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  1. E. M. Adams (1974). Linguistic Analysis and Epistemic Encounters. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34 (3):404-414.
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  2. A. I͡U Aĭkhenvalʹd (2004). Evidentiality. Oxford University Press.
    In some languages every statement must contain a specification of the type of evidence on which it is based: for example, whether the speaker saw it, or heard it, or inferred it from indirect evidence, or learnt it from someone else. This grammatical reference to information source is called 'evidentiality', and is one of the least described grammatical categories. Evidentiality systems differ in how complex they are: some distinguish just two terms (eyewitness and noneyewitness, or reported and everything else), while (...)
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  3. H. G. Alexander (1936). Linguistic Morphology in Relation to Thinking. Journal of Philosophy 33 (10):261-269.
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  4. József Andor (2003). On the Role of Frame-Based Knowledge in Lexical Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):667-668.
    In this commentary I discuss the role of types of knowledge and conceptual structures in lexical representation, revealing the explanatory potential of frame-based knowledge. Although frame-based lexical semantics is not alien to the theoretical model outlined in Jackendoff's conceptual semantics, testing its relevance to the analysis of the lexical evidence presented in his book has been left out of consideration.
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  5. Sally Andrews (2003). E-Z Reader's Assumptions About Lexical Processing: Not so Easy to Define the Two Stages of Word Identification? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):477-478.
    E-Z Reader's account of the interaction between oculomotor and cognitive processes depends critically on distinguishing between early and late stages of lexical processing, because this distinction allows saccadic programming to be decoupled from shifts of attention. Precisely specifying the nature of this distinction has important implications both for current models of lexical retrieval and for the development of E-Z Reader 8.
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  6. Eoghan Mac Aogáin (1999). Information and Appearance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):159-160.
    O'Brien & Opie's connectionist interpretation of “vehicle,” “process,” and “explicit representation” depends heavily on the notions of “information” and “information processing” that underlie the classic account. When the “cognitivist” assumptions, shared by both accounts, are removed, the connectionist versus classic contrast appears to be between behavioral and linguistic accounts.
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  7. R. J. B. (1968). Linguistics in Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 21 (4):757-757.
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  8. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Conscious Cognition and Blackboard Architectures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):70-71.
    van der Velde & de Kamps make a case for neural blackboard architectures to address four questions raised by human language. Unfortunately, they neglect a sizable literature relating blackboard architectures to other fundamental cognitive questions, specifically consciousness and voluntary control. Called “global workspace theory,” this literature integrates a large body of brain and behavioral evidence to come to converging conclusions.
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  9. Mark Baker, On the Loci of Agreement: Inversion Constructions in Mapudungun.
    “Languages are all the same, but not boringly so.” I think this is my own maxim, not one of the late great Kenneth Hale’s. But it is nevertheless something that he taught me, by example, if not by explicit precept. Ken Hale believed passionately in a substantive notion of Universal Grammar that underlies all languages. But this did not blind him to the details—even the idiosyncrasies—of less-studied “local” languages. On the contrary, I believe it stimulated his famous zeal (...)
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  10. Mark Baker, On Zero Agreement and Polysynthesis.
    Agreement morphology is the single most important way of satisfying this requirement, the other being incorporation. (1) implies that in a polysynthetic language like Mohawk, all verbs necessarily agreement with subjects, objects, and indirect objects, except for the special case when the direct object is incorporated into the verb. This accounts elegantly for paradigms like the following, found also in languages like Nahuatl and Chukchee.
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  11. Mark Baker, The Creative Aspect of Language Use and Nonbiological Nativism.
    The Cognitive Science era can be divided into two distinct periods with respect to the topic of innateness, at least from the viewpoint of the linguist. The first period, which began in the late 1950s and was characterized by the work of people like Chomsky and Fodor, argued for reviving a nativist position, in which a substantial amount of people’s knowledge of language was innate rather than learned by association or induction or analogy. This constituted a break with the empiricist/behaviorist/structuralist (...)
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  12. M. Balconi & U. Pozzoli (2003). ERPs (Event-Related Potentials), Semantic Attribution, and Facial Expression of Emotions. Consciousness and Emotion 4 (1):63-80.
    ERPs (event-related potentials) correlates are largely used in cognitive psychology and specifically for analysis of semantic information processing. Previous research has underlined a strong correlation between a negative-ongoing wave (N400), more frontally distributed, and semantic linguistic or extra-linguistic anomalies. With reference to the extra-linguistic domain, our experiment analyzed ERP variation in a semantic task of comprehension of emotional facial expressions. The experiment explored the effect of expectancy violation when subjects observed congruous or incongruous emotional facial patterns. Four prototypical (anger, sadness, (...)
