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Philosophy of Language

Edited by Berit Brogaard (University of Missouri, St. Louis)
Assistant editor: Jiangtian Li (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. added 2016-08-23
    Filipe Martone (2016). Singular Reference Without Singular Thought. Manuscrito 39 (1).
    In this paper I challenge the widespread assumption that the conditions for singular reference are more or less the same as the conditions for singular thought. I claim that we refer singularly to things without thinking singularly about them more often than it is usually believed. I first argue that we should take the idea that singular thought is non-descriptive thought very seriously. If we do that, it seems that we cannot be so liberal about what counts as acquaintance; only (...)
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  2. added 2016-08-22
    Alexander W. Kocurek (forthcoming). On the Expressive Power of First-Order Modal Logic with Two-Dimensional Operators. Synthese:1-45.
    Many authors have noted that there are types of English modal sentences cannot be formalized in the language of basic first-order modal logic. Some widely discussed examples include “There could have been things other than there actually are” and “Everyone who is actually rich could have been poor.” In response to this lack of expressive power, many authors have discussed extensions of first-order modal logic with two-dimensional operators. But claims about the relative expressive power of these extensions are often justified (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-22
    Cristian Constantinescu (forthcoming). Vague Comparisons. Ratio 29 (4).
    Some comparisons are hard. How should we think about such comparisons? According to John Broome, we should think about them in terms of vagueness. But the vagueness account has remained unpopular thus far. Here I try to bolster it by clarifying the notion of comparative vagueness that lies at its heart.
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  4. added 2016-08-22
    Christopher A. Vogel (2016). Lexical Flexibility, Natural Language and Ontology. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 16 (1).
    The Realist that investigates questions of ontology by appeal to the quantificational structure of language assumes that the semantics for the privileged language of ontology is externalist. I argue that such a language cannot be (some variant of) a natural language, as some Realists propose. The flexibility exhibited by natural language expressions noted by Chomsky and others cannot obviously be characterized by the rigid models available to the externalist. If natural languages are hostile to externalist treatments, then the meanings of (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-21
    Peter Fritz (forthcoming). Appendix to Juhani Yli-Vakkuri’s ‘Epistemicism and Modality’. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-3.
    A formal result is proved which is used in Juhani Yli-Vakkuri’s ‘Epistemicism and Modality’ to argue that certain two-dimensional possible world models are inadequate for a language with operators for ‘necessarily’, ‘actually’, and ‘definitely’.
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  6. added 2016-08-19
    Alex Anthony (forthcoming). Experience, Evaluation and Faultless Disagreement. Inquiry:1-37.
    In the last decade there has been a torrent of work at the intersection of philosophy and linguistics on predicates of personal taste, subjective expressions like fun and tasty that are used to express opinions rather than matters of fact. In each section of this paper I discuss a phenomenon that has been largely overlooked in the literature on PPTs. In Section 1, I identify a neglected experiential reading of these adjectives. All other theories of expressions like fun take them (...)
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  7. added 2016-08-18
    Thomas Hodgson (2016). Propositions. [REVIEW] International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-3.
  8. added 2016-08-18
    Borys Jastrzębski (2016). The Number of Moons Is Not a Number. Towards a Comprehensive Linguistic Approach to Frege's Commitment Puzzle. Filozofia Nauki 25 (2).
    Comprehensive Linguistic Approach to Frege's Commitment Puzzle There is a puzzle, noticed by Frege, about inferences from sentences like (F1) "Jupiter has four moons" to sentences like (F2) "The number of moons of Jupiter is four". They seem to be truth-conditionally equivalent but, apparently, they say something about completely different things. (F1) seems to be about moons, while (F2) about numbers. This phenomenon raises several puzzles about semantics, syntax, and is one of main tools of easy ontology. Recently, new linguistic (...)
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  9. added 2016-08-17
    Neri Marsili (2016). Lying by Promising. International Review of Pragmatics 8 (2):271-313.
    This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I extend the traditional definition of lying to illocutionary acts executed by means of explicit performatives, focusing on promising. This is achieved in two steps. First, I discuss how the utterance of a sentence containing an explicit performative such as “I promise that Φ ” can count as an assertion of its content Φ . Second, I develop a general account of insincerity meant to explain under which conditions a (...)
