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Philosophy of Language

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  1. added 2015-01-23
    Daniel Whiting (forthcoming). Truth is (Still) the Norm for Assertion: A Reply to Littlejohn. Erkenntnis.
    In a paper (Erkenntnis 78: 847–867, 2013), I defend the view that truth is the fundamental norm for assertion and, in doing so, reject the view that knowledge is the fundamental norm for assertion. In a recent response, Littlejohn (Erkenntnis 79: 1355–1365, 2014) raises a number of objections against my arguments. In this reply, I argue that Littlejohn’s objections are unsuccessful.
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  2. added 2015-01-22
    Adam P. Kubiak & Piotr Lipski (2014). Getting Straight on How Russell Underestimated Frege. Roczniki Filozoficzne 62 (4):121-134.
    Bertrand Russell in his essay On Denoting [1905] presented a theory of description developed in response to the one proposed by Gottlob Frege in his paper Über Sinn und Bedeutung [1892]. The aim of our work will be to show that Russell underestimated Frege three times over in presenting the latter’s work: in relation to the Gray’s Elegy argument, to the Ferdinand argument, and to puzzles discussed by Russell. First, we will discuss two claims of Russell’s which do not do (...)
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  3. added 2015-01-21
    Alex Davies (2014). Off-Target Responses to Occasion-Sensitivity. Dialectica 68 (4):499-523.
    In the literature on linguistic context-sensitivity, a recurrent move has been made with the intention of attacking Charles Travis's occasion-sensitivity. The move is to provide a semantic analysis of the meaning of an expression which makes the content of that expression context sensitive but without providing any reason to think that the meaning of the expression is a character. I argue that this move is off-target. Such proposals are entirely consistent with occasion-sensitivity and so don't constitute an attack on it.
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  4. added 2015-01-20
    Robin McKenna (forthcoming). Assertion, Complexity, and Sincerity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-17.
    The target of this paper is the ‘simple’ knowledge account of assertion, according to which assertion is constituted by a single epistemic rule of the form ‘One must: assert p only if one knows p’ . My aim is to argue that those who are attracted to a knowledge account of assertion should prefer what I call the ‘complex’ knowledge account, according to which assertion is constituted by a system of rules all of which are, taken together, constitutive of assertion. (...)
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  5. added 2015-01-20
    Andrea Strollo (2014). How Simple Is the Simplicity of Truth? Reconciling the Mathematics and the Metaphysics of Truth. In Fabio Bacchini, Stefano Caputo & Massimo Dell'Utri (eds.), New Frontiers in Truth. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 161-175.
    The notion of truth is a central subject both in Philosophy and Mathematical Logic. The logical approach on the one side and the philosophical one on the other, however, mostly deal with problems which, apparently, require different tools to be tackled. In this paper I argue that such a separation can and should be overcome, and, in order to build a bridge, I focus on the philosophical issue of the insubstantiality of truth, which is a crucial topic to distinguish inflationist (...)
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  6. added 2015-01-14
    Chase Wrenn (2015). Truth. Polity.
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  7. added 2015-01-13
    Lajos L. Brons (2015). Wang Chong, Truth, and Quasi-Pluralism. Comparative Philosophy 6 (1):129-148.
    In (2011) McLeod suggested that the first century Chinese philosopher Wang Chong 王充 may have been a pluralist about truth. In this reply I contest McLeod's interpretation of Wang Chong, and suggest "quasi-pluralism" (albeit more as an alternative to pluralism than as an interpretation of Wang Chong), which combines primitivism about the concept of truth with pluralism about justification.
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  8. added 2015-01-13
    Fabio Del Prete (2014). The Interpretation of Indefinites in Future Tensed Sentences. A Novel Argument for the Modality of Will? In Mikhail Kissine, Philippe de Brabanter & Saghie Sharifzadeh (eds.), Oxford Studies of Time in Language and Thought.
    The chapter considers two semantic issues concerning will-sentences: Stalnaker’s Asymmetry and modal subordination in Karttunen-type discourses. The former points to a distinction between will and modal verbs, seeming to show that will does not license non-specific indefinites. The latter, conversely, suggests that will-sentences involve some kind of modality. To account for the data, the chapter proposes that will is semantically a tense, hence it doesn’t contribute a quantifier over modal alternatives; a modal feature, however, is introduced in the interpretation of (...)