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  13. Anna M. Barrett, Anne L. Foundas & Kenneth M. Heilman (2005). Speech and Gesture Are Mediated by Independent Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):125-126.
    Arbib suggests that language emerged in direct relation to manual gestural communication, that Broca's area participates in producing and imitating gestures, and that emotional facial expressions contributed to gesture-language coevolution. We discuss functional and structural evidence supporting localization of the neuronal modules controlling limb praxis, speech and language, and emotional communication. Current evidence supports completely independent limb praxis and speech/language systems.
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  14. Lawrence W. Barsalou (2010). Grounded Cognition: Past, Present, and Future. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):716-724.
    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive (...)
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  15. Lawrence W. Barsalou (1999). Perceptions of Perceptual Symbols. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):637-660.
    Various defenses of amodal symbol systems are addressed, including amodal symbols in sensory-motor areas, the causal theory of concepts, supramodal concepts, latent semantic analysis, and abstracted amodal symbols. Various aspects of perceptual symbol systems are clarified and developed, including perception, features, simulators, category structure, frames, analogy, introspection, situated action, and development. Particular attention is given to abstract concepts, language, and computational mechanisms.
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  16. Aaron Barth (2012). A Refutation of Frege's Context Principle? Thought 1 (1):26-35.
    This paper explores the limitations of current empirical approaches to the philosophy of language in light of a recent criticism of Frege's context principle. According to this criticism, the context principle is in conflict with certain features of natural language use and this is held to undermine its application in Foundations of Arithmetic. I argue that this view is mistaken because the features with which the context principle is alleged to be in conflict are irrelevant to the principle's methodological significance (...)
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  17. A. J. Beattie (1954). Winfred P. Lehmann: Proto-Indo-European Phonology. Pp. Xv+129. Austin: University of Texas Press and Linguistic Society of America, 1952. Cloth, $4. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 4 (02):173-174.
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  18. J. S. Bedwell, S. Gallagher, S. N. Whitten & S. M. Fiore (2011). Linguistic Correlates of Self in Deceptive Oral Autobiographical Narratives. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):547-555.
  19. A. Benejam (2003). Thought Experiments and Semantic Competence. In Maria J. Frapolli & E. Romero (eds.), Meaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and Mind. Csli.
  20. Shankara Bhat & N. D. (1981). Identification. Dravidian Linguistics Association.
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  21. Peter A. Bibby & Geoffrey Underwood (1999). Volitional Control in the Learning of Artificial Grammars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):757-758.
    Dienes & Perner argue that volitional control in artificial grammar learning is best understood in terms of the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge representations. We maintain that direct, explicit access to knowledge organised in a hierarchy of implicitness/explicitness is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain volitional control. People can invoke volitional control when their knowledge is implicit, as in the case of artificial grammar learning, and they can invoke volitional control when any part of their knowledge representation is implicit, (...)
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  22. Derek Bickerton (2005). Language First, Then Shared Intentionality, Then a Beneficent Spiral. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):691-692.
    Tomasello et al. give a good account of how shared intentionality develops in children, but a much weaker one of how it might have evolved. They are unduly hasty in dismissing the emergence of language as a triggering factor. An alternative account is suggested in which language provided the spark, but thereafter language and shared intentionality coevolved.
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  23. Derek Bickerton (2002). Language in the Modular Mind? It’s a No-Brainer! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):677-678.
    Although Carruthers’ proposals avoid some of the more obvious pitfalls that face analysts of the language-cognition relationship, they are needlessly complex and vitiated by his uncritical acceptance of a highly modular variety of evolutionary psychology. He pays insufficient attention both to the neural substrate of the processes he hypothesizes and to the evolutionary developments that gave rise to both language and human cognition.
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  24. Michael Billig (1988). Rhetorical and Historical Aspects of Attitudes: The Case of the British Monarchy. Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):83 – 103.
    This paper seeks to develop the rhetorical approach to the study of social psychology, by looking at the rhetorical aspects of British attitudes towards the monarchy. The rhetorical approach stresses that attitudes are stances in public controversy and, as such, must be understood in their wider historical and argumentative context. Changes in this context can lead to changes in attitudinal expression, such as the phenomenon of Taking the Side of the Other, which should be distinguished from the sort of attitudinal (...)