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  10. added 2016-08-15
    David Bourget (forthcoming). Intensional Perceptual Ascriptions. Erkenntnis:1-18.
    This paper defends the view that perceptual ascriptions such as “Jones sees a cat” are sometimes intensional. I offer a range of examples of intensional perceptual ascriptions, respond to objections to intensional readings of perceptual ascriptions, and show how widely accepted semantic accounts of intensionality can explain the key features of intensional perceptual ascriptions.
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  11. added 2016-08-15
    Stewart Cohen (forthcoming). Theorizing About the Epistemic. Inquiry:1-19.
    I argue that epistemologists’ use of the term ‘epistemic’ has led to serious confusion in the discussion of epistemological issues. The source of the problem is that ‘epistemic’ functions largely as an undefined technical term. I show how this confusion has infected discussions of the nature of epistemic justification, epistemic norms for evidence gathering, and knowledge norms for assertion and belief.
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  12. added 2016-08-15
    Peter Pagin (2016). Problems with Norms of Assertion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (1):178-207.
    In this paper I draw attention to a number of problems that afflict norm accounts of assertion, i.e. accounts that explain what assertion is, and typically how speakers understand what assertion is, by appeal to a norm of assertion. I argue that the disagreements in the literature over norm selection undermines such an account of understanding. I also argue that the treatment of intuitions as evidence in the literature undermines much of the connection to empirical evidence. I further argue that (...)
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  13. added 2016-08-15
    Neil Mehta (2015). Knowledge and Other Norms for Assertion, Action, and Belief: A Teleological Account. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (1).
    Here I advance a unified account of the structure of the epistemic normativity of assertion, action, and belief. According to my Teleological Account, all of these are epistemically successful just in case they fulfill the primary aim of knowledgeability, an aim which in turn generates a host of secondary epistemic norms. The central features of the Teleological Account are these: it is compact in its reliance on a single central explanatory posit, knowledge-centered in its insistence that knowledge sets the fundamental (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-15
    John Hawthorne & Ofra Magidor, Assertion, Context, and Epistemic Accessibility.
    In his seminal paper 'Assertion', Robert Stalnaker distinguishes between the semantic content of a sentence on an occasion of use and the content asserted by an utterance of that sentence on that occasion. While in general the assertoric content of an utterance is simply its semantic content, the mechanisms of conversation sometimes force the two apart. Of special interest in this connection is one of the principles governing assertoric content in the framework, one according to which the asserted content ought (...)
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  15. added 2016-08-14
    Gorazd Andrejč (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and Interreligious Disagreement: A Philosophical and Theological Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book critically examines three distinct interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein, those of George Lindbeck, David Tracy, and David Burrell, while paying special attention to the topic of interreligious disagreement. In theological and philosophical work on interreligious communication, Ludwig Wittgenstein has been interpreted in very different, sometimes contradicting ways. This is partly due to the nature of Wittgenstein’s philosophical investigation, which does not consist of a theory nor does it posit theses about religion, but includes several, varying conceptions of religion. In (...)
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  16. added 2016-08-11
    Toby Napoletano (forthcoming). Why Truth-Conditional Semantics in Generative Linguistics is Still the Better Bet. Erkenntnis:1-20.
    In his “Meaning and Formal Semantics in Generative Grammar” (Erkenntnis 2015, 61–87), Stephen Schiffer argues that truth-conditional semantics is a poor fit with generative linguistics. In particular, he thinks that it fails to explain speakers’ abilities to understand the sentences of their language. In its place, he recommends his “Best Bet Theory”—a theory which aims to directly explain speakers’ abilities to mean things by their utterances and know what others mean by their utterances. I argue that Schiffer does not provide (...)
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  17. added 2016-08-11
    Simon Townsend, Sonja Koski, Richard Byrne, Katie Slocombe, Balthasar Bickel, Markus Boeckle, Ines Braga Goncalves, Judith Burkart, Tom Flower, Florence Gaunet, Hans Johann Glock, Thibaud Gruber, David Jansen, Katja Liebal, Angelika Linke, Adam Miklosi, Richard Moore, Carel van Schaik, Sabine Stoll, Alex Vail, Bridget Waller, Markus Wild, Klaus Zuberühler & Marta Manser (2016). Exorcising Grice’s Ghost: An Empirical Approach to Studying Intentional Communication in Animals. Biological Reviews 3.