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  9. added 2015-01-09
    Maria Aloni & Bruno Jacinto (2014). Knowing Who: How Perspectives and Contexts Interact. In Frank Lihoreau & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.), Epistemology, Context and Formalism. Synthese Library.
  10. added 2015-01-09
    Tobias Keiling (2011). Kunst, Werk, Wahrheit. Heideggers Wahrheitstheorie in Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes. In David Espinet & Tobias Keiling (eds.), Heideggers Ursprung des Kunstwerkes. Ein kooperativer Kommentar. Klostermann. 66-95.
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  11. added 2015-01-08
    Adam C. Podlaskowski (Forthcoming). Giving Up on "the Rest of the Language''. Acta Analytica:1-12.
    In this essay, the tension that Benacerraf identifies for theories of mathematical truth is used as the vehicle for arguing against a particular desideratum for semantic theories. More specifically, I place in question the desideratum that a semantic theory, provided for some area of discourse, should run in parallel with the semantic theory holding for the rest of the language. The importance of this desideratum is also made clear by means of tracing out the subtle (though significant) implications of its (...)
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  12. added 2015-01-08
    Andreas Dorschel (2014). Icons without turn: Über Bilder und Worte. In Wilhelm Vossenkuhl (ed.), Quo vadis Design? 4 Thesen. 17-37.
    Images, or icons, have been made the subject of a ‘turn’. But no new epoch under its sign is looming. The image is just one medium among others. The best we can do is to face what it may and what it may not achieve. Its main competitor is the word – though there is a field of transition between both. Words and numbers surpass the image when one needs to refer to something that cannot be seen – this holds (...)
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  13. added 2015-01-07
    Gabriella Crocco & Eva-Maria Engelen (forthcoming). Kurt Gödel's Philosophical Remarks (Max Phil). In Gabriella Crocco & Eva-Maria Engelen (eds.), Kurt Gödel: Philosopher-Scientist. Presses Universitaires de Provence.
    Kurt Gödel left Philosophical Remarks in his Nachlass that he himself entitled Max Phil (Maximen Philosophie). The opus originally comprised 16 notebooks but one has been lost. The content is on the whole the outline of a rational metaphysics able to relate the different domains of knowledge and of moral investigations to each other. The notebooks were at first started as an intellectual diary in which Gödel writes an account of what he does and especially about what he should do (...)
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  14. added 2015-01-07
    Gabriella Crocco & Eva-Maria Engelen (eds.) (forthcoming). Kurt Gödel: Philosopher-Scientist. Presses Universitaires de Provence.
    This volume represents the beginning of a new stage of research in interpreting Kurt Gödel’s philosophy in relation to his scientific work. It is more than a collection of essays on Gödel. It is in fact the product of a long enduring international collaboration on Kurt Gödel’s Philosophical Notebooks (Max Phil). New and significant material has been made accessible to a group of experts, on which they rely for their articles. In addition to this, Gödel’s Nachlass is presented in a (...)
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  15. added 2015-01-06
    Eugen Fischer (2015). Mind the Metaphor! A Systematic Fallacy in Analogical Reasoning. Analysis 75 (1):67-77.
    Conceptual metaphors facilitate both productive and pernicious analogical reasoning. This article addresses the question: When and why does the frequently helpful use of metaphor become pernicious? By applying the most influential theoretical framework from cognitive psychology in analysing the philosophically most prominent example of pernicious metaphorical reasoning , we identify a philosophically relevant but previously undescribed fallacy in analogical reasoning with metaphors. We then outline an explanation of why even competent thinkers commit this fallacy and obtain a psychologically informed ‘debunking’ (...)
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  16. added 2015-01-06
    Eugen Fischer (2014). Messing Up the Mind? Analogical Reasoning with Metaphors. In Henrique Jales Ribeiro (ed.), Systematic Approaches to Argument by Analogy. Springer. 129-148.
