once quickly and again after further deliberation. Correlations between confidence and accuracy were small or nonexistent. In addition, confidence and accuracy were mediated by different variables. Confidence judgments appeared to reflect external cues, so that confidence was greater when the participants were allowed additional time to think about the problem, as well as (...)
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  21. added 2016-05-27
    Vinod Goel & Oshin Vartanian (2005). Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-Shift Problems. Cerebral Cortex 15 (8):1170-1177.
    Although patient data have traditionally implicated the left prefrontal cortex in hypothesis generation, recent lesion data implicate right PFC in hypothesis generation tasks that involve set shifts. To test the involvement of the right prefrontal cortex in a hypothesis generation task involving set shifts, we scanned 13 normal subjects with fMRI as they completed Match Problems and a baseline task. In Match Problems subjects determined the number of possible solutions for each trial. Successful solutions are indicative of set shifts. In (...)
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  22. added 2016-05-27
    Jorge Moll, Roland Zahn, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Frank Krueger & Jordan Grafman (2005). The Neural Basis of Human Moral Cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6 (10):799-809.
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  23. added 2016-05-27
    Janet Shibley Hyde (2005). The Gender Similarities Hypothesis. American Psychologist 60 (6):581-592.
    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry (...)
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  24. added 2016-05-27
    Daniel Kahneman (2003). A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality. American Psychologist 58 (9):697.
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  25. added 2016-05-27
    Jonathan Evans (2002). Logic and Human Reasoning: An Assessment of the Deduction Paradigm. Psychological Bulletin 128 (6):978-996.
    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process (...)
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  26. added 2016-05-27
    Vinod Goel & Raymond J. Dolan (2001). Functional Neuroanatomy of Three-Term Relational Reasoning. Neuropsychologia 39 (9):901-909.
    In a recent study we demonstrated that reasoning with categorical syllogisms engages two dissociable mechanisms. Reasoning involving concrete sentences engaged a left hemisphere linguistic system while formally identical arguments, involving abstract sentences, recruited a parietal spatial network. The involvement of a parietal visuo–spatial system in abstract syllogism reasoning raised the question whether argument forms involving explicit spatial relations are sufficient to engage the parietal system? We addressed this question in an event-related fMRI study of three-term relational reasoning, using sentences with (...)
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  27. added 2016-05-27
    Yingrui Yang & Philip Johnson-Laird (2000). Illusions in Quantified Reasoning: How to Make the Impossible Seem Possible, and Vice Versa. Memory and Cognition 28 (3):452-465.
    The mental model theory postulates that reasoners build models of the situations described in premises, and that these models normally represent only what is true. The theory has an unexpected consequence. It predicts the existence ofillusions in inferences. Certain inferences should have compelling but erroneous conclusions. Two experiments corroborated the occurrence of such illusions in inferences about what is possible from disjunctions of quantified assertions, such as, “at least some of the plastic beads are not red.” Experiment 1 showed that (...)
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  28. added 2016-05-27
    Matthew D. Lieberman (2000). Intuition: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Approach. Psychological Bulletin 126 (1):109.
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  29. added 2016-05-27
    Vinod Goel, Brian Gold, Shitij Kapur & Sylvain Houle (1998). Neuroanatomical Correlates of Human Reasoning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10 (3):293-302.
    One of the important questions cognitive theories of reasoning must address is whether logical reasoning is inherently sentential or spatial. A sentential model would exploit nonspatial properties of representations whereas a spatial model would exploit spatial properties of representations. In general terms, the linguistic hypothesis predicts that the language processing regions underwrite human reasoning processes, and the spatial hypothesis suggests that the neural structures for perception and motor control contribute the basic representational building blocks used for high-level logical and linguistic (...)
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  30. added 2016-05-27
    Philip Johnson-Laird & Fabien Savary (1996). Illusory Inferences About Probabilities. Acta Psychologica 93 (1–3):69-90.
    The mental model theory postulates that reasoners build models of the situations described in premises. A conclusion is possible if it holds in at least one model of the premises; it is probable if it holds in most of the models; and it is necessary if it holds in all of the models. The theory also postulates that reasoners represent as little information as possible in explicit models and, in particular, that they represent only information about what is true. One (...)
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  31. added 2016-05-27
    Steven A. Sloman (1996). The Empirical Case for Two Systems of Reasoning. Psychological Bulletin 119 (1):3-22.
    Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve (...)
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  32. added 2016-05-27
    Bruno G. Bara, Monica Bucciarelli & Philip N. Johnson-Laird (1995). Development of Syllogistic Reasoning. American Journal of Psychology 108:157-157.
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: PB - University of Illinois Press.
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  33. added 2016-05-27
    Timothy D. Wilson, Douglas J. Lisle, Jonathan W. Schooler, Sara D. Hodges, Kristen J. Klaaren & Suzanne J. LaFleur (1993). Introspecting About Reasons Can Reduce Post-Choice Satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19:331-331.
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: PB - SAGE PERIODICALS PRESS.
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  34. added 2016-05-27
    Denise D. Cummins, Todd Lubart, Olaf Alksnis & Robert Rist (1991). Conditional Reasoning and Causation. Memory and Cognition 19 (3):274-282.
    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative contributions of syntactic form and content to conditional reasoning. The content domain chosen was that of causation. Conditional statements that described causal relationships were embedded in simple arguments whose entailments are governed by the rules -of truth-functional logic. The causal statements differed in terms of the number of alternative causes and disabling conditions that characterized the causal relationship. Subjects were required to judge whether or not each argument’s conclusion could be accepted. Judgments (...)
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  35. added 2016-05-27
    Janet S. Hyde, Elizabeth Fennema & Susan J. Lamon (1990). Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin 107 (2):139-155.
    Performed a meta-analysis of 100 studies of gender differences in mathematics performance. They yielded 254 independent effect sizes, representing the testing of 3,175,188 Ss. Averaged overall effect sizes based on samples of the general population indicated that females outperformed males by only a negligible amount. An examination of age trends indicated that girls showed a slight superiority in computation in elementary school and middle school. There were no gender differences in problem solving in elementary or middle school; differences favoring men (...)
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  36. added 2016-05-27
    Arthur S. Reber (1989). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118 (3):219-235.
    I examine the phenomenon of implicit learning, the process by which knowledge about the rule-governed complexities of the stimulus environment is acquired independently of conscious attempts to do so. Our research with the two seemingly disparate experimental paradigms of synthetic grammar learning and probability learning, is reviewed and integrated with other approaches to the general problem of unconscious cognition. The conclusions reached are as follows: Implicit learning produces a tacit knowledge base that is abstract and representative of the structure of (...)
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  37. added 2016-05-27
    Maya Bar-Hillel (1984). Representativeness and Fallacies of Probability Judgment. Acta Psychologica 55 (2):91-107.
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  38. added 2016-05-27
    Maya Bar-Hillel (1980). The Base-Rate Fallacy in Probability Judgments. Acta Psychologica 44 (3):211-233.
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  39. added 2016-05-27
    Robyn M. Dawes (1979). The Robust Beauty of Improper Linear Models in Decision Making. American Psychologist 34 (7):571-582.
    Proper linear models are those in which predictor variables are given weights such that the resulting linear composite optimally predicts some criterion of interest; examples of proper linear models are standard regression analysis, discriminant function analysis, and ridge regression analysis. Research summarized in P. Meehl's book on clinical vs statistical prediction and research stimulated in part by that book indicate that when a numerical criterion variable is to be predicted from numerical predictor variables, proper linear models outperform clinical intuition. Improper (...)
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  40. added 2016-05-27
    David A. Lieberman (1979). Behaviorism and the Mind: A Call for a Return to Introspection. American Psychologist 34 (4):319-333.
    Comments that perhaps few psychologists would now describe themselves as strict behaviorists; however, a review of the literature suggests that methodological and radical behaviorism continue to exert a powerful influence on current research, even in such nominally cognitive areas as imagery and hypothesis learning. In many ways this influence has been healthy, leading to a productive emphasis on the importance of environmental variables in shaping behavior, but some of its consequences have been rather less benign. After reviewing the historical arguments (...)
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  41. added 2016-05-27
    Jonathan Evans & A. E. Dusoir (1977). Proportionality and Sample Size as Factors in Intuitive Statistical Judgement. Acta Psychologica 41 (2):129-137.
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  42. added 2016-05-27
    Robyn M. Dawes & Bernard Corrigan (1974). Linear Models in Decision Making. Psychological Bulletin 81 (2):95-106.
    A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used normatively to aid the decision maker, as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, to represent the decision maker "paramorphically" and to "bootstrap" the decision maker by replacing him with his representation. Examination of the contexts in which linear models have been successfully employed indicates (...)
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  43. added 2016-05-27
    Richard C. Galbraith & Benton J. Underwood (1973). Perceived Frequency of Concrete and Abstract Words. Memory and Cognition 1 (1):56-60.
    Studies are reported which show that concrete and abstract words of equal objective frequency are not perceived as being equal. The abstract word has greater perceived frequency than the concrete word. The judged variety of contexts in which a word appears correlates very highly with perceived frequency. The results have relevance to the design of learning studies in which concrete and abstract words are used. and also to the interpretation of such experiments.
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  44. added 2016-05-27
    Carl-Axel S. Staël von Holstein (1971). Two Techniques for Assessment of Subjective Probability Distributions — An Experimental Study. Acta Psychologica 35 (6):478-494.
    Subjects were asked to assess their subjective probability distributions for unknown parameters of Bernoulli processes. The processes were generated by random devices like, for instance, irregular dice. The assessments were based on two assessment techniques. One asked for the median and quartiles of the distributions, the other asked for the impact of four hypothetical samples. The main purpose of the study was to study the resulting two sets of distributions. The results show substantial differences between the distributions using the two (...)
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  45. added 2016-05-27
    Wolfgang Manz (1970). Experiments on Probabilistic Information Processing. Acta Psychologica 34:184-200.
    Probabilistic information processing, the modification of prior beliefs under the impact of new observations, has been studied experimentally over the last ten years using Bayesian decision theory as frame of reference. Experiments related to the two basic approaches - probability revision and deferred decision making - are reviewed, while a critical examination is made of the basic research paradigms used. An evaluation of the fruitfulness of the underlying research strategy is attempted.
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  46. added 2016-05-26
    Richard Moore (forthcoming). Gricean Communication and Cognitive Development. Philosophical Quarterly.
    On standard readings of Grice, Gricean communication requires (a) possession of a concept of belief, (b) the ability to make complex inferences about others’ goal-directed behaviour, and (c) the ability to entertain fourth order meta-representations. To the extent that these abilities are pre-requisites of Gricean communication they are inconsistent with the view that Gricean communication could play a role in their development. In this paper, I argue that a class of ‘minimally Gricean acts’ satisfy the intentional structure described by Grice, (...)
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  47. added 2016-05-26
    Steven James Bartlett, The Case for Government by Artificial Intelligence. Willamette University Faculty Research Website: Http://Www.Willamette.Edu/~Sbartlet/Documents/Bartlett_The%20Case%20for%20Government%20by%20Artifici al%20Intelligence.Pdf.
    THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE -/-  Tired of election madness?  The rhetoric of politicians?  Their unreliable promises?  And less than good government? -/- Until recently, it hasn’t been hard for people to give up control to computers. Not very many people miss the effort and time required to do calculations by hand, to keep track of their finances, or to complete their tax returns manually. But relinquishing direct human control to self-driving cars is expected (...)
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  48. added 2016-05-25
    Samuel Murray (forthcoming). Responsibility and Vigilance. Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    My primary target in this paper is a puzzle that emerges from the conjunction of several seemingly innocent assumptions in action theory and the metaphysics of moral responsibility. The puzzle I have in mind is this. On one widely held account of moral responsibility, an agent is morally responsible only for those actions or outcomes over which that agent exercises control. Recently, however, some have cited cases where agents appear to be morally responsible without exercising any control. This leads some (...)
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  49. added 2016-05-24
    Carolyn Dicey Jennings (2015). Consciousness Without Attention. Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (2):276--295.
    This paper explores whether consciousness can exist without attention. This is a hot topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science due to the popularity of theories that hold attention to be necessary for consciousness. The discovery of a form of consciousness that exists without the influence of attention would require a change in the way that many global workspace theorists, for example, understand the role and function of consciousness. Against this understanding, at least three forms of consciousness have been (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-22
    Fiona Macpherson (forthcoming). The Relationship Between Cognitive Penetration and Predictive Coding. Consciousness and Cognition.
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