    Language’s intentional nature has been highlighted as a crucial feature distinguishing it from other communication systems. Specifically, language is often thought to depend on highly structured intentional action and mutual mindreading by a communicator and recipient. Whilst similar abilities in animals can shed light on the evolution of intentionality, they remain challenging to detect unambiguously. We revisit animal intentional communication and suggest that progress in identifying analogous capacities has been complicated by (i) the assumption that intentional (that is, voluntary) production (...)
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  18. added 2016-08-11
    Jeremiah Joven Joaquin, Robert James M. Boyles, Mark Anthony Dacela & Victorino Raymundo Lualhati (2013). The Nature of Truth. In Leni Garcia (ed.), Exploring the Philosophical Terrain. C&E Publishing, Inc. 38–50.
    This article surveys different philosophical theories about the nature of truth. We give much importance to truth; some demand to know it, some fear it, and others would even die for it. But what exactly is truth? What is its nature? Does it even have a nature in the first place? When do we say that some truth-bearers are true? Philosophers offer varying answers to these questions. In this article, some of these answers are explored and some of the problems (...)
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  19. added 2016-08-09
    Pierre Baumann (2015). Un punto a favor de Russell. Retorno 1 (1):35-48.
  20. added 2016-08-08
    Bianca Cepollaro (2015). In Defense of a Presuppositional Account of Slurs. Language Sciences 52:36-45.
    Abstract In the last fifteen years philosophers and linguists have turned their attention to slurs: derogatory expressions that target certain groups on the basis of race, gender, sexual orientation, nationality and so on. This interest is due to the fact that, on the one hand, slurs possess puzzling linguistic properties; on the other hand, the questions they pose are related to other crucial issues, such as the descriptivism/expressivism divide, the semantics/pragmatics divide and, generally speaking, the theory of meaning. Despite these (...)
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  21. added 2016-08-04
    Jonathan Livingstone-Banks (2016). The Contingency Problem for Neo-Conventionalism. Erkenntnis:1-19.
    Traditional conventionalism about modality claims that a proposition is necessarily true iff it is true by convention. In the wake of the widespread repudiation of truth-byconvention, traditional conventionalism has fallen out of favour. However, a family of theories of modality have arisen that, whilst abandoning truth-by-convention, retain the spirit of traditional conventionalism. These ‘neo-conventionalist’ theories surpass their forebears and don’t fall victim to the criticisms inherited through truth-by-convention. However, not all criticisms levelled at traditional conventionalism target truth-by-convention. Any conventional theory (...)
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  22. added 2016-08-04
    Andrea Sauchelli (2016). The Will to Make‐Believe: Religious Fictionalism, Religious Beliefs, and the Value of Art. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (1).
    I explore some of the reasons why, under specific circumstances, it may be rational to make-believe or imagine certain religious beliefs. Adopting a jargon familiar to certain contemporary philosophers, my main concern here is to assess what reasons can be given for adopting a fictionalist stance towards some religious beliefs. My understanding of fictionalism does not involve solely a propositional attitude but a broader stance, which may include certain acts of pretence. I also argue that a plausible reason to be (...)
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  23. added 2016-08-02
    Terrance Tomkow & Kadri Vihvelin, Counterfactuals: The Short Course.
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  24. added 2016-08-02
    Lucas Champollion, Ivano Ciardelli & Linmin Zhang, Breaking de Morgan's Law in Counterfactual Antecedents.
    The main goal of this paper is to investigate the relation between the meaning of a sentence and its truth conditions. We report on a comprehension experiment on counterfactual conditionals, based on a context in which a light is controlled by two switches. Our main finding is that the truth-conditionally equivalent clauses (i) "switch A or switch B is down" and (ii) "switch A and switch B are not both up" make different semantic contributions when embedded in a conditional antecedent. (...)
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  25. added 2016-08-02
    Matthew Mandelkern (forthcoming). Dissatisfaction Theory. Semantics and Linguistic Theory 26.
    I propose a new theory of semantic presupposition, which I call dissatisfaction theory. I first briefly review a cluster of problems − known collectively as the proviso problem − for most extant theories of presupposition, arguing that the main pragmatic response to them faces a serious challenge. I avoid these problems by adopting two changes in perspective on presupposition. First, I propose a theory of projection according to which presuppositions project unless they are locally entailed. Second, I reject the standard (...)
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  26. added 2016-08-02
    Lars Dänzer & Miguel Hoeltje (forthcoming). Propositionen. In Markus Schrenk (ed.), Handbuch Metaphysik. Metzler
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  27. added 2016-08-02
    Cheng-Chih Tsai (2016). Becker, Ramsey, and Hi-World Semantics. Toward a Unified Account of Conditionals. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 16 (1):69-89.
    In Lowe (1995), instead of endorsing a Stalnaker/Lewis-style account of counterfactuals, E. J. Lowe claims that a variation of C. I. Lewis’s strict implication alone captures the essence of everyday conditionals and avoids the paradoxes of strict implication. However, Lowe’s approach fails to account for the validity of simple and straightforward arguments such as ‘if 2=3 then 2+1=3+1’, and Heylen & Horsten (2006) even claims that no variation of strict implication can successfully describe the logical behavior of natural language conditionals. (...)
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  28. added 2016-08-02
    Miguel Hoeltje (2015). Wahrheitstheoretische Semantik. In Nikola Kompa (ed.), Handbuch Sprachphilosophie.
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  29. added 2016-08-02
    Miguel Hoeltje (2012). Wahrheit, Bedeutung und Form — Eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Davidson’schen Programm. Mentis.
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  30. added 2016-07-30
    Friederike Moltmann, Natural Language Ontology. Oxford Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
    The aim of natural language ontology is to uncover the ontological categories and structures that are implicit in the use of natural language, that is, that a speaker accepts when using a language. This article aims to clarify what exactly the subject matter of natural language ontology is, what sorts of linguistic data it should take into account, how natural language ontology relates to other branches of metaphysics, in what ways natural language ontology is important, and what may be distinctive (...)
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  31. added 2016-07-30
    Andrés-Francisco Contreras (2014). Hermenéutica: El Lógos de la Fenomenología. Studia Heideggeriana 3:127-158.
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  32. added 2016-07-29
    Jens Kipper (forthcoming). Propositional Apriority and the Nesting Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-14.
    According to the modal account of propositional apriority, a proposition is a priori if it is possible to know it with a priori justification. Assuming that modal truths are necessarily true and that there are contingent a priori truths, this account has the undesirable consequence that a proposition can be a priori in a world in which it is false. Epistemic two-dimensionalism faces the same problem, since on its standard interpretation, it also entails that a priori propositions are necessarily a (...)
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  33. added 2016-07-28
    Sabine Iatridou & Sergei Tatevosov (forthcoming). Our Even. Linguistics and Philosophy:1-37.
    We discuss a phenomenon that appears when ‘even’ occurs in questions. Specifically, an inference of what we call “extreme ignorance” is projected onto the speaker. We argue that this effect arises when the known unlikelihood ‘even’ focuses an entire question, resulting in the focused question being the least likely to be asked. Specific implicatures then conspire to bring about the inference that the speaker does not know the answer to the question that is most expected to be known. The environments (...)
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  34. added 2016-07-27
    Duilio D'Alfonso (2011). Generalized Quantifiers: Logic and Language. Logic and Philosophy of Science 9 (No. 1):85-94.
    The Generalized Quantifiers Theory, I will argue, in the second half of last Century has led to an important rapprochement, relevant both in logic and in linguistics, between logical quantification theories and the semantic analysis of quantification in natural languages. In this paper I concisely illustrate the formal aspects and the theoretical implications of this rapprochement.
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  35. added 2016-07-26
    Rainer Nickel (2016). Übersetzen und Übersetzung. Anregungen zur Reflexion des Übersetzens im altsprachlichen Unterricht. Kartoffeldruck-Verlag Kai Brodersen.
    Dieser Band befasst sich mit einem wichtigen Aspekt der Ars didactica: Er diskutiert zwar keine neuen „Übersetzungsmethoden“, will aber dazu anregen, das Übersetzen als eine unverzichtbare Kulturtechnik zu lehren und zu lernen. Er will dazu ermuntern, das Übersetzen nicht auf die informationstheoretischen bzw. nachrichtentechnischen Vorgänge des Rekodierens und Dekodierens zu reduzieren, sondern als eine anspruchsvolle und bisweilen auch kreative Leistung ernst zu nehmen, seine ästhetische Dimension nicht aus den Augen zu verlieren und den Respekt vor dem Original erkennen zu lassen.
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  36. added 2016-07-22
    Emanuel Viebahn & Barbara Vetter (2016). How Many Meanings for ‘May’? The Case for Modal Polysemy. Philosophers' Imprint 16 (10).
    The standard Kratzerian analysis of modal auxiliaries, such as ‘may’ and ‘can’, takes them to be univocal and context-sensitive. Our first aim is to argue for an alternative view, on which such expressions are polysemous. Our second aim is to thereby shed light on the distinction between semantic context-sensitivity and polysemy. To achieve these aims, we examine the mechanisms of polysemy and context-sensitivity and provide criteria with which they can be held apart. We apply the criteria to modal auxiliaries and (...)
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  37. added 2016-07-20
    Luis Vicente (forthcoming). Free Versus Bound Variables and the Taxonomy of Gaps. Natural Language Semantics:1-43.
    Potts et seq. presents an analysis of gap-containing supplements where the gap is modelled as a variable over the semantic type of the constituent that the as-clause adjoins to. This much allows the meaning of the gap to be resolved purely compositionally, by defining as as a function that allows the anchor to bind the gap variable. This article presents a class of as-clauses where Potts’s analysis seems to break down, in that the gap cannot be modelled as a variable (...)
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  38. added 2016-07-18
    Maria Bittner, NASSLLI 2016 Dynamic Semantics (4): Temporality.
    Featured course on "Dynamic Semantics" at NASSLLI 2016. Day 4: Temporality. Abstract: Cross-linguistic evidence shows that temporal reference likewise involves context change. In every language, temporal reference is similar to top-level nominal reference, except that instead of updating or referring to top-ranked individuals, temporal grammatical systems update or refer to top-ranked temporal referents (events, states, or times). We discuss and compare temporal reference in two sample languages: tense-based English and tenseless aspect-based Mandarin.
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  39. added 2016-07-18
    Maria Bittner, NASSLLI 2016 Dynamic Semantics (5): Quantification.
    Featured course on "Dynamic Semantics" at NASSLLI 2016. Day 5: Quantification. Abstract: In discourse, quantifiers can function as antecedents or anaphors. We analyze a sample discourse in Dynamic Plural Logic (DPlL, van den Berg 1993, 1994), which represents not only current discourse referents, but also current relations by means of plural information states. This makes it possible to analyze quantification as structured discourse reference. Finally, the DPlL analysis is transposed into Update with Centering, to simplify the formalism and relate quantification (...)
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  40. added 2016-07-18
    Maria Bittner, NASSLLI 2016 Dynamic Semantics (3): Indexicality.
    Featured course on "Dynamic Semantics" at NASSLLI 2016. Day 3: Indexicality. Abstract: Cross-linguistic evidence shows that indexicality, too, crucially involves context change. Speaking up focuses attention on that event and thereby makes it available for discourse reference (by "i", "you", etc). In Kalaallisut, this explains parallel grammatical marking of indexical reference and topic-oriented anaphora. Moreover, shiftable indexicals in Slavey show that certain expressions, e.g. attitude verbs, may update the top perspectival discourse referent from the speech event to an attitude state.
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  41. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig (2016). Corporate Speech in Citizens United Vs. Federal Election Commission. SpazioFilosofico 16:47-79.
    In its January 20th, 2010 decision in Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission, the United States Supreme Court ruled that certain restrictions on independent expenditures by corporations for political advocacy violate the First Amendment of the Constitution, which provides that “Congress shall make no law […] abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” Justice Kennedy, writing for the 5-4 majority, (...)
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  42. added 2016-07-18
    Catrin Campbell-Moore, Self-Referential Probability.
