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  1. Raman K. Attri, Backend Framework and Software Approach to Compute Earthquake Parameters From Signals Recorded by Seismic Instrumentation System.
    Computation of seismic parameters and its interpretation from the recorded earthquake signal is empowered by digital data acquisition systems. This enables seismologist to automatically compute all the relevant parameters. Futuristic applications require extensive software development to implement seismic prediction and forecasting models. While developing such models, software developer prefer to write their own in-house analysis & modeling software with complete control over the required computations and models. This paper presents simplified mathematical framework of the seismic events and back-end computational software (...)
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  2. Raman K. Attri, Implementation of Linear Array of Ultrasonic Transmitter-Receiver Transducers for Detection of Non-Smooth Porous Surface.
    Level measurements, thickness measurement or remote surface detection using ultrasonic pulse transit method require that the target surface be at 90 O to the incident beam so that reflected beam comes back at 180-degree angle to effectively use this method. This is perfectly true in case of flat, solid surface at right angle to the incident beam. But surface irregularities of a porous, non-smooth, uneven material such as snow cause penetration of incident wave into the surface, absorption of the incident (...)
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  3. Delphine Bellis & Gideon Manning (2012). Craig Martin, Renaissance Meteorology: Pomponazzi to Descartes. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (2):394-398.
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  4. Gordon Belot (2014). Down to Earth Underdetermination. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):456-464.
    There are many parts of science in which a certain sort of underdetermination of theory by evidence is known to be common. It is argued that reflection on this fact should serve to shift the burden of proof from scientific anti-realists to scientific realists at a crucial point in the debate between them.
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  5. Gregor Betz (2015). Are Climate Models Credible Worlds? Prospects and Limitations of Possibilistic Climate Prediction. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):191-215.
    Climate models don’t give us probabilistic forecasts. To interpret their results, alternatively, as serious possibilities seems problematic inasmuch as climate models rely on contrary-to-fact assumptions: why should we consider their implications as possible if their assumptions are known to be false? The paper explores a way to address this possibilistic challenge. It introduces the concepts of a perfect and of an imperfect credible world, and discusses whether climate models can be interpreted as imperfect credible worlds. That would allow one to (...)
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  6. Gregor Betz (2013). Climate Engineering. In Armin Grunwald (ed.), Handbuch Technikethik. Metzler 254-257.
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  7. Gregor Betz (2013). Chaos, Plurality and Model Metrics in Climate Science. In Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. De Gruyter 255-264.
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  8. Gregor Betz (2010). What’s the Worst Case? The Methodology of Possibilistic Prediction. Analyse & Kritik 32 (1):87-106.
    Frank Knight (1921) famously distinguished the epistemic modes of certainty, risk, and uncertainty in order to characterize situations where deterministic, probabilistic or possibilistic foreknowledge is available. Because our probabilistic knowledge is limited, i.e. because many systems, e.g. the global climate, cannot be described and predicted probabilistically in a reliable way, Knight's third category, possibilistic foreknowledge, is not simply swept by the probabilistic mode. This raises the question how to justify possibilistic predictionsincluding the identication of the worst case. The development of (...)
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  9. Gregor Betz (2009). Underdetermination, Model-Ensembles and Surprises: On the Epistemology of Scenario-Analysis in Climatology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):3-21.
    As climate policy decisions are decisions under uncertainty, being based on a range of future climate change scenarios, it becomes a crucial question how to set up this scenario range. Failing to comply with the precautionary principle, the scenario methodology widely used in the Third Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) seems to violate international environmental law, in particular a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. To place climate policy advice on a (...)
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  10. Gregor Betz (2009). What Range of Future Scenarios Should Climate Policy Be Based On? Modal Falsificationism and its Limitations. Philosophia Naturalis 46 (1):133-158.
    Climate policy decisions are decisions under uncertainty and are, therefore, based on a range of future climate scenarios, describing possible consequences of alternative policies. Accordingly, the methodology for setting up such a scenario range becomes pivotal in climate policy advice. The preferred methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will be characterised as ,,modal verificationism"; it suffers from severe shortcomings which disqualify it for scientific policy advice. Modal falsificationism, as a more sound alternative, would radically alter the way the (...)
