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Philosophy of Language

Edited by Berit Brogaard (University of Missouri St. Louis)
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  1. added 2015-02-28
    Robert J. O'Hara (1996). Trees of History in Systematics and Philology. Memorie Della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali E Del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 27 (1): 81–88.
    "The Natural System" is the name given to the underlying arrangement present in the diversity of life. Unlike a classification, which is made up of classes and members, a system or arrangement is an integrated whole made up of connected parts. In the pre-evolutionary period a variety of forms were proposed for the Natural System, including maps, circles, stars, and abstract multidimensional objects. The trees sketched by Darwin in the 1830s should probably be considered the first genuine evolutionary diagrams of (...)
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  2. added 2015-02-27
    Roger Wertheimer, Talking With Objects.
    Talking about objects requires talking with objects, presenting objects in speech to identify a term's referent. I say This figure is a circle while handing you a ring. The ring is a prop, a perceptual object referenced by an extra-sentential event to identify the extension of a term, its director ('This figure'). Props operate in speech acts and their products, not in sentences. Intra-sentential objects we talk with are displays. Displayed objects needn't be words but must be like words, perceptually, (...)
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  3. added 2015-02-27
    Erich Rast (2014). Context as Assumptions. In F. Lihoreau & M. Rebuschi (eds.), Epistemology, Context, and Formalism. Springer. 9-39.
    In this article some phenomena of linguistic context-dependence are investigated from the perspective of regarding context as being constituted by the assumptions of individual discourse participants.
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  4. added 2015-02-26
    Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Against Naturalism About Truth. In Kelly Clark (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Naturalism.
    The chapter distinguishes between a weak and a strong form of ontological naturalism. Strong ontological naturalism is the view that all truths can be deduced, at least in principle, from truths about physical entities at the lowest level of organization, for example, truths about the elementary particles and forces. Weak ontological naturalism is the view that only physical properties can be causally efficacious. Strong ontological naturalism entails weak ontological naturalism but not vice versa. I then argue that the existence of (...)
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  5. added 2015-02-26
    Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Against Naturalism About Truth. In Kelly Clark (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Naturalism.
    The chapter distinguishes between a weak and a strong form of ontological naturalism. Strong ontological naturalism is the view that all truths can be deduced, at least in principle, from truths about physical entities at the lowest level of organization, for example, truths about the elementary particles and forces. Weak ontological naturalism is the view that only physical properties can be causally efficacious. Strong ontological naturalism entails weak ontological naturalism but not vice versa. I then argue that the existence of (...)
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  6. added 2015-02-25
    Robert Knowles (forthcoming). What ‘the Number of Planets is Eight’ Means. Philosophical Studies:1-19.
    ‘The following sentence is true only if numbers exist: The number of planets is eight. It is true; hence, numbers exist.’ So runs a familiar argument for realism about mathematical objects. But this argument relies on a controversial semantic thesis: that ‘The number of planets’ and ‘eight’ are singular terms standing for the number eight, and the copula expresses identity. This is the ‘Fregean analysis’.I show that the Fregean analysis is false by providing an analysis of sentences such as that (...)
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  7. added 2015-02-25
    Ingrid Lossius Falkum & Agustin Vicente (2015). Polysemy: Current Perspectives and Approaches. Lingua:DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2015.02.00.
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  8. added 2015-02-25
    Teresa Marques (2003). Liar Sentences and Soames’s Rejection of Bivalence. In Henrique Jales Ribeiro (ed.), 1º Encontro Nacional de Filosofia Analítica.
    Scott Soames proposes in his book Understanding Truth (1999) a motivation to reject bivalence. It is his claim that if bivalence is assumed to apply to liar sentences, contradictions will follow. However, contradictions will equally follow if bivalence is denied of liar sentences (in fact, of any truth-bearers). Soames avoids contradictions by treating truth as a partially defined predicate: for certain sentences, truth is not defined to apply or not to apply. Liar sentences are some of such cases. However, there (...)
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  9. added 2015-02-23
    John W. M. Krummel (forthcoming). Comparative Philosophy in Japan: Nakamura Hajime and Izutsu Toshihiko. In Bret W. Davis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter discusses the comparative philosophies of two premier comparativists of postwar Japan, Nakamura Hajime and Izutsu Toshihiko. Both were known as accomplished scholars within their respective fields—Buddhist studies and Indology for Nakamura, and Islamic studies for Izutsu—when they initiated their comparative projects. Each had a distinct vision of what comparison entails and the sort of philosophy it would produce. Nakamura’s project was a world history of ideas that uncovers basic patterns in the unfolding of human thought. Izutsu aims to (...)
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  10. added 2015-02-23
    Teresa Marques (2015). Disagreeing in Context. Frontiers in Psychology 6 (257).
    This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparent resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance López de Sa (2008), Sundell (2011), Huvenes (2012), Marques (2014b), and Marques and García-Carpintero (2014), have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem of (...)
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  11. added 2015-02-21
    Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (1986). Husserl's Logical Investigations. Grazer Philosophische Studien 27:199-207.
    The magisterial analyses of logic and meaning advanced in Husserl's Logical Investigations of 1900/01 have for a number of reasons been neglected by analytical philosophers in subsequent decades. This state of affairs has to do, in part, with the history of the editions and translations of Husserl's writings. Findlay's readable but imperfect translation appeared seventy years after the work itself was first published, and the editors and translators and expositors of Husserl's works have reflected the prevailing philosophical atmosphere on the (...)
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  12. added 2015-02-20
    Fabrizio Cariani (2014). Attitudes, Deontics and Semantic Neutrality. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (4):491-511.
    It has been recently suggested that a semantic theory for deontic modals should be neutral between a very large range of normative and evaluative theories. This article aims to clarify this talk of neutrality, in particular its scope and motivation. My thesis is that neutrality is best understood as an empirical thesis about a fragment of natural language that includes deontic modals – not as a new, sui generis methodological constraint on natural language semantics.
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  13. added 2015-02-19
    Felka Katharina (forthcoming). On the Presuppositions of Number Sentences. Synthese.
    This paper is concerned with an intuitive contrast that arises when we consider sentences containing empty definite descriptions. A sentence like ‘The king of France is bald’ appears neither true nor false, while a sentence like ‘My friend was visited by the king of France’ appears false. Recently, Stephen Yablo has suggested an account of this intuitive contrast. Yablo’s account is particularly interesting, since it has important consequences for the ontological commitments of number sentences like ‘The number of planets is (...)
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  14. added 2015-02-18
    Raymond Aaron Younis (1995). Aspects of Metaphor. [REVIEW] Metascience (7):186-190.
  15. added 2015-02-17
    Alexandra Arapinis (forthcoming). Whole-for-Part Metonymy, Classification, and Grounding. Linguistics and Philosophy:1-29.
    Since the early 1980s, metonymy has progressively gained central stage in linguistic investigations. The advent of cognitive linguistics marked a new turn in the study of this trope conceived, not as a deviation from semantic conventions , but as a phenomenon rooted in non-language-specific mechanisms of conceptualization of the world. Acknowledging that metonymy is ultimately cognitive in nature, this paper proposes to consider metonymy from its multiple levels of manifestation, integrating cognitive, pragmatic, semantic, but also ontological angles of approach. Taking (...)
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  16. added 2015-02-16
    Matthew A. Benton (forthcoming). Lying, Belief, and Knowledge. In Jörg Meibauer (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Lying. Oxford University Press.
    What is the relationship between lying, belief, and knowledge? Prominent accounts of lying define it in terms of belief, namely telling someone something one believes to be false, often with the intent to deceive. This paper develops a novel account of lying by deriving evaluative dimensions of responsibility from the knowledge norm of assertion. Lies are best understood as special cases of vicious assertion; lying is the anti-paradigm of proper assertion. This enables an account of lying in terms of knowledge: (...)
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  17. added 2015-02-16
    Benjamin Spector (forthcoming). Multivalent Semantics for Vagueness and Presupposition. Topoi:1-11.
    Both the phenomenon of presupposition and that of vagueness have motivated the use of one form or another of trivalent logic, in which a declarative sentence can not only receive the standard values true and false , but also a third, non-standard truth-value which is usually understood as ‘undefined’ . The goal of this paper is to propose a multivalent framework which can deal simultaneously with presupposition and vagueness, and, more specifically, capture their projection properties as well as their different (...)
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  18. added 2015-02-16
    Barbara Abbott (forthcoming). An Information Packaging Approach to Presuppositions and Conventional Implicatures. Topoi:1-13.
    Within the relevant semantics and pragmatics literature the terms “presupposition” and “conventional implicature” are used in a variety of different, but frequently overlapping, ways. The overlaps are perhaps not surprising, given that the two categories of conveyed meaning share the property of remaining constant in the scope of other operators—the property usefully characterize as projectivity. One of my purposes in this paper will be to try to clarify these different usages. In addition to that we will explore two additional properties (...)
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  19. added 2015-02-16
    João Branquinho (2014). Indexical Sinn: Fregeanism Versus Millianism. Revista de Filosofia Aurora 26 (39):465-486.
    This paper discusses two notational variance views with respect to indexical singular reference and content: the view that certain forms of Millianism are at bottom notational variants of a Fregean theory of reference, the Fregean Notational Variance Claim; and the view that certain forms of Fregeanism are at bottom notational variants of a direct reference theory, the Millian Notational Variance Claim. While the former claim rests on the supposition that a direct reference theory could be easily turned into a particular (...)
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  20. added 2015-02-14
    Rogério Passos Severo (2014). Are There Empirical Cases of Indeterminacy of Translation? Grazer Philosophische Studien 89:131-148.
    Quine’s writings on indeterminacy of translation are mostly abstract and theoretical; his reasons for the thesis are not based on historical cases of translation but on general considerations about how language works. So it is no surprise that a common objection to the thesis asserts that it is not backed up by any positive empirical evidence. Ian Hacking (1981 and 2002) claims that whatever credibility the thesis does enjoy comes rather from alleged (fictitious) cases of radical mistranslation. This paper responds (...)
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  21. added 2015-02-13
    Renee Jorgensen Bolinger (forthcoming). The Pragmatics of Slurs. Noûs.
    I argue that the offense generation pattern of slurring terms parallels that of impoliteness behaviors, and is best explained by appeal to purely pragmatic mechanisms akin to those at work in impoliteness phenomena. In short, in choosing to use a slurring term rather than its neutral counterpart, the speaker signals that she endorses the term (and its associations). Such an attitude is offensive, and consequently slurs generate offense whenever a speaker’s use demonstrates a contrastive preference for the slurring term. Since (...)
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  22. added 2015-02-11
    Nicholas J. J. Smith (2015). Undead Argument: The Truth-Functionality Objection to Fuzzy Theories of Vagueness. Synthese:1-27.
    From Fine and Kamp in the 70’s—through Osherson and Smith in the 80’s, Williamson, Kamp and Partee in the 90’s and Keefe in the 00’s—up to Sauerland in the present decade, the objection continues to be run that fuzzy logic based theories of vagueness are incompatible with ordinary usage of compound propositions in the presence of borderline cases. These arguments against fuzzy theories have been rebutted several times but evidently not put to rest. I attempt to do so in this (...)
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  23. added 2015-02-11
    Nicholas J. J. Smith (2015). Fuzzy Logics in Theories of Vagueness. In Petr Cintula, Christian Fermüller & Carles Noguera (eds.), Handbook of Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - Volume 3. College Publications.
  24. added 2015-02-09
    Timothy J. Nulty (2004). Davidson and Heidegger on the Nature of Truth. Dissertation, The University of Connecticut
    The dissertation examines Davidson and Heidegger's rejections of correspondence truth, as well as their claims that truth is theoretically primitive. Truth is primitive in the sense that it cannot be reduced to, nor defined in terms of, some other more theoretically basic concepts, such as those offered in correspondence, coherence, and pragmatic accounts of truth. The fact that truth cannot be defined in terms of more basic concepts does not mean that there are not important and meaningful things to say (...)
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  25. added 2015-02-07
    Bradford M. N. Petrie (1985). Semantics and Physicalism. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    There are two opposed interpretations of truth-theoretic semantic theories: a reductive, atomistic interpretation and a non-reductive, holistic interpretation. This dissertation examines the motivations and metaphysical presuppositions of these two opposed interpretations of semantic theory. ;Chapter one outlines the two interpretations and the metaphysical considerations which motivate the reductive account. Chapters two and three examine two of the most important arguments for the irreducibility of semantics which motivate the holistic interpretation: the argument from the permutability of reference, and the argument from (...)
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  26. added 2015-02-05
    F. W. Kroon (1979). "Advanced Logic for Applications" by R. E. Grandy. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 3:415.
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  27. added 2015-02-05
    M. J. Cresswell (1979). Semantics" by John Lyons. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 3:289.
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  28. added 2015-02-05
    Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1979). Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?" by Ian Hacking. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 3:429.
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  29. added 2015-02-05
    Martin Harris (1979). "Definiteness and Indefiniteness: A Study in Reference and Grammaticality Prediction" by John A. Hawkins. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 3:419.
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  30. added 2015-02-04
    Max Gottschlich (2014). Einleitung [zu Franz Ungler und Bruno Liebrucks]. In , Franz Ungler, Bruno Liebrucks' "Sprache und Bewußtsein". Vorlesung vom WS 1988, mit einem Geleitwort von Josef Simon, hg. und eingeleitet von M. Gottschlich. Alber. 19-186.
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  31. added 2015-02-04
    Stephen P. Stich (1982). "Beyond the Letter: A Philosophical Inquiry Into Ambiguity, Vagueness and Metaphor in Language" by Israel Scheffler. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 5:295.
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  32. added 2015-02-04
    Barbara Abbott (1980). Making Sense" by Geoffrey Sampson. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 4:437.
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  33. added 2015-02-04
    Nino Cocchiarella (1980). "Pragmatics, Truth and Language" by R. M. MARTIN. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 4:453.
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  34. added 2015-02-04
    Steven E. BoËr (1980). Ways of Meaning" by Mark Platts. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 4:141.
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  35. added 2015-02-04
    R. M. Martin (1979). Pragmatics, Truth, and Language. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  36. added 2015-02-04
    Osten Dahl (1979). "Psychology and Language. An Introduction to Psycholinguists" by Herbert H. Clark and Eve V. Clark. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 3:437.
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  37. added 2015-02-04
    John C. Bigelow (1977). "Language, Mind, and Knowledge", Ed. By Keith Gunderson. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 1:301.
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  38. added 2015-02-02
    Martin Montminy & Wes Skolits (2014). Defending The Coherence Of Contextualism. Episteme 11 (3):319-333.
    According to a popular objection against epistemic contextualism, contextualists who endorse the factivity of knowledge, the principle of epistemic closure and the knowledge norm of assertion cannot coherently defend their theory without abandoning their response to skepticism. After examining and criticizing three responses to this objection, we offer our own solution. First, we question the assumption that contextualists ought to be interpreted as asserting the content of their theory. Second, we argue that contextualists need not hold that high epistemic standards (...)
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  39. added 2015-02-02
    Max Gottschlich (ed.) (2014). Franz Ungler, Bruno Liebrucks' "Sprache Und Bewußtsein". Vorlesung Vom Ws 1988 [Language and Consciousness. Lecture From Winter Term 1988], with a Preface by Josef Simon, Introduced by M. Gottschlich. [REVIEW] Alber.
    Der Wiener Philosoph Franz Ungler ist ein eminenter Vertreter jener von Robert Reininger und Erich Heintel grundgelegten „Wiener Schule“, deren Hauptanliegen die Aneignung und Vergegenwärtigung der systematischen Errungenschaften der philosophischen Tradition ist. Als einer der wenigen Dialektiker des 20. Jahrhunderts erblickt Ungler die gedankliche Herausforderung dabei darin, einerseits nicht hinter die Errungenschaften der Transzendentalphilosophie in naive Ontologien zurückzufallen, andererseits die Probleme der Transzendentalphilosophie einer haltbaren Lösung zuzuführen. Dazu leistete er in seiner außergewöhnlich reichhaltigen und lebendigen Lehre einen bedeutsamen Beitrag. Diese (...)
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  40. added 2015-02-02
    Max Gottschlich (ed.) (2014). Franz Ungler, Bruno Liebrucks' "Sprache Und Bewußtsein". Vorlesung Vom Ws 1988 [Language and Consciousness. Lecture From Winter Term 1988] with a Preface by Josef Simon, Introduced by M. Gottschlich. [REVIEW] Alber.
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  41. added 2015-02-02
    Frank Hindriks & Barteld Kooi (2014). Reaffirming the Status of the Knowledge Account of Assertion. Journal of Philosophical Research 39:87-92.
    According to the expression account, assertion is the linguistic expression of belief. Given the knowledge rule of belief, this entails that knowledge is a normative requirement of sincere assertions. On this account, which is defended in Hindriks , knowledge can be a normative requirement of sincere assertions even though there is no knowledge rule that is constitutive of assertion. Ball criticizes this claim arguing that the derivation of the knowledge rule equivocates between epistemic and moral senses of obligation. In response, (...)
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  42. added 2015-02-02
    Geoff Pynn (2014). Unassertability And The Appearance Of Ignorance. Episteme 11 (2):125-143.
    Whether it seems that you know something depends in part upon practical factors. When the stakes are low, it can seem to you that you know that p, but when the stakes go up it'll seem to you that you don't. The apparent sensitivity of knowledge to stakes presents a serious challenge to epistemologists who endorse a stable semantics for knowledge attributions and reject the idea that whether you know something depends on how much is at stake. After arguing that (...)
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  43. added 2015-02-02
    Max Gottschlich (ed.) (2013). Die Drei Revolutionen der Denkart – Systematische Beiträge Zum Denken von Bruno Liebrucks [The Three Revolutions in the Way of Thinking – Systematical Contributions to Bruno Liebrucks]. Alber.
    Bruno Liebrucks hat eine eigenständige, an Vico, Herder, Hamann, Humboldt und Cassirer anknüpfende Philosophie von der Sprache her“ entwickelt, welche Sprache als Medium der Welterschließung begreift. Zu dieser gelangt er durch eine fundamentalphilosophische Auseinandersetzung mit jenen drei Revolutionierungen im Denken des Denkens, die mit den Namen Platon, Kant und Hegel verknüpft sind. Die Beiträge des Bandes gehen diesen „Revolutionen der Denkart“ nach und entfalten grundlegende Perspektiven, die sich von Liebrucks her für das Verständnis der Logik, der Philosophischen Anthropologie, der Ethik (...)
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  44. added 2015-02-02
    Max Gottschlich (ed.) (2013). Die drei Revolutionen der Denkart – Systematische Beiträge zum Denken von Bruno Liebrucks [The Three Revolutions in the Way of Thinking – Systematical Contributions to Bruno Liebrucks]. Alber.
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  45. added 2015-01-31
    Hanoch Ben-Yami (2014). Why Rigidity? In J. Berg (ed.), Naming, Necessity and More: Explorations in the Philosophical Work of Saul Kripke. Palgrave. 3-21.
    In Naming and Necessity Kripke argues 'intuitively' that names are rigid. Unlike Kripke, Ben-Yami first introduces and justifies the Principle of the Independence of Reference (PIR), according to which the reference of a name is independent of what is said in the rest of the sentence containing it. Ben-Yami then derives rigidity, or something close to it, from the PIR. Additional aspects of the use of names and other expressions in modal contexts, explained by the PIR but not by the (...)
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  46. added 2015-01-28
    Steven Gross (forthcoming). The Metaphysics of Meaning: Hopkins on Wittgenstein. International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    Jim Hopkins defends a ‘straight’ response to Wittgenstein’s rule-following considerations, a response he ascribes to Wittgenstein himself. According to this response, what makes it the case that A means that P is that it is possible for another to interpret A as meaning that P. Hopkins thus advances a form of interpretivist judgment-dependence about meaning. I argue that this response, as well as a variant, does not succeed.
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  47. added 2015-01-27
    Alex Worsnip (forthcoming). Narrow-Scoping for Wide-Scopers. Synthese:1-30.
    Many philosophers think that requirements of rationality are “wide-scope”. That is to say: they are requirements to satisfy some material conditional, such that one counts as satisfying the requirement iff one either makes the conditional’s antecedent false or makes its consequent true. These contrast with narrow-scope requirements, where the requirement takes scope only over the consequent of the conditional. Many of the philosophers who have preferred wide-scope requirements to narrow-scope requirements have also endorsed a corresponding semantic claim, namely that ordinary (...)
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  48. added 2015-01-26
    Dirk Greimann (ed.) (2007). Essays on Frege’s Conception of Truth. Rodopi.
    In his writings on the foundations of logic, Gottlob Frege, the father of modern logic, sketched a conception of truth that focuses on the following questions: What is the sense of the word “true”? Is truth a definable concept or a primitive one? What are the kinds of things of which truth is predicated? What is the role of the concept of truth in judgment, assertion and recognition? What is the logical category of truth? What is the significance of the (...)
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  49. added 2015-01-23
    Daniel Whiting (forthcoming). Truth is (Still) the Norm for Assertion: A Reply to Littlejohn. Erkenntnis:1-9.
    In a recent paper (Erkenntnis 78: 847–867, 2013), I defend the view that truth is the fundamental norm for assertion and, in doing so, reject the view that knowledge is the fundamental norm for assertion. In a recent response, Littlejohn (Erkenntnis 79: 1355–1365, 2014) raises a number of objections against my arguments. In this reply, I argue that Littlejohn’s objections are unsuccessful.
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  50. added 2015-01-22
    Adam P. Kubiak & Piotr Lipski (2014). Getting Straight on How Russell Underestimated Frege. Roczniki Filozoficzne 62 (4):121-134.
    Bertrand Russell in his essay On Denoting [1905] presented a theory of description developed in response to the one proposed by Gottlob Frege in his paper Über Sinn und Bedeutung [1892]. The aim of our work will be to show that Russell underestimated Frege three times over in presenting the latter’s work: in relation to the Gray’s Elegy argument, to the Ferdinand argument, and to puzzles discussed by Russell. First, we will discuss two claims of Russell’s which do not do (...)
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