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  1. B. Abramenko (1954). The Age of the Universe. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5 (19):237-252.
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  2. M. A. Abramov (2007). Idei Filosofii Russkogo Kosmizma V Tvorchestve Religioznykh Mysliteleĭ Xx V. Saratovskiĭ Gos. Tekhnicheskiĭ Universitet.
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  3. J. Agassi (1958). Koyré on the History of Cosmology. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (35):234-245.
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  4. J. Agassi (1958). Review: Koyré on the History of Cosmology. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (35):234 - 245.
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  5. Gerard Ahearne (2013). Towards an Ecological Civilization: A Gramscian Strategy for a New Political Subject. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):317-326.
    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE While much work has been done theorising the concept of an ecological civilization, the actual transition to an ecological civilization is another matter. One possible strategy for transforming our world from a death-rattle industrial civilization to a life affirming ecological civilization may be found in the later work of Antonio Gramsci. It is argued that as Gramsci became increasingly disillusioned with Soviet communism, he diagnosed its failure as due to the way opposition (...)
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  6. John R. Albright (2000). Cosmology: What One Needs to Know. Zygon 35 (1):173-180.
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  7. Stefano Ansoldi & Eduardo I. Guendelman (2007). Solitons as Key Parts to Produce a Universe in the Laboratory. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):712-722.
    Cosmology is usually understood as an observational science, where experimentation plays no role. It is interesting, nevertheless, to change this perspective addressing the following question: what should we do to create a universe, in a laboratory? It appears, in fact, that this is, in principle, possible according to at least two different paradigms; both allow to circumvent singularity theorems, i.e. the necessity of singularities in the past of inflating domains which have the required properties to generate a universe similar to (...)
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  8. David Atkinson (2007). Losing Energy in Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (1):170-180.
    A Zenonian supertask involving an infinite number of colliding balls is considered, under the restriction that the total mass of all the balls is finite. Classical mechanics leads to the conclusion that momentum, but not necessarily energy, must be conserved. Relativistic mechanics, on the other hand, implies that energy and momentum conservation are always violated. Quantum mechanics, however, seems to rule out the Zeno configuration as an inconsistent system.
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  9. K. Avinash & V. L. Rvachev (2000). Non-Archimedean Algebra: Applications to Cosmology and Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 30 (1):139-152.
    Application of recently developed non-Archimedean algebra to a flat and finite universe of total mass M 0 and radius R 0 is described. In this universe, mass m of a body and distance R between two points are bounded from above, i.e., 0≤m≤M 0, 0≤R≤R 0. The universe is characterized by an event horizon at R 0 (there is nothing beyond it, not even space). The radial distance metric is compressed toward horizon, which is shown to cause the phenomenon of (...)
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  10. John C. Baez (1989). Is Life Improbable? Foundations of Physics 19 (1):91-95.
    E. P. Wigner's argument that the probability of the existence of self-reproducing units, e.g., organisms, is zero according to standard quantum theory is stated and analyzed. Theorems are presented which indicate that Wigner's mathematical result in fact should not be interpreted as asserting the improbability of self-reproducing units.
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  11. M. Barone (2004). The Vacuum as Ether in the Last Century. Foundations of Physics 34 (12):1973-1982.
    In this paper we review the evolution of the concept of “vacuum” according to different theories formulated in the last century, like Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Quantum Chromodynamics in Particle Physics and Cosmology. In all these theories a metastable vacuum state is considered which transforms from one state to another according to the energy taken into consideration. It is a “fluid” made up by matter and radiation present in the whole Universe, which may be identified with a modern definition of (...)
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  12. A. O. Barut, P. Budinich, J. Niederle & R. Raçzka (1994). Conformal Space-Times—The Arenas of Physics and Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 24 (11):1461-1494.
    The mathematical and physical aspects of the conformal symmetry of space-time and of physical laws are analyzed. In particular, the group classification of conformally flat space-times, the conformal compactifications of space-time, and the problem of imbedding of the flat space-time in global four-dimensional curved spaces with non-trivial topological and geometrical structure are discussed in detail. The wave equations on the compactified space-times are analyzed also, and the set of their elementary solutions constructed. Finally, the implications of global compactified space-times for (...)