    One major facilitator of analogical reasoning is conceptual metaphor: cross-domain mappings that preserve relations and thereby motivate the extension of linguistic terms from the source to the target domain. Their conscious and explicit use in analogical reasoning has been helpful and productive in disciplines ranging from physics to psychology, and philosophy. At the same time, students of metaphor have suggested that partially unwitting use of conceptual metaphors led to unsound but intuitive conceptions of the mind, in philosophy and psychology. This (...)
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  17. added 2015-01-06
    Eugen Fischer (2000). Linguistic Creativity. Kluwer.
    How is it that speakers can get to know the meaning of any of indefinitely many sentences they have never encountered before? - the 'problem of linguistic creativity' posed by this question is a core problem of both philosophy of language and theoretical linguistics, and has sparked off a considerable amount of work in the philosophy of mind. The book establishes the failure of the familiar - compositional - approach to this problem, and then takes a radically new start: It (...)
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  18. added 2015-01-05
    John Turri (forthcoming). Selfless Assertions: Some Empirical Evidence. Synthese:1-13.
    It is increasingly recognized that knowledge is the norm of assertion. As this view has gained popularity, it has also garnered criticism. One widely discussed criticism involves thought experiments about “selfless assertion.” Selfless assertions are said to be intuitively compelling examples where agents should assert propositions that they don’t even believe and, hence, don’t know. This result is then taken to show that knowledge is not the norm of assertion. This paper reports four experiments demonstrating that “selfless assertors” are viewed (...)
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  19. added 2015-01-05
    John Turri (2015). Knowledge and the Norm of Assertion: A Simple Test. Synthese 192 (2):385-392.
    An impressive case has been built for the hypothesis that knowledge is the norm of assertion, otherwise known as the knowledge account of assertion. According to the knowledge account, you should assert something only if you know that it’s true. A wealth of observational data supports the knowledge account, and some recent empirical results lend further, indirect support. But the knowledge account has not yet been tested directly. This paper fills that gap by reporting the results of such a test. (...)
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  20. added 2015-01-01
    David Leech Anderson (2009). A Semantics for Virtual Environments and the Ontological Status of Virtual Objects. APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 9 (1):15-19.
    Virtual environments engage millions of people and billions of dollars each year. What is the ontological status of the virtual objects that populate those environments? An adequate answer to that question requires a developed semantics for virtual environments. The truth-conditions must be identified for “tree”-sentences when uttered by speakers immersed in a virtual environment (VE). It will be argued that statements about virtual objects have truth-conditions roughly comparable to the verificationist conditions popular amongst some contemporary antirealists. This does not mean (...)
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  21. added 2014-12-25
    Åsa Wikforss (2015). Concepts and Communication: Comments on Words and Images. An Essay on the Origin of Ideas. Analysis 75 (1):110-121.
    At the center of Gauker's book stands two inter-connected theses: First, that concepts are dependent on language; second, that this requires rejecting the traditional idea that linguistic communication involves a transmission of thoughts. I argue that we cannot afford to reject the traditional conception of communication and that Gauker's alternative ‘cooperative' conception is unsatisfactory. However, I also argue that Gauker is wrong to suggest that the language dependency thesis of concepts is incompatible with the traditional view of communication.
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  22. added 2014-12-25
    FIlippo Ferarri & Dan Zeman (2014). Radical Relativism, Retraction and 'Being at Fault'. In Fabio Bacchini, Stefano Caputo & Massimo Dell'Utri (eds.), New Frontiers in Truth. Cambrige Scholars Publishing. 80-102.
  23. added 2014-12-24
    Christopher Gauker (2015). Replies to Matthen, Weiskopf and Wikforss. Analysis 75 (1):121-131.
    This article consists of replies to three commentaries on the book, Words and Images: An Essay on the Origin of Ideas (Oxford 2011).
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  24. added 2014-12-24
    Christopher Gauker (2015). Summary. Analysis 75 (1):81-83.
    This is a summary of the book, Words and Images: An Essay on the Origin of Ideas (Oxford 2011). This summary serves as an introduction to a symposium on this book, featuring contributions by Mohan Matthen, Daniel Weiskopf and Åsa Wikforss, and a reply by Gauker.