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  25. Paul Bloom, Preschoolers Are Sensitive to the Speaker's Knowledge When Learning Proper Names.
    Unobservable properties that are specific to individuals, such as their proper names, can only be known by people who are familiar with those individuals. Do young children utilize this “familiarity principle” when learning language? Experiment 1 tested whether forty-eight 2- to 4-year-old children were able to determine the referent of a proper name such as “Jessie” based on the knowledge that the speaker was familiar with one individual but unfamiliar with the other. Even 2-year-olds successfully identified Jessie as the individual (...)
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  26. Paul Bloom (2001). Précis of How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1095-1103.
    Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are (...)
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  27. Paul Bloom, Andrew Barss, Janet Nicol & Laura Conway (1994). Children's Knowledge of Binding and Conference: Evidence From Spontaneous Speech. Language 70 (1):53-71.
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  28. Ocke-Schwen Bohn (2005). A Fond Farewell to the Critical Period Hypothesis for Non-Primary Language Acquisition. In Anjum P. Saleemi, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Albert Gjedde (eds.), In Search of a Language for the Mind-Brain: Can the Multiple Perspectives Be Unified? Aarhus University Press ;.
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  29. Thomas D. Bontly (2005). Modified Occam's Razor: Parsimony, Pragmatics, and the Acquisition of Word Meaning. Mind and Language 20 (3):288–312.
    Advocates of linguistic pragmatics often appeal to a principle which Paul Grice called Modified Occam's Razor: 'Senses are not to be multiplied beyond necessity'. Superficially, Grice's principle seems a routine application of the principle of parsimony ('Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity'). But parsimony arguments, though common in science, are notoriously problematic, and their use by Griceans faces numerous objections. This paper argues that Modified Occam's Razor makes considerably more sense in light of certain assumptions about the processes (...)
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  30. Steffen Borge (2013). In Defense of the Received View. Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):863 - 887.
    In the paper, I present Christopher Gauker's critique of the view that we talk to each other as a way to make ourselves understood (the received view of linguistic communication) and his alternative theory. I show that both his critique and his alternative fail, and defend the received view of linguistic communication.
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  31. Heather Bortfeld (2004). Which Came First: Infants Learning Language or Motherese? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):505-506.
    Although motherese may facilitate language acquisition, recent findings indicate that not all aspects of motherese are necessary for word recognition and speech segmentation, the building blocks of language learning. Rather, exposure to input that has prosodic, phonological, and statistical consistencies is sufficient to jump-start the learning process. In light of this, the infant-directedness of the input might be considered superfluous, at least insofar as language acquisition is concerned.
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  32. Francesca M. Bosco & Maurizio Tirassa (1998). Sharedness as an Innate Basis for Communication in the Infant. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 162-166.
    From a cognitive perspective, intentional communication may be viewed as an agent's activity overtly aimed at modifying a partner's mental states. According to standard Gricean definitions, this requires each party to be able to ascribe mental states to the other, i.e., to entertain a so-called theory of mind. According to the relevant experimental literature, however, such capability does not appear before the third or fourth birthday; it would follow that children under that age should not be viewed as communicating agents. (...)
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  33. Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik (forthcoming). Interpreting Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  34. Line Brandt (2009). Subjectivity in the Act of Representing: The Case for Subjective Motion and Change. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):573-601.
    The objective in the present paper is to analyze the aspect of subjectivity having to do with construing motion and change where no motion and change exists outside the representation, that is, in cases where the conceptualizer does not intend to convey the idea that these properties exist in the state of affairs described. In the process of doing so, I will elaborate on a critique of the notion of fictivity as it is currently being used in cognitive linguistics.
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  35. William F. Brewer (1999). Perceptual Symbols: The Power and Limitations of a Theory of Dynamic Imagery and Structured Frames. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):611-612.
    The perceptual symbol approach to knowledge representation combines structured frames and dynamic imagery. The perceptual symbol approach provides a good account of the representation of scientific models, of some types of naive theories held by children and adults, and of certain reconstructive memory phenomena. The ontological status of perceptual symbols is unclear and this form of representation does not succeed in accounting for all forms of human knowledge.
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  36. Ingo Brigandt (2006). A Theory of Conceptual Advance: Explaining Conceptual Change in Evolutionary, Molecular, and Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The theory of concepts advanced in the dissertation aims at accounting for a) how a concept makes successful practice possible, and b) how a scientific concept can be subject to rational change in the course of history. Traditional accounts in the philosophy of science have usually studied concepts in terms only of their reference; their concern is to establish a stability of reference in order to address the incommensurability problem. My discussion, in contrast, suggests that each scientific concept consists of (...)
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  37. Sarah Brown-Schmidt & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2004). Priming and Alignment: Mechanism or Consequence? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):193-194.
    We agree with Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) proposal that dialogue is an important empirical and theoretical test bed for models of language processing. However, we offer two cautionary notes. First, the enterprise will require explicit computational models. Second, such models will need to incorporate both joint and separate speaker and hearer commitments in ways that go beyond priming and alignment.
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  38. Michael Bulley (1999). Language, Linguistics and Philosophy. Cogito 13 (3):195-200.
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  39. Hermann Burchard (2011). The Role of Conscious Attention in Perception. Foundations of Science 16 (1):67-99.
    Impressions, energy radiated by phenomena in the momentary environmental scene, enter sensory neurons, creating in afferent nerves a data stream. Following Kant, by our inner sense the mind perceives its own thoughts as it ties together sense data into an internalized scene. The mind, residing in the brain, logically a Language Machine, processes and stores items as coded grammatical entities. Kantian synthetic unity in the linguistic brain is able to deliver our experience of the scene as we appear to see (...)
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  40. M. J. Cain (2007). Language Acquisition and the Theory Theory. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):447-474.
    In this paper my concern is to evaluate a particular answer to the question of how we acquire mastery of the syntax of our first language. According to this answer children learn syntax by means of scientific investigation. Alison Gopnik has recently championed this idea as an extension of what she calls the ‘theory theory’, a well established approach to cognitive development in developntental psychology. I will argue against this extension of the theory theory. The general thrust of my objection (...)
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  41. M. J. Cain (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind, and Philosophy. Polity Press.
    Jerry Fodor is one of the most important philosophers of mind in recent decades. He has done much to set the agenda in this field and has had a significant influence on the development of cognitive science. Fodor's project is that of constructing a physicalist vindication of folk psychology and so paving the way for the development of a scientifically respectable intentional psychology. The centrepiece of his engagement in this project is a theory of the cognitive mind, namely, the computational (...)
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  42. Josep Call (2011). How Artificial Communication Affects the Communication and Cognition of the Great Apes. Mind and Language 26 (1):1-20.
    Ape species-specific communication is grounded on the present, possesses some referential qualities and is mostly used to request objects or actions from others. Artificial systems of communication borrowed from humans transform apes' communicative exchanges by freeing them from the present (i.e. displaced reference) although requests still predominate as the main reason for communicating with others. Symbol use appears to enhance apes' relational abilities and their inhibitory control. Despite these substantial changes, it is concluded that even though artificial communication enhances thought (...)
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  43. Elisabeth Camp (2009). A Language of Baboon Thought? In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press. 108--127.
    Does thought precede language, or the other way around? How does having a language affect our thoughts? Who has a language, and who can think? These questions have traditionally been addressed by philosophers, especially by rationalists concerned to identify the essential difference between humans and other animals. More recently, theorists in cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology have been asking these questions in more empirically grounded ways. At its best, this confluence of philosophy and science promises to blend the (...)
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  44. Ben Caplan, Chris Tillman & Patrick Reeder (2010). Parts of Singletons. Journal of Philosophy 107 (10):501-533.
  45. Stefano F. Cappa, Andrea Moro, Daniela Perani & Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini (2000). Broca's Aphasia, Broca's Area, and Syntax: A Complex Relationship. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):27-28.
    Three types of problems are raised in this commentary: On the linguistic side, we emphasize the importance of an appropriate definition of the different domains of linguistics. This is needed to define the domains (lexicon-syntax-semantics) to which transformational relations apply. We then question the concept of Broca's aphasia as a “functional” syndrome, associated with a specific lesion. Finally, we discuss evidence from functional brain imaging. The breadth and potential impact of such evidence has grown considerably in the last few years, (...)
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  46. Antonella Carassa & Maurizio Tirassa (1994). Representational Redescription and Cognitive Architectures. Carassa, Antonella and Tirassa, Maurizio (1994) Representational Redescription and Cognitive Architectures. [Journal (Paginated)] 17 (4):711-712.
    We focus on Karmiloff-Smith's Representational redescription model, arguing that it poses some problems concerning the architecture of a redescribing system. To discuss the topic, we consider the implicit/explicit dichotomy and the relations between natur al language and the language of thought. We argue that the model regards how knowledge is employed rather than how it is represented in the system.
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  47. Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy (1999). Explicