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Summary The philosophy of information is the branch of philosophy devoted to the thematic study of information in all its forms, and to the application of informational methods to new and traditional philosophical problems. The philosophy of information is not limited to any particular doctrine or methodology; rather, it is unified by its central focus on information as it plays out in both theory and practice. Examples of topics addressed by the philosophy of information include, among others: the nature of information; the modalities of information processing; the relations between information, knowledge, and meaning; the informational nature of mental life; the informational interpretation of reality; the value of information; the role of information in society and human interactions; and the politics of information.
Key works Though the Philosophy of Information as discipline is fairly new, works that can be labelled as belonging to one or more of the related sub-disciplines can be found at least since the Sixties. In particular for the relation with knowledge and logic: Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 and Dretske 1981. For a comprehensive approach of the current debates see Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011.
Introductions Adriaans 2012; Introduction in Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011; Floridi 2010; Floridi 2002.
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  1. Fred Adams (2010). Information and Knowledge À la Floridi. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):331-344.
    Abstract: Luciano Floridi has impressively applied the concept of information to problems in semantics and epistemology, among other areas. In this essay, I briefly review two areas where I think one may usefully raise questions about some of Floridi's conclusions. One area is in the project to naturalize semantics and Floridi's use of the derived versus nonderived notion of semantic content. The other area is in the logic of information and knowledge and whether knowledge based on information necessarily supports closure, (...)
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  2. Frederick R. Adams (2003). The Informational Turn in Philosophy. Minds and Machines 13 (4):471-501.
    This paper traces the application of information theory to philosophical problems of mind and meaning from the earliest days of the creation of the mathematical theory of communication. The use of information theory to understand purposive behavior, learning, pattern recognition, and more marked the beginning of the naturalization of mind and meaning. From the inception of information theory, Wiener, Turing, and others began trying to show how to make a mind from informational and computational materials. Over the last 50 years, (...)
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  3. Pieter Adriaans (2010). A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
    n various publications over the past years, Floridi has developed a theory of semantic information as well-formed, meaningful, and truthful data. This theory is more or less orthogonal to the standard entropy-based notions of information known from physics, information theory, and computer science that all define the amount of information in a certain system as a scalar value without any direct semantic implication. In this context the question rises what the exact relation between these various conceptions of information is and (...)
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  4. Pieter Adriaans & Johan van Benthem (2008). Handbook of Philosophy of Information. Elsevier.
    Information is a recognized fundamental notion across the sciences and humanities, which is crucial to understanding physical computation, communication, and human cognition. The Philosophy of Information brings together the most important perspectives on information. It includes major technical approaches, while also setting out the historical backgrounds of information as well as its contemporary role in many academic fields. Also, special unifying topics are high-lighted that play across many fields, while we also aim at identifying relevant themes for philosophical reflection. There (...)
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  5. Patrick Allo (2010). Putting Information First: Luciano Floridi and the Philosophy of Information. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):247-254.
    Abstract: The core aim of this special issue is to present the philosophy of information as a way of doing philosophy, to focus on the contributions of Luciano Floridi to that area, and most important, to stimulate the debate on the most distinctive and controversial views he has defended in that context. This introduction contains a description of the philosophy of information, a discussion of two common misconceptions about the scope and the ambition of the philosophy of information, and a (...)
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  6. Staffan Angere (2012). The Philosophy of Information – By Luciano Floridi. Theoria 78 (1):80-83.
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  7. Anthony Beavers (2011). Luciano Floridi: Information: A Very Short Introduction. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 21 (1):97-101.
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  8. Anthony F. Beavers, Luciano Floridi, Philosophy and Computing: An Introduction, Routledge, 1999.
    Luciano Floridi’s Philosophy and Computing: An Introduction is a survey of some important ideas that ground the newly emerging area of philosophy known, thanks to Floridi, as the philosophy of information. It was written as a textbook for philosophy students interested in the digital age, but is probably more useful for postgraduates who want to investigate intersections between philosophy and computer science, information theory and ICT (information and communications technology). The book is divided into five independent chapters followed by a (...)
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  9. Anthony F. Beavers (2013). Historicizing Floridi: The Question About Method, the State of the Profession, and the Timeliness of Floridi's Philosophy of Information. Escritos 21 (46):39-68.
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  10. Anthony F. Beavers (2013). Floridi historizado: la cuestión del método, el estado de la profesión y la oportunidad de la filosofía de la información de Luciano Floridi. Escritos 21 (46):39-68.
    El artículo plantea la actualidad y pertinencia de la Filosofía de la información de Luciano Floridi, considerada a la luz de las revoluciones científicas de Occidente y de la instauración de nuevos paradigmas, tanto en las ciencias como en la filosofía. La analogía con el “giro matemático” de la Modernidad permite establecer el alcance revolucionario de la obra de Floridi, cuya aceptación implicará superar el obstáculo epistemológico del escolasticismo, en función del dinamismo histórico inherente al progreso científico.
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  11. Anthony F. Beavers (2011). Historicizing Floridi. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):255-275.
  12. Anthony F. Beavers & Derek Jones (2014). Philosophy in the Age of Information: A Symposium on Luciano Floridi's The Philosophy of Information. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 24 (1):1-3.
    This special issue of Minds and Machines contains a number of responses to Luciano Floridi’s groundbreaking Philosophy of Information (Oxford 2011). The essays contained here have been grouped by topic; essays 1–5 concern epistemological features of Floridi’s approach, and essays 6–8 address his metaphysics.In “On Floridi’s Method of Levels ofion”, Jan van Leeuwen addresses Floridi’s operational definition of a level of abstraction. Emphasizing the link between Floridi’s notion of abstraction and that used in computer science, van Leeuven notes that the (...)
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  13. Mark Jm Bishop & C. Sdrolia (forthcoming). Rethinking Construction. On Luciano Floridi's 'Against Digital Ontology. Minds and Machines.
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  14. Terrell Ward Bynum (2010). Philosophy in the Information Age. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):420-442.
    Abstract: In the past, major scientific and technological revolutions, like the Copernican Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, have had profound effects, not only upon society in general, but also upon Philosophy. Today's Information Revolution is no exception. Already it has had significant impacts upon our understanding of human nature, the nature of society, even the nature of the universe. Given these developments, this essay considers some of the philosophical contributions of two "philosophers of the Information Age"—Norbert Wiener and Luciano Floridi—with (...)
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  15. Terrell Ward Bynum (2004). Ethical Challenges to Citizens of 'The Automatic Age': Norbert Wiener on the Information Society. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 2 (2):65-74.
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  16. Sara Cannizzaro (2013). Where Did Information Go? Reflections on the Logical Status of Information in a Cybernetic and Semiotic Perspective. Biosemiotics 6 (1):105-123.
    This article explores the usefulness of interdisciplinarity as method of enquiry by proposing an investigation of the concept of information in the light of semiotics. This is because, as Kull, Deacon, Emmeche, Hoffmeyer and Stjernfelt state, information is an implicitly semiotic term (Biological Theory 4(2):167–173, 2009: 169), but the logical relation between semiosis and information has not been sufficiently clarified yet. Across the history of cybernetics, the concept of information undergoes an uneven development; that is, information is an ‘objective’ entity (...)
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  17. Rafael Capurro (2008). On Floridi's Metaphysical Foundation of Information Ecology. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):167-173.
  18. Roberto Carradore (2013). Cibernetica e ordine sociale. Modelli e immagini di società in Norbert Wiener e Karl Deutsch. Scienza and Politica. Per Una Storia Delle Dottrine 25 (48).
    The present contribution aims at defining the relation between cybernetics and social theory from the perspective of society as order. After an historical framework of the cybernetic movement, a careful reading of the works of Norbert Wiener, in which he introduced the concept of feed-back and the idea of information society, has revealed a keen awareness about the social effects of technological innovation. Among the social scientists who had made use of cybernetic concepts, it has been considered the work of (...)
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  19. Roberto Cordeschi (2008). Cybernetics. In L. Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell
    The term cybernetics was first used in 1947 by Norbert Wiener with reference to the centrifugal governor that James Watt had fitted to his steam engine, and above all to Clerk Maxwell, who had subjected governors to a general mathematical treatment in 1868. Wiener used the word “governor” in the sense of the Latin corruption of the Greek term kubernetes, or “steersman.” Wiener defined cybernetics as the study of “control and communication in the animal and the machine” (Wiener 1948). This (...)
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  20. Ian Cornelius, Information and Its Philosophy.
    Three problems in relation to Luciano Floridi’s work on the Philosophy of Information (PI) and the relationship of PI to Library and Information Science (LIS) are considered: the claim that LIS is a materials-based discipline, Floridi’s claim about Information as a message transfer system, and his downgrading of Social Epistemology to be a subset of PI. The recent history of LIS and the practice of professional library work are examined for evidence of the basis for making claims about LIS. A (...)
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  21. Gordana Dodig Crnkovic, Empirical Modeling and Information Semantics. Mind & Society.
  22. Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Wolfgang Hofkirchner (2011). Floridi’s “Open Problems in Philosophy of Information”, Ten Years Later. Information 2 (2):327-359.
    In his article Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information [1] Luciano Floridi presented a Philosophy of Information research program in the form of eighteen open problems, covering the following fundamental areas: Information definition, information semantics, intelligence/cognition, informational universe/nature and values/ethics. We revisit Floridi’s program, highlighting some of the major advances, commenting on unsolved problems and rendering the new landscape of the Philosophy of Information (PI) emerging at present. As we analyze the progress of PI we try to situate Floridi’s (...)
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  23. Simon D'Alfonso (2010). Review of "Information: A Very Short Introduction". [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 11 (2):238-243.
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  24. H. Demir (2012). The Philosophy of Information, by Luciano Floridi. Mind 120 (480):1247-1250.
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  25. Hilmi Demir (2010). The Fourth Revolution: Philosophical Foundations and Technological Implications. [REVIEW] Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):1-6.
    This article introduces this special issue of Knowledge, Technology and Policy. It also explains why Luciano Floridi’s Philosophy of Technology is chosen as the topic of the special issue.
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  26. Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Susan Stuart (eds.) (2007). Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    Written by world-leading experts, this book draws together a number of important strands in contemporary approaches to the philosophical and scientific questions that emerge when dealing with the issues of computing, information, cognition and the conceptual issues that arise at their intersections. It discovers and develops the connections at the borders and in the interstices of disciplines and debates. This volume presents a range of essays that deal with the currently vigorous concerns of the philosophy of information, ontology creation and (...)
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  27. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2009). Information and Computation Nets. Investigations Into Info-Computational World. Vdm.
    The book presents investigations into the world of info-computational nature, in which information constitutes the structure, while computational process amounts to its change. Information and computation are inextricably bound: There is no computation without informational structure, and there is no information without computational process. Those two complementary ideas are used to build a conceptual net, which according to Novalis is a theoretical way of capturing reality. We apprehend the reality within a framework known as natural computationalism, the view that the (...)
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  28. J. Michael Dunn (2013). A Guide to the Floridi Keys: Luciano Floridi: The Philosophy of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, Xx+ 405pp,£ 37.50 HB (Essay Review). [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (1):93-98.
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  29. Massimo Durante (2011). Normativity, Constructionism, and Constraining Affordances. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):180-200.
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  30. Massimo Durante (2010). The Value of Information as Ontological Pluralism. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1):149-161.
    In my paper I will focus my attention on some philosophical aspects of the Information Ethics displayed by Luciano Floridi. Floridi’s Information Ethics has the methodological merit of providing the interpretation of the Informational Turn with a solid philosophical basis, the roots of which deserve a careful investigation. In this perspective, I will analyse a key question, which is essential not only from a theoretical but also from a practical (moral, political and legal) point of view, i.e. whether or not (...)
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  31. David Ellerman (2013). An Introduction to Logical Entropy and its Relation to Shannon Entropy. International Journal of Semantic Computing 7 (2):121-145.
    The logical basis for information theory is the newly developed logic of partitions that is dual to the usual Boolean logic of subsets. The key concept is a "distinction" of a partition, an ordered pair of elements in distinct blocks of the partition. The logical concept of entropy based on partition logic is the normalized counting measure of the set of distinctions of a partition on a finite set--just as the usual logical notion of probability based on the Boolean logic (...)
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  32. Don Fallis (2011). Floridi on Disinformation. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):201-214.
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  33. L. Floridi (ed.) (2004). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell.
    This Guide provides an ambitious state-of-the-art survey of the fundamental themes, problems, arguments and theories constituting the philosophy of computing.
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  34. Luciano Floridi (2014). The Fourth Revolution. How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality. Oxford University Press.
    Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. -/- As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an "infosphere". Personas we adopt in social media, for (...)
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  35. Luciano Floridi (2013). Pasos a seguir para la filosofía de la información. Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología 35 (2):213-218.
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  36. Luciano Floridi (2012). The Fourth Revolution. The Philosophers' Magazine 57 (57):96-101.
  37. Luciano Floridi (2011). Children of the Fourth Revolution. Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):227-232.
  38. Luciano Floridi (2010). The Philosophy of Information: Ten Years Later. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):402-419.
  39. Luciano Floridi (2010). The Philosophy of Information as a Conceptual Framework. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1):1-31.
    The article contains the replies to the collection of contributions discussing my research on the philosophy of information.
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  40. Luciano Floridi (2009). Logical Fallacies as Informational Shortcuts. Synthese 167 (2):317 - 325.
    The paper argues that the two best known formal logical fallacies, namely denying the antecedent (DA) and affirming the consequent (AC) are not just basic and simple errors, which prove human irrationality, but rather informational shortcuts, which may provide a quick and dirty way of extracting useful information from the environment. DA and AC are shown to be degraded versions of Bayes’ theorem, once this is stripped of some of its probabilities. The less the probabilities count, the closer these fallacies (...)
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  41. Luciano Floridi (2006). Luciano Floridi Takes Over Our Regular Look at the Web. The Philosophers' Magazine 33:17-17.
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  42. Lucy Frith (1990). Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 54:49.
  43. Bernd Frohmann, Documentation Redux: Prolegomenon to (Another) Philosophy of Information.
    A philosophy of information is grounded in a philosophy of documentation. Nunberg’s conception of the phenomenon of information heralds a shift of attention away from the question “What is information?” toward a critical investigation of the sources and legitimation of the question itself. Analogies between Wittgenstein’s deconstruction of philosophical accounts of meaning and a corresponding deconstruction of philosophical accounts of information suggest that because the informativeness of a document depends on certain kinds of practices with it, and because information emerges (...)
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  44. Jean-Gabriel Ganascia (2010). Epistemology of AI Revisited in the Light of the Philosophy of Information. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):57-73.
    Artificial intelligence has often been seen as an attempt to reduce the natural mind to informational processes and, consequently, to naturalize philosophy. The many criticisms that were addressed to the so-called “old-fashioned AI” do not concern this attempt itself, but the methods it used, especially the reduction of the mind to a symbolic level of abstraction, which has often appeared to be inadequate to capture the richness of our mental activity. As a consequence, there were many efforts to evacuate the (...)
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  45. Donald Gillies (2010). Informational Realism and World 3. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
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  46. Claudio Gnoli (2008). Facets: A Fruitful Notion in Many Domains. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 18 (2):127-130.
    Introduction to a special issue on facet analysis.
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  47. Rowan Grigg, Pomposo, Ma Non Allegro.
  48. Stevan Harnad (2011). Lunch Uncertain [Review Of: Floridi, Luciano (2011) The Philosophy of Information (Oxford)]. [REVIEW] Times Literary Supplement 5664 (22-23).
    The usual way to try to ground knowing according to contemporary theory of knowledge is: We know something if (1) it’s true, (2) we believe it, and (3) we believe it for the “right” reasons. Floridi proposes a better way. His grounding is based partly on probability theory, and partly on a question/answer network of verbal and behavioural interactions evolving in time. This is rather like modeling the data-exchange between a data-seeker who needs to know which button to press on (...)
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  49. Richard Heersmink (2015). The Cognitive Integration of Scientific Instruments: Information, Situated Cognition and Scientific Practice. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-21.
    Researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences, particularly those working in laboratories, use a variety of artifacts to help them perform their cognitive tasks. This paper analyses the relationship between researchers and cognitive artifacts in terms of integration. It first distinguishes different categories of cognitive artifacts used in biological practice on the basis of their informational properties. This results in a novel classification of scientific instruments, conducive to an analysis of the cognitive interactions between researchers and artifacts. It then uses (...)
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  50. Ken Herold (2004). Introduction to The Philosophy of Information. Library Trends 52 (3):373-376.
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