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  25. added 2014-12-23
    Lucas Champollion (forthcoming). The Interaction of Compositional Semantics and Event Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy:1-36.
    Davidsonian event semantics is often taken to form an unhappy marriage with compositional semantics. For example, it has been claimed to be problematic for semantic accounts of quantification Proceedings of the 16th Amsterdam Colloquium, 2007), for classical accounts of negation Semantics and contextual expression, 1989), and for intersective accounts of verbal coordination . This paper shows that none of this is the case, once we abandon the idea that the event variable is bound at sentence level, and assume instead that (...)
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  26. added 2014-12-22
    Andrew Bacon (forthcoming). Can The Classical Logician Avoid The Revenge Paradoxes? Philosophical Review.
    Most work on the semantic paradoxes within classical logic has centred around what I call `linguistic' accounts of the paradoxes: they attribute to sentences or utterances of sentences some property that is supposed to explain their paradoxical or non-paradoxical status. `No proposition' views are paradigm examples of linguistic theories, although practically all accounts of the paradoxes subscribe to some kind of linguistic theory. This paper shows that linguistic accounts of the paradoxes endorsing classical logic are subject to a particularly acute (...)
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  27. added 2014-12-22
    Andreas Dorschel (2005). Über das Verstehen und Interpretieren von Kunstwerken. In Wolf-Jürgen Cramm, Wulf Kellerwessel, David Krause & Hans-Christoph Kupfer (eds.), Diskurs und Reflexion. Wolfgang Kuhlmann zum 65. Geburtstag. Königshausen & Neumann. 375-387.
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  28. added 2014-12-20
    Christopher Gauker (forthcoming). Presuppositions as Anaphoric Duality Enablers. Topoi:1-12.
    The key to an adequate account of presupposition projection is to accommodate the fact that the presuppositions of a sentence cannot always be read off the sentence but can often be identified only on the basis of prior utterances in the conversation in which the sentence is uttered. In addition, an account of presupposition requires a three-valued semantics of assertibility and deniability in a context. Presuppositions can be explicated as sentences that belong to the conversation and the assertibility of which (...)
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  29. added 2014-12-19
    Maciej Witek (2015). Linguistic Underdeterminacy: A View From Speech Act Theory. Journal of Pragmatics 76:15-29.
    The aim of this paper is to reformulate the Linguistic Underdeterminacy Thesis by making use of Austin’s theory of speech acts. Viewed from the post-Gricean perspective, linguistic underdeterminacy consists in there being a gap between the encoded meaning of a sentence uttered by a speaker and the proposition that she communicates. According to the Austinian model offered in this paper, linguistic underdeterminacy should be analysed in terms of semantic and force potentials conventionally associated with the lexical and syntactic properties of (...)
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  30. added 2014-12-19
    Teresa Marques & Manuel García-Carpintero (2012). Filosofia da Linguagem. In Pedro Galvão (ed.), Filosofia: Uma Introdução por Disciplinas. Edições 70.
    A filosofia da linguagem dedica-se ao estudo da linguagem natural. Não se dedica ao estudo de línguas particulares, tal como o português, o castelhano ou o inglês, mas sim ao estudo filosófico de características gerais da linguagem e da nossa capacidade e proficiência linguística enquanto seres humanos. A investigação do desenvolvimento da linguagem é uma tarefa a ser desenvolvida pela ciência – a paleontologia, a neurologia, etc. Mas a ciência ocupa-se de algo de que temos um conhecimento intuitivo prévio – (...)
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  31. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1997). Bilder und Worte. Weimarer Beiträge: Zeitschrift Für Literaturwissenschaft, Ästhetik Und Kulturwissenschaften 43 (1):110-122.
    ‘Logos’ is the Greek term for word, and language is indeed the realm of logic in a way that imagery never will be. While clearly not all use of words is argumentative – in fact, most is not –, their sequentiality brings them closer to argument than images, given the simultaneity of contents within the latter. In images, there is no discrete number of definite signs – the sort of thing language has in its vocabulary. The relations between colour and (...)
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  32. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel, Matthias Kettner, Wolfgang Kuhlmann & Marcel Niquet (eds.) (1993). Transzendentalpragmatik. Ein Symposion für Karl-Otto Apel. Suhrkamp.
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  33. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1990). Kulturevolution, Biologie und Sprache. Empirische und rationale Selektionskriterien. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 38 (10):984-992.
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  34. added 2014-12-16
    Andreea C. Nicolae (forthcoming). Questions with NPIs. Natural Language Semantics:1-56.
    This paper investigates how the distribution of negative polarity items can inform our understanding of the underlying semantic representation of constituent questions. It argues that the distribution of NPIs in questions is governed by the same logical properties that govern their distribution in declarative constructions. Building on an observation due to Guerzoni and Sharvit that strength of exhaustivity in questions correlates with the acceptability of NPIs, I propose a revision of the semantics of questions that can explain this link in (...)
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  35. added 2014-12-16
    Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson, The Semantic Neighborhood of Intellectual Humility. Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence.
    Intellectual humility is an interesting but underexplored disposition. The claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker expresses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both synonyms and antonyms of ‘intellectual humility’. We present a thesaurus-based method to map the semantic space (...)
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  36. added 2014-12-15
    Lionel Shapiro (2014). Assertoric Force Perspectivalism: Relativism Without Relative Truth. Ergo 1 (6).
    According to relativist accounts of discourse about, e.g., epistemic possibility and matters of taste, the truth of propositions must be relativized to nonstandard parameters. This paper argues that the central thrust of such accounts should be understood independently of relative truth, in terms of a perspectival account of assertoric force. My point of departure is a stripped-down version of Brandom’s analysis of the normative structure of discursive practice. By generalizing that structure, I make room for an analogue of the “assessment (...)
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  37. added 2014-12-15
    Boris Rähme (2014). An Explanatory Role for the Concept of Truth. In Fabio Bacchini, Stefano Caputo & Massimo Dell'Utri (eds.), New Frontiers in Truth. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 15-37.
  38. added 2014-12-11
    Herman Cappelen & Torfinn Huvenes (forthcoming). Relative Truth. In Michael Glanzberg (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Truth. Oxford University Press.
    An introduction to relativism about truth.
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  39. added 2014-12-11
    Lajos L. Brons (2014). Needing the Other: The Anatomy of the Mass Noun Thesis. ARGUMENT 4 (1):103-122.
    Othering is the construction and identification of the self or in-group and the other or out-group in mutual, unequal opposition by attributing relative inferiority and/or radical alienness to the other/out-group. Othering can be “crude” or “sophisticated”, the defining difference being that in the latter case othering depends on the interpretation of the other/out-group in terms that are applicable only to the self/in-group but that are unconsciously assumed to be universal. The Mass Noun Thesis, the idea that all nouns in certain (...)
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  40. added 2014-12-08
    Rachel McKinnon (forthcoming). Norms of Assertion: Truth, Lies, and Warrant. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book is about the norms of the speech act of assertion. This is a topic of lively contemporary debate primarily carried out in epistemology and philosophy of language. Suppose that you ask me what time an upcoming meeting starts, and I say, “4 p.m.” I’ve just asserted that the meeting starts at 4 p.m. Whenever we make claims like this, we’re asserting. The central question here is whether we need to know what we say, and, relatedly, whether what we (...)
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  41. added 2014-12-08
    Eva-Maria Engelen (1999). Das Feststehende bestimmt das Mögliche. Semantische Untersuchungen zu Möglichkeitsurteilen. frommann-holzboog.
  42. added 2014-12-07
    André Bazzoni (forthcoming). Hintikka on the Foundations of Mathematics: IF Logic and Uniformity Concepts. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-10.
    The initial goal of the present paper is to reveal a mistake committed by Hintikka in a recent paper on the foundations of mathematics. His claim that independence-friendly logic (IFL) is the real logic of mathematics is supported in that article by an argument relying on uniformity concepts taken from real analysis. I show that the central point of his argument is a simple logical mistake. Second and more generally, I conclude, based on the previous remarks and on another standard (...)
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  43. added 2014-12-03
    Zsofia Zvolenszky (2014). Artifactualism and Authorial Creation. Proceedings of the European Society for Aesthetics.