    This thesis focuses on expressively rich languages that can formalise talk about probability. These languages have sentences that say something about probabilities of probabilities, but also sentences that say something about the probability of themselves. For example: : “The probability of the sentence labelled π is not greater than 1/2.” Such sentences lead to philosophical and technical challenges. For example seemingly harmless principles, such as an introspection principle, lead to inconsistencies with the axioms of probability in this framework. This thesis (...)
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  43. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig (2013). Truth in the Theory of Meaning. In Kirk Ludwig & Ernest Lepore (eds.), A Companion to Davidson. Wiley-Blackwell 175-190.
    This chapter reviews interpretations of Davidson's project in the theory of meaning and argues against a variety of views according to which Davidson intended to reduce meaning to some variety of truth conditions or replace the project of giving a theory of meaning with a theory of truth, and in support of interpreting him as offering an indirect way of achieving the goals of the traditional project by appeal to knowledge of facts about a semantic theory of truth for the (...)
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  44. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig (2012). Logical Form. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge 29-41.
    This chapter reviews some of the history of discussions of logical form and offers a truth-theoretic account that traces back to Donald Davidson.
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  45. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig (2011). Donald Davidson. In Barry Lee (ed.), Key Thinkers in the Philosophy of Language. Continuum 199-224.
    This chapter reviews Donald Davidson's contributions to the philosophy of language, and especially to the theory of meaning.
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  46. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig (2011). Triangulation Triangulated. In Cristina Amoretti & Gerhard Preyer (eds.), Triangulation: from an epistemological point of view. 69-95.
    Appeal to triangulation occurs in two different contexts in Davidson’s work. In the first, triangulation—in the trigonometric sense—is used as an analogy to help explain the central idea of a transcendental argument designed to show that we can have the concept of objective truth only in the context of communication with another speaker. In the second, the triangulation of two speakers responding to each other and to a common cause of similar responses is invoked as a solution to the problem (...)
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  47. added 2016-07-18
    Kirk Ludwig & Ernest Lepore (2007). The Reality of Language: On the Davidson-Dummett Debate. In Randall Auxier & Lewis Hahn (eds.), The Philosophy of Michael Dummett: The Library of Living Philosophers. 185-214.
    This chapter identifies the central issue between Michael Dummett and Donald Davidson on the role of convention in language and argues they are not as far apart in the end as they take themselves to be.
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  48. added 2016-07-18
    Maria Bittner, NASSLLI 2016 Dynamic Semantics (1): Introduction.
    Featured course on "Dynamic Semantics" at NASSLLI 2016. Day 1: Introduction. Abstract: Dynamic semantics is a family of semantic theories that seek to explicate the intuition that saying something changes the context for what follows. We survey the development of formal semantics from static to dynamic formalisms since 1970s. Throughout, we highlight natural language phenomena that motivate dynamic semantics, and the key pre-theoretical concepts -- information state, update, and discourse referent -- which can be implemented in different ways and thus (...)
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  49. added 2016-07-18
    Maria Bittner, NASSLLI 2016 Dynamic Semantics (2): Anaphora.
    Featured course on "Dynamic Semantics" at NASSLLI 2016. Day 2: Anaphora. Abstract: Cross-linguistic evidence shows that anaphora crucially involves context change. The logical representation system must be able to represent rank-based anaphora, because in every language the favorite anaphors -- e.g. Mandarin zeros, Kalaallisut inflections, English pronouns -- are restricted to refer to top-ranked antecedents (top-level anaphors, like Mandarin zeros or Kalaallisut inflections) or top- or 2nd-ranked antecedents (shallow anaphors, like English pronouns).
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  50. added 2016-07-15
    Chris Collins (forthcoming). Not Even. Natural Language Semantics:1-13.
    :This paper proposes an analysis of the semantics of even that is consistent with the assumptions about the syntax and semantics of negation in Collins and Postal. First, I review the distribution of negation, showing how negation may modify quantificational expressions where it gives rise to scope freezing effects. Second, I discuss the fact that even-phrases can be modified by negation, as in Not even John is there. On the basis of this fact, I argue that even is a quantifier. (...)
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