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  13. Peter G. Bergmann (1970). Cosmology as a Science. Foundations of Physics 1 (1):17-22.
    In recent years, observational techniques at cosmological distances have been sufficiently improved that cosmology has become an empirical science, rather than a field for unchecked speculation. There remains the fact that its object, the whole universe, exists only once; hence, we are unable to separate “general” features from particular aspects of “our” universe. This might not be a serious drawback if we were justified in the belief that presently accepted laws of nature remain valid on the cosmological scale. In the (...)
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  14. R. Bernabei, P. Belli, F. Cappella, R. Cerulli, C. J. Dai, A. D'Angelo, H. L. He, A. Incicchitti, H. H. Kuang, X. H. Ma, F. Montecchia, F. Nozzoli, D. Prosperi, X. D. Sheng & Z. P. Ye (2010). Results From DAMA/LIBRA at Gran Sasso. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):900-916.
    The DAMA project is an observatory for rare processes and it is operative deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. In particular, the DAMA/LIBRA (Large sodium Iodide Bulk for RAre processes) set-up consists of highly radiopure NaI(Tl) detectors for a total sensitive exposed mass of ≃250 kg. Recent results, obtained by this set-up by exploiting the model independent annual modulation signature of Dark Matter (DM) particles, have confirmed and improved those obtained by the former DAMA/NaI experiment. (...)
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  15. Mauricio Beuchot (2009). Microcosmos: El Hombre Como Compendio Del Ser. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila.
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  16. R. Blackhirst (2008). Primordial Alchemy & Modern Religion: Essays on Traditional Cosmology. Sophia Perennis.
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  17. C. G. Böhmer & T. Harko (2008). Physics of Dark Energy Particles. Foundations of Physics 38 (3):216-227.
    We consider the astrophysical and cosmological implications of the existence of a minimum density and mass due to the presence of the cosmological constant. If there is a minimum length in nature, then there is an absolute minimum mass corresponding to a hypothetical particle with radius of the order of the Planck length. On the other hand, quantum mechanical considerations suggest a different minimum mass. These particles associated with the dark energy can be interpreted as the “quanta” of the cosmological (...)
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  18. H. H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. J. Treder (1990). Planckions and the Early Stage of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 20 (2):241-250.
    It is shown that, due to Rosenfeld's inequality relations, there is no possibility of defining states of the Friedmann universe in a physically sensible manner when the world radius becomes equal to or smaller than Planck's length.
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  19. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski & H.-J. Treder (1998). Dark Matter Versus Mach's Principle. Foundations of Physics 28 (2):273-290.
    Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory, up to global Lorentz rotations, the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus, one is led to a “Riemannian space with teleparallelism” realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms, where the existence of hidden matter is inferred solely from its gravitational (...)
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  20. Raphael Bousso, Oliver DeWolfe & Robert C. Myers (2003). Unbounded Entropy in Spacetimes with Positive Cosmological Constant. Foundations of Physics 33 (2):297-321.
    In theories of gravity with a positive cosmological constant, we consider product solutions with flux, of the form (A)dS p ×S q . Most solutions are shown to be perturbatively unstable, including all uncharged dS p ×S q spacetimes. For dimensions greater than four, the stable class includes universes whose entropy exceeds that of de Sitter space, in violation of the conjectured “N-bound.” Hence, if quantum gravity theories with finite-dimensional Hilbert space exist, the specification of a positive cosmological constant will (...)
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  21. Luis J. Boya (2006). The Uniqueness of the World. Foundations of Physics 36 (3):385-395.
    We follow some wild speculations in trying to understand the uniqueness of our physical world, from the field concept to F-Theory.
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  22. R. Brout (1987). On the Concept of Time and the Origin of the Cosmological Temperature. Foundations of Physics 17 (6):603-619.
    Time arises in the theory of gravity through the semiclassical approximation of the gravitational part of the solution of the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the manner shown by Banks (SCAG). We generalize Banks' procedure by grafting a Born-Oppenheimer type approximation onto SCAG. This allows for the feedback of matter onto gravity, wherein the latter is driven by the (quantum) mean energy-momentum tensor of matter. The wave function is nonvanishing in classically forbidden configurations of gravity. In SCAG this is described by (...)
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  23. H. R. Brown (1996). Mindful of Quantum Possibilities. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (2):189-199.
  24. P. Budinich (1995). Conformally Compactified Homogeneous Spaces. Possible Observable Consequences. Foundations of Physics 25 (7):969-993.
    Some arguments, based on the possible spontaneous violation of the cosmological principle (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), on the Cartan geometry of simple spinors, and on the Fock formulation of hydrogen atom wave equation in momentum space, are presented in favor of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum space should be both conformally compactified and should both originate from the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformai group, both isomorphic (S 3 ×S 1)/Z 2 and correlated by (...)
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  25. Paolo Budinich & Ryszard Raczka (1993). Eigenvibrations of the Expanding Universe. Foundations of Physics 23 (2):225-237.
    A theoretical interpretation of the observed periodicity of large-scale (∼128 Mpc) correlations of galaxies is proposed as due to eigenvibrations of the closed expanding universe. Eigensolutions of the equations of motion for a scalar field in an inflationary model allow one to compute the energy density, interpreted as matter density. Isotropic eigensolution give rise to a matter density distribution having a periodic structure centered at the north pole of the closed Robertson-Walker universe represented by S3/Z2. It is able to reproduce (...)
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  26. S. Capozziello, M. De Laurentis, M. Francaviglia & S. Mercadante (2009). From Dark Energy & Dark Matter to Dark Metric. Foundations of Physics 39 (10):1161-1176.
    We present a new approach to the mathematical objects of General Relativity in terms of which a generic f(R)-gravity theory gravitation is written in a first-order (à la Palatini) formalism, and introduce the concept of Dark Metric which could bypass the emergence of disturbing concepts as Dark Energy and Dark Matter. These issues are related to the fact that General Relativity could not be the definitive theory of Gravitation due to several shortcomings that come out both from theoretical and experimental (...)
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  27. M. Carmeli (1996). Cosmological Special Relativity. Foundations of Physics 26 (3):413-416.
    Recently we presented a new special relativity theory for cosmology in which it was assumed that gravitation can be neglected and thus the bubble constant can be taken as a constant. The theory was presented in a six-dimensional hvperspace. three for the ordinary space and three for the velocities. In this paper we reduce our hyperspace to four dimensions by assuming that the three-dimensional space expands only radially, thus one is left with the three dimensions of ordinary space and one (...)
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  28. M. Carmeli (1995). Cosmological Relativity: A Special Relativity for Cosmology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (7):1029-1040.
    Under the assumption that Hubble's constant H0 is constant in cosmic time, there is an analogy between the equation of propagation of light and that of expansion of the universe. Using this analogy, and assuming that the laws of physics are the same at all cosmic times, a new special relativity, a cosmological relativity, is developed. As a result, a transformation is obtained that relates physical quantities at different cosmic times. In a one-dimensional motion, the new transformation is given by (...)
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  29. M. Carmeli & Ch Charach (1984). The Einstein-Rosen Gravitational Waves and Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):963-986.
    This paper reviews recent applications of the Einstein-Rosen type space-times to some problems of modern cosmology. An extensive overview of inhomogeneous universes filled with gravitational waves, classical fields, and relativistic fluids is given. The dynamics of primordial inhomogeneities, such as gravitational and matter waves and shocks, their interactions, and the global evolution of the models considered, is presented in detail.
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  30. Mario Castagnino, Olimpia Lombardi & Luis Lara, The Arrow of Time in Cosmology.
    Scientific cosmology is an empirical discipline whose objects of study are the large-scale properties of the universe. In this context, it is usual to call the direction of the expansion of the universe the "cosmological arrow of time". However, there is no reason for privileging the ‘radius’ of the universe for defining the arrow of time over other geometrical properties of the space-time. Traditional discussions about the arrow of time in general involve the concept of entropy. In the cosmological context, (...)
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  31. Carlos Castro (2012). Born's Reciprocal Gravity in Curved Phase-Spaces and the Cosmological Constant. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1031-1055.
    The main features of how to build a Born’s Reciprocal Gravitational theory in curved phase-spaces are developed. By recurring to the nonlinear connection formalism of Finsler geometry a generalized gravitational action in the 8D cotangent space (curved phase space) can be constructed involving sums of 5 distinct types of torsion squared terms and 2 distinct curvature scalars ${\mathcal{R}}, {\mathcal{S}}$ which are associated with the curvature in the horizontal and vertical spaces, respectively. A Kaluza-Klein-like approach to the construction of the curvature (...)
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  32. Carlos Castro (2007). On Dark Energy, Weyl's Geometry, Different Derivations of the Vacuum Energy Density and the Pioneer Anomaly. Foundations of Physics 37 (3):366-409.
    Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented. One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit formula for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of the ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem. A nonvanishing value of the vacuum energy density of the order of ${10^{- 123} M_{\rm Planck}^4}$ is derived in agreement (...)
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  33. Michel Cazenave (ed.) (1984). Science and Consciousness: Two Views of the Universe: Edited Proceedings of the France-Culture and Radio-France Colloquium, Cordoba, Spain. Pergamon Press.
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  34. G. F. Chew (1995). Standpoint Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 25 (9):1283-1333.
    An unorthodox cosmology is based on a notion of “standpoint,” distinguishing past from future, realized through Hilbert-space representation of the complex conformai group for 3+1spacetime and associated coherent states. Physical (approximate) symmetry attaches to eight-parameter complex Poincaré displacements, interpretable as growth of standpoint age (one parameter), boost of matter energy-momentum in standpoint rest frame (three parameters) and displacement of matter location in a compact U(1)⊗O(4)/O(3) spacetime attached to standpoint (four parameters). An “initial” condition (at “big bang”) is characterized by a (...)
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  35. Alan Chodos (2000). Concatenation of Scales Below 1 eV. Foundations of Physics 30 (4):567-576.
    There are (at least) four numbers of physical and cosmological significance, whose inferred values, when expressed in mass units, cluster in a window below 1 eV. There are: the neutrino mass, the neutrino chemical potential, the cosmological constant, and the size of two extra dimensions (if the fundamental scale of gravity is 1–10 TeV). In this note, we imagine ways in which these four numbers could all be connected.
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  36. David Christian (2008). Big History. Teaching Co..
    Part 1. Lecture 1. What is big history? ; Lecture 2. Moving across multiple scales ; Lecture 3. Simplicity and complexity ; Lecture 4. Evidence and the nature of science ; Lecture 5. Threshold 1, Origins of Big Bang cosmology ; Lecture 6. How did everything begin? ; Lecture 7. Threshold 2, The first stars and galaxies ; Lecture 8. Threshold 3, Making chemical elements ; Lecture 9. Threshold 4, The earth and the solar system ; Lecture 10. The early (...)
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  37. Milan M. Ćirković (2004). Book Review: Modern Cosmology. By Scott Dodelson. Academic Press, London, San Diego, California, 2003. Xiii + 440 Pp., $70 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-12-219141-2. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 34 (3):541-544.
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  38. Milan M. Ćirković (2004). Forecast for the Next Eon: Applied Cosmology and the Long-Term Fate of Intelligent Beings. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 34 (2):239-261.
    Cosmology seems extremely remote from everyday human practice and experience. It is usually taken for granted that cosmological data cannot rationally influence our beliefs about the fate of humanity—and possible other intelligent species—except perhaps in the extremely distant future, when the issue of “heat death” (in an ever-expanding universe) becomes actual. Here, an attempt is made to show that it may become a practical question much sooner, if an intelligent community wishes to maximize its creative potential. We estimate, on the (...)
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  39. Milan M. Ćirković (2002). Is the Universe Really That Simple? Foundations of Physics 32 (7):1141-1157.
    The intriguing recent suggestion of Tegmark that the universe—contrary to all our experiences and expectations—contains only a small amount of information due to an extremely high degree of internal symmetry is critically examined. It is shown that there are several physical processes, notably Hawking evaporation of black holes and non-zero decoherence time effects described by Plaga, as well as thought experiments of Deutsch and Tegmark himself, which can be construed as arguments against the low-information universe hypothesis. Some ramifications for both (...)
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  40. Stephen R. L. Clark (1993). Philosophers and Popular Cosmology. Journal of Applied Philosophy 10 (1):115-122.
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  41. F. I. Cooperstock & M. Israelit (1995). The Energy of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 25 (4):631-635.
    References to energy of the universe have focussed upon the matter contribution, whereas the conservation laws must include a gravitational contribution as well. The conservation laws as applied to FRW cosmologies suggest a zero total energy irrespective of the spatial curvature when the value of the cosmological constant is taken to be zero. This result provides a useful constraint on models of the early universe and lends support to currently studied theories of the universe arising as a quantum fluctuation of (...)
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  42. David Craig & Parampreet Singh (2011). Consistent Histories in Quantum Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):371-379.
    We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the universe is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum (...)
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  43. John Cramer, Before the Big Bang.
    This column is about a new alternative to standard Big Bang cosmology that reaches back in time to the era before the Big Bang in an effort to remove some of the arbitrary assumptions from the model. It's in part the work of Gabriele Veneziano, a theorist at CERN, and it is called pre-Big-Bang cosmology. We'll begin by reviewing the standard scenario of the origin of the universe.
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  44. John Cramer, Other Universes.
    Alternate View Column AV-02 Keywords: cosmology, bubble, universe, inflation Published in the September-1984 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 2/10/84 and is copyrighted ©1984, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author.
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  45. John Cramer, There's a Hole in Bottom of the Universe!
    It’s perhaps natural to think that our universe should be more or less the same in all directions, once we average out the lumpiness of stars, galaxies, galactic clusters, superclusters, etc. However, there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that this presumption is not true. There is now a strong suspicion that our universe may contain a gaping “hole” located in the constellation Eridanus. This all started several years ago with the observation that there was a pronounced “Cold Spot” in (...)
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  46. John Cramer, The Big Rip at the End of Time.
    This column is about the end of the universe and of time itself, as implied by a new variant of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology. But before considering the destruction of the universe-as-we-know-it, we will need to review the most startling development in modern cosmology: the discovery that the expansion of the universe is increasing due to "dark energy" contained in space itself. The best evidence for dark energy comes from studies of Type Ia supernovas.
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  47. John Cramer, The New Recycling Universe.
    In this column I want to describe a new possible description of the universe, a cosmological paradigm proposing a universe that is infinite, eternal, and that recycles itself from Big Bang to Big Crunch at regular time intervals. This new model of cosmology is the work of Paul J. Steinhardt of Princeton and Neil Turok of Cambridge, and is inspired by string theory and based on Steinhardt’s own ekpyrotic cosmology, as described in a previous AV column (“Brane Bashing: Big Bang (...)
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  48. Hristu Culetu (2005). Λ and the Heisenberg Principle. Foundations of Physics 35 (9):1511-1519.
    A time dependent “cosmological constant” Λ(t) is conjectured, in terms of the Gaussian curvature of the causal horizon. It is nonvanishing even in Minkowski space because of the lack of informations beyond the light cone. Using the Heisenberg Principle, the corresponding energy of the quantum fluctuations localized on the past or future null horizons is proportional to Λ1/2.We compute Λ(t) for the (Lorenzian version) of the (conformally flat) Hawking wormhole geometry (written in static spherical Rindler coordinates) and for the de (...)
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  49. Christine C. Dantas (2013). An Approach to Loop Quantum Cosmology Through Integrable Discrete Heisenberg Spin Chains. Foundations of Physics 43 (2):236-242.
    The quantum evolution equation of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC)—the quantum Hamiltonian constraint—is a difference equation. We relate the LQC constraint equation in vacuum Bianchi I separable (locally rotationally symmetric) models with an integrable differential-difference nonlinear Schrödinger type equation, which in turn is known to be associated with integrable, discrete Heisenberg spin chain models in condensed matter physics. We illustrate the similarity between both systems with a simple constraint in the linear regime.
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  50. P. C. W. Davies (1996). The Big Questions. Penguin Books.
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