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  11. Gregor Betz (2009). Underdetermination, Model-Ensembles and Surprises: On the Epistemology of Scenario-Analysis in Climatology. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):3 - 21.
    As climate policy decisions are decisions under uncertainty, being based on a range of future climate change scenarios, it becomes a crucial question how to set up this scenario range. Failing to comply with the precautionary principle, the scenario methodology widely used in the Third Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) seems to violate international environmental law, in particular a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. To place climate policy advice on a (...)
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  12. Peter J. Bowler (1988). The Whig Interpretation of Geology. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):99-103.
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  13. Richard Bradley, Casey Helgeson & Brian Hill, Climate Change Assessments: Confidence, Probability and Decision.
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has developed a novel framework for assessing and communicating uncertainty in the findings published in their periodic assessment reports. But how should these uncertainty assessments inform decisions? We take a formal decision-making perspective to investigate how scientific input formulated in the IPCC’s novel framework might inform decisions in a principled way through a normative decision model.
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  14. Glenn Dolphin & Jeff Dodick (2014). Teaching Controversies in Earth Science: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 553-599.
    The state of geoscience education, in terms of numbers of teachers, students taught, and perceived importance, has been lagging behind the other science disciplines for decades. Part of the reason for this is that geology is seen as a “derivative” science as compared to its “experimental” counterparts (for instance, physics and chemistry). However, with current global issues facing the populations of the world (climate change, scarcity of clean water, increasing fossil fuel usage), being geoscience literate is a must. We will (...)
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  15. Steffen Ducheyne (2010). Whewell's Tidal Researches: Scientific Practice and Philosophical Methodology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):26-40.
    Primarily between 1833 and 1840, Whewell attempted to accomplish what natural philosophers and scientists since at least Galileo had failed to do: to provide a systematic and broad-ranged study of the tides and to attempt to establish a general scientific theory of tidal phenomena. In the essay at hand, I document the close interaction between Whewell’s philosophy of science (especially his methodological views) and his scientific practice as a tidologist. I claim that the intertwinement between Whewell’s methodology and his (...)
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  16. James R. Hofmann & Paul A. Hofmann (1992). Darcy's Law and Structural Explanation in Hydrology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:23 - 35.
    Darcy's law is a phenomenological relationship for fluid flow rate that finds one of its principle applications in hydrology. Theoretical hydrologists rely upon a multiplicity of conceptual models to carry out approximate derivations of Darcy's law. These derivations provide structural explanations of the law; they require the application of fundamental principles, such as conservation of momentum, to idealized models of the porous media within which the flow occurs. In practice, recognition of the idealized conditions incorporated into models facilitates the empirical (...)
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  17. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship has begun (...)
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  18. Ben Jeffares (2008). Testing Times: Confirmation in the Historical Sciences. Dissertation, Australian National University
    In this thesis, I argue that a good historical science will have the following characteristics: Firstly, it will seek to construct causal histories of the past. Secondly, the construction of these causal histories will utilise well-tested regularities of science. Additionally, well-tested regularities will secure the link between observations of physical traces and the causal events of interest. However, the historical sciences cannot use these regularities in a straightforward manner. The regularities must accommodate the idiosyncrasies of the past, and the degradation (...)
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  19. H. E. Kaiser (1962). Beispiele Für Die Anwendung Und Grenzen Aktualistischer Betrachtungsweise in der Geologie. Acta Biotheoretica 14 (3-4):99-120.
    Nach der Problemumgrenzung werden im zweiten Abschnitt die Möglichkeiten der aktualistischen Methode behandelt. Zuerst werden Beispiele für die Anwendung der Methode auf vorwiegend geologischem Gebiet gebracht, gegliedert in exogene und endogene Vorgänge. Wegen der gleichzeitigen Bedeutung für Geologie und Paläontologie und Biologie schliesst sich eine Besprechung der Biostratonomie an. Der letzte Teil dieses Abschnittes behandelt ausgewählte Beispiele aus der Paläontologie. Der dritte Abschnitt schliesslich behandelt die Grenzen aktualistischer Betrachtungsmethode an Hand typischer Beispiele.The theory of actualism is the most important in (...)
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  20. Joel Katzav (2013). Hybrid Models, Climate Models, and Inference to the Best Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):107-129.
    I examine the warrants we have in light of the empirical successes of a kind of model I call ‘ hybrid models ’, a kind that includes climate models among its members. I argue that these warrants ’ strengths depend on inferential virtues that are not just explanatory virtues, contrary to what would be the case if inference to the best explanation provided the warrants. I also argue that the warrants in question, unlike those IBE provides, guide inferences only to (...)
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  21. Joel Katzav (2013). Severe Testing of Climate Change Hypotheses. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 44 (4):433-441.
    I examine, from Mayo's severe testing perspective, the case found in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth report for the claim that increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations caused most of the post-1950 global warming. My examination begins to provide an alternative to standard, probabilistic assessments of OUR FAULT. It also brings out some of the limitations of variety of evidence considerations in assessing this and other hypotheses about the causes of climate change, and illuminates the epistemology of optimal (...)
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  22. Joel Katzav, Henk A. Dijkstra & A. T. J. de Laat (2012). Assessing Climate Model Projections: State of the Art and Philosophical Reflections. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 43 (4):258-276.
    The present paper draws on climate science and the philosophy of science in order to evaluate climate-model-based approaches to assessing climate projections. We analyze the difficulties that arise in such assessment and outline criteria of adequacy for approaches to it. In addition, we offer a critical overview of the approaches used in the IPCC working group one fourth report, including the confidence building, Bayesian and likelihood approaches. Finally, we consider approaches that do not feature in the IPCC reports, including three (...)
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  23. James Larson (1986). Not Without a Plan: Geography and Natural History in the Late Eighteenth Century. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 19 (3):447 - 488.
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  24. Jon Lawhead (forthcoming). Structural Modeling Error and the System Individuation Problem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Recent work by Frigg et. al. and Mayo-Wilson have called attention to a particular sort of error associated with attempts to model certain complex systems: structural modeling error. The assessment of the degree of SME in a model presupposes agreement between modelers about the best way to individuate natural systems, an agreement which can be more problematic than it appears. This problem, which we dub “the system individuation problem” arises in many of the same contexts as SME, and the (...)
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  25. Jon Lawhead (2014). Lightning in a Bottle: Complexity, Chaos, and Computation in Climate Science. Dissertation, Columbia University
    Climatology is a paradigmatic complex systems science. Understanding the global climate involves tackling problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and many other disciplines. I argue that complex systems like the global climate are characterized by certain dynamical features that explain how those systems change over time. A complex system's dynamics are shaped by the interaction of many different components operating at many different temporal and spatial scales. Examining the multidisciplinary and holistic methods of climatology can help us better understand the nature (...)
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  26. Philip Lawrence (1978). Charles Lyell Versus the Theory of Central Heat: A Reappraisal of Lyell's Place in the History of Geology. Journal of the History of Biology 11 (1):101 - 128.
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  27. Teru Miyake (2015). Reference Models: Using Models to Turn Data Into Evidence. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):822-832.
    Reference models of the earth’s interior play an important role in the acquisition of knowledge about the earth’s interior and the earth as a whole. Such models are used as a sort of standard reference against which data are compared. I argue that the use of reference models merits more attention than it has gotten so far in the literature on models, for it is an example of a method of doing science that has a long and significant history, and (...)
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  28. Dunja Šešelja & Erik Weber (2012). Rationality and Irrationality in the History of Continental Drift: Was the Hypothesis of Continental Drift Worthy of Pursuit? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):147-159.
  29. Susan G. Sterrett, Experimentation on Analogue Models.
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  30. Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson (forthcoming). Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation. Philosophy of Science.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  31. L. Wåhlin (1973). A Possible Origin of Atmospheric Electricity. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):459-472.
    A new theory concerning charge separation of atmospheric electricity is proposed, based on the selective capture of negative charge from atmospheric ion pairs by material surfaces. It explains why the earth's surface becomes negatively charged during fine weather, and provides a mechanism for the phenomenon of charge separation within clouds during the violent growth of thunderstorms. Also included is a description of laboratory and field experiments substantiating our views.
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