    Artifactualism about fictional characters, positing Harry Potter as an abstract artifact created by J. K. Rowling, has been criticized on the grounds that the idea of creating such objects is mysterious and problematic. In the light of such qualms, it is worth homing in on an argument in favor of artifactualism, showing that it is the best way to include the likes of Harry Potter in our ontology precisely because it incorporates authorial creation. To that end, I will be exploring (...)
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  44. added 2014-12-02
    Jose L. Zalabardo (forthcoming). Representation and Reality in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Oxford University Press.
    The book puts forward an interpretation of some central ideas of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus concerning the structure of reality and our representations of it in thought and language. It presents the origins of Wittgenstein’s picture theory of propositional representation in Russell’s theories of judgment, arguing that the picture theory is Wittgenstein’s solution to some problems that he found in Russell’s position. It defends the view that, for Wittgenstein, facts in general, and the facts that play the role of propositions in (...)
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  45. added 2014-12-01
    Kevin Dorst (2014). Can the Knowledge Norm Co‐Opt the Opt Out? Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (3).
    The Knowledge Norm of Assertion claims that it is proper to assert that p only if one knows that p. Though supported by a wide range of evidence, it appears to generate incorrect verdicts when applied to utterances of “I don't know.” Instead of being an objection to KNA, I argue that this linguistic data shows that “I don't know” does not standardly function as a literal assertion about one's epistemic status; rather, it is an indirect speech act that has (...)
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  46. added 2014-11-29
    Frieder Vogelmann (2014). Kraft, Widerständigkeit, Historizität Überlegungen zu einer Genealogie der Wahrheit. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (6):1062–1086.
    Does truth have a history? Whereas Bernard William denies it and only allows a history of truthfulness, I defend the possibility of a critical history or genealogy of truth. Because a trifling relativistic historicization of truth leads to a paradoxically a-historic and pacifistic conception of truth, one must first establish the methodological concepts with which a genealogy of truth can avoid both problems. Three first steps towards such concepts can be found in some of Michel Foucault’s lectures, which lead the (...)
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  47. added 2014-11-28
    Barlassina Luca & Del Prete Fabio (forthcoming). The Puzzle of the Changing Past. Analysis.
    If you utter sentence (1) ‘Obama was born in 1961’ now, you say something true about the past. Since the past will always be such that the year 1961 has the property of being a time in which Obama was born, it seems impossible that (1) could ever be false in a future context of utterance. We shall consider the case of a sentence about the past exactly like (1), but which was true when uttered a few years ago and (...)
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  48. added 2014-11-28
    L. Barlassina & F. Del Prete (2014). The Puzzle of the Changing Past. Analysis 75 (1):59-67.
    If you utter sentence ‘Obama was born in 1961’ now, you say something true about the past. Since the past will always be such that the year 1961 has the property of being a time in which Obama was born, it seems impossible that could ever be false in a future context of utterance. We shall consider the case of a sentence about the past exactly like , but which was true when uttered a few years ago and is no (...)
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  49. added 2014-11-28
    Guillaume Beaulac (2014). Language, Mind, and Cognitive Science: Remarks on Theories of the Language-Cognition Relationships in Human Minds. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    My dissertation establishes the basis for a systematic outlook on the role language plays in human cognition. It is an investigation based on a cognitive conception of language, as opposed to communicative conceptions, viz. those that suppose that language plays no role in cognition (its only role being to externalize thought). I focus, in Chapter 2, on three paradigmatic theories adopting this perspective, each offering different views on how language contributes to or changes cognition. -/- In Chapter 3, I criticize (...)
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  50. added 2014-11-27
    Alessandro Torza (forthcoming). Necessarily Maybe. Quantifiers, Modality and Vagueness. In , Quantifiers, Quantifiers, and Quantifiers (Synthese Library). Springer.
    Languages involving modalities and languages involving vagueness have each been thoroughly studied. On the other hand, virtually nothing has been said about the interaction of modality and vagueness. This paper aims to start filling that gap. Section 1 is a discussion of various possible sources of vague modality. Section 2 puts forward a model theory for a quantified language with operators for modality and vagueness. The model theory is followed by a discussion of the resulting logic. In Section 3, the (...)
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