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  1. added 2016-08-30
    Douglas Campbell (2016). Why We Shouldn't Reason Classically, and the Implications for Artificial Intelligence. In C. Vincent Müller (ed.), Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From Iacap 2014. Springer International Publishing 151--165.
    In this paper I argue that human beings should reason, not in accordance with classical logic, but in accordance with a weaker ‘reticent logic’. I characterize reticent logic, and then show that arguments for the existence of fundamental Gödelian limitations on artificial intelligence are undermined by the idea that we should reason reticently, not classically.
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  2. added 2016-08-30
    Douglas Campbell (2013). The Semimeasure Property of Algorithmic Probability -- “Feature‘ or “Bug‘? In David L. Dowe (ed.), Algorithmic Probability and Friends. Bayesian Prediction and Artificial Intelligence: Papers From the Ray Solomonoff 85th Memorial Conference, Melbourne, Vic, Australia, November 30 -- December 2, 2011. Springer Berlin Heidelberg 79--90.
    An unknown process is generating a sequence of symbols, drawn from an alphabet, A. Given an initial segment of the sequence, how can one predict the next symbol? Ray Solomonoff’s theory of inductive reasoning rests on the idea that a useful estimate of a sequence’s true probability of being outputted by the unknown process is provided by its algorithmic probability (its probability of being outputted by a species of probabilistic Turing machine). However algorithmic probability is a “semimeasure”: i.e., the sum, (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-21
    Francesco Furini, Rahul Rai, Barry Smith, Georgio Colombo & Venkat Krovi (2016). Development of a Manufacturing Ontology for Functionally Graded Materials. In Proceedings of International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE).
    The development of manufacturing technologies for new materials involves the generation of a large and continually evolving volume of information. The analysis, integration and management of such large volumes of data, typically stored in multiple independently developed databases, creates significant challenges for practitioners. There is a critical need especially for open-sharing of data pertaining to engineering design which together with effective decision support tools can enable innovation. We believe that ontology applied to engineering (OE) represents a viable strategy for the (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-19
    Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2015). Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). CEUR Vol. 1515 1-5.
    The Information Artifact Ontology (IAO) was created to serve as a domain‐neutral resource for the representation of types of information content entities (ICEs) such as documents, data‐bases, and digital im‐ages. We identify a series of problems with the current version of the IAO and suggest solutions designed to advance our understanding of the relations between ICEs and associated cognitive representations in the minds of human subjects. This requires embedding IAO in a larger framework of ontologies, including most importantly the Mental (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-17
    Karen Frost-Arnold (forthcoming). Social Media, Trust, and the Epistemology of Prejudice. Social Epistemology:1-19.
    Ignorance of one’s privileges and prejudices is an epistemic problem. While the sources of ignorance of privilege and prejudice are increasingly understood, less clarity exists about how to remedy ignorance. In fact, the various causes of ignorance can seem so powerful, various, and mutually reinforcing that studying the epistemology of ignorance can inspire pessimism about combatting socially constructed ignorance. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted. The testimony of members of oppressed groups can often help members of privileged groups overcome (...)
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  6. added 2016-07-25
    Mario Villalobos & Joe Dewhurst (2016). Cognition, Computing and Dynamic Systems. Límite. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Filosofía y Psicología 1.
    Traditionally, computational theory (CT) and dynamical systems theory (DST) have presented themselves as opposed and incompatible paradigms in cognitive science. There have been some efforts to reconcile these paradigms, mainly, by assimilating DST to CT at the expenses of its anti-representationalist commitments. In this paper, building on Piccinini’s mechanistic account of computation and the notion of functional closure, we explore an alternative conciliatory strategy. We try to assimilate CT to DST by dropping its representationalist commitments, and by inviting CT to (...)
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  7. added 2016-07-25
    Javier de la Cueva (2015). Manual del Ciberactivista. Teoría y práctica de las acciones micropolíticas. Bandaàparte Editores.
    El contenido de la obra se halla dividido en dos partes, una primera teórica y otra segunda práctica. En la primera parte se realiza una explicación analítica del ciberactivismo mientras que la segunda se centra en reflexiones sobre aspectos concretos que pudieran ser útiles para quien desee planificar alguna acción.
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  8. added 2016-07-17
    Subhasis Chattopadhyay (2016). Review of Interdisciplining Digital Humanities: Boundary Work in an Emerging Field. [REVIEW] Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (7 (July)):577-8.
    This review makes a case for scholars putting up their works online and for removing pay-walls of any kind. Therefore, this review is in sync with the stated aims of philpapers.org.
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  9. added 2016-07-14
    Paul Smart, Richard Heersmink & Robert Clowes (forthcoming). The Cognitive Ecology of the Internet. In Stephen Cowley & Frederic Vallée-Tourangeau (eds.), Cognition Beyond the Brain: Computation, Interactivity and Human Artifice (2nd ed.). Springer
    In this chapter, we analyze the relationships between the Internet and its users in terms of situated cognition theory. We first argue that the Internet is a new kind of cognitive ecology, providing almost constant access to a vast amount of digital information that is increasingly more integrated into our cognitive routines. We then briefly introduce situated cognition theory and its species of embedded, embodied, extended, distributed and collective cognition. Having thus set the stage, we begin by taking an embedded (...)
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  10. added 2016-07-12
    Michael Morreau & Aidan Lyon (2016). How Common Standards Can Diminish Collective Intelligence: A Computational Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):483-489.
    Making good decisions depends on having accurate information – quickly, and in a form in which it can be readily communicated and acted upon. Two features of medical practice can help: deliberation in groups and the use of scores and grades in evaluation. We study the contributions of these features using a multi-agent computer simulation of groups of physicians. One might expect individual differences in members’ grading standards to reduce the capacity of the group to discover the facts on which (...)
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  11. added 2016-07-06
    Matthias Jenny (forthcoming). Counterpossibles in Science: The Case of Relative Computability. Noûs.
    I develop a theory of counterfactuals about relative computability, i.e. counterfactuals such as 'If the validity problem were algorithmically decidable, then the halting problem would also be algorithmically decidable,' which is true, and 'If the validity problem were algorithmically decidable, then arithmetical truth would also be algorithmically decidable,' which is false. These counterfactuals are counterpossibles, i.e. they have metaphysically impossible antecedents. They thus pose a challenge to the orthodoxy about counterfactuals, which would treat them as uniformly true. What’s more, I (...)
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  12. added 2016-07-02
    Matthew E. Gladden (2015). Utopias and Dystopias as Cybernetic Information Systems: Envisioning the Posthuman Neuropolity. Creatio Fantastica (3 (50)).
    While it is possible to understand utopias and dystopias as particular kinds of sociopolitical systems, in this text we argue that utopias and dystopias can also be understood as particular kinds of information systems in which data is received, stored, generated, processed, and transmitted by the minds of human beings that constitute the system’s ‘nodes’ and which are connected according to specific network topologies. We begin by formulating a model of cybernetic information-processing properties that characterize utopias and dystopias. It is (...)
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  13. added 2016-06-30
    Tomer Fekete, Cees van Leeuwen & Shimon Edelman (2016). System, Subsystem, Hive: Boundary Problems in Computational Theories of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i) would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii) would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii) would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious (...)
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  14. added 2016-06-21
    Robert E. Davis, The Case for Continuous Auditing of Management Information Systems. Effective Auditing for Corporates: Key Developments in Practice and Procedures (Key Concepts).
    In the wake of the recent financial crisis, increasing the effectiveness of auditing has weighed heavily on the minds of those responsible for governance. When a business is profitable and paying healthy dividends to its stockholders, fraudulent activities and accounting irregularities can go unnoticed. However, when revenue and cash flow decline, internal costs and operations may be scrutinized more diligently, and discrepancies can emerge as a result. Effective Auditing for Corporates provides you with proactive advice to ...
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  15. added 2016-06-18
    Kunjumon Vadakkan (2016). Substantive Nature of Sleep in Updating the Temporal Conditions Necessary for Inducing Units of Internal Sensations. Sleep Science 9.
    Unlike other organs that operate continuously, such as the heart and kidneys, many of the operations of the nervous system shut down during sleep. The evolutionarily conserved unconscious state of sleep that puts animals at risk from predators indicates that it is an indispensable integral part of systems operation. A reasonable expectation is that any hypothesis for the mechanism of the nervous system functions should be able to provide an explanation for sleep. In this regard, the semblance hypothesis is examined. (...)
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  16. added 2016-06-12
    Michael Starks, David Wolpert on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Liar Paradox, the Limits of Computation, a Non-Quantum Mechanical Uncertainty Principle and the Universe as Computer—the Ultimate Theorem in Turing Machine Theory.
    I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even (...)
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  17. added 2016-06-10
    Marcin Miłkowski (2016). Computation and Multiple Realizability. In V. C. Mueller (ed.), Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence. Springer 29-41.
    Multiple realizability (MR) is traditionally conceived of as the feature of computational systems, and has been used to argue for irreducibility of higher-level theories. I will show that there are several ways a computational system may be seen to display MR. These ways correspond to (at least) five ways one can conceive of the function of the physical computational system. However, they do not match common intuitions about MR. I show that MR is deeply interest-related, and for this reason, difficult (...)
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  18. added 2016-06-10
    Marcin Miłkowski (2016). A Mechanistic Account of Computational Explanation in Cognitive Science and Computational Neuroscience. In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Computing and Philosophy. Springer 191-205.
    Explanations in cognitive science and computational neuroscience rely predominantly on computational modeling. Although the scientific practice is systematic, and there is little doubt about the empirical value of numerous models, the methodological account of computational explanation is not up-to-date. The current chapter offers a systematic account of computational explanation in cognitive science and computational neuroscience within a mechanistic framework. The account is illustrated with a short case study of modeling of the mirror neuron system in terms of predictive coding.
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  19. added 2016-06-08
    Michael Morreau (2016). Grading in Groups. Economics and Philosophy 32 (2):323-352.
    Juries, committees and experts panels commonly appraise things of one kind or another on the basis of grades awarded by several people. When everybody's grading thresholds are known to be the same, the results sometimes can be counted on to reflect the graders’ opinion. Otherwise, they often cannot. Under certain conditions, Arrow's ‘impossibility’ theorem entails that judgements reached by aggregating grades do not reliably track any collective sense of better and worse at all. These claims are made by adapting the (...)
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  20. added 2016-06-07
    Vincent C. Müller & Matej Hoffmann (forthcoming). What is Morphological Computation? On How the Body Contributes to Cognition and Control. Artificial Life (2016/17).
    The contribution of the body to cognition and control in natural and artificial agents is increasingly described as “off-loading computation from the brain to the body”, where the body is said to perform “morphological computation”. Our investigation of four characteristic cases of morphological computation in animals and robots shows that the ‘off-loading’ perspective is misleading. Actually, the contribution of body morphology to cognition and control is rarely computational, in any useful sense of the word. We thus distinguish (1) morphology that (...)
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  21. added 2016-06-07
    Constantin Oesterling (2016). DDoS Protection With IPtables. InfoSec:15.
    Research on the most effective Linux iptables rules to mitigate Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.
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  22. added 2016-06-07
    Constantin Oesterling (2016). DDoS Protection With IPtables. InfoSec:15.
    Research on the most effective Linux iptables rules to mitigate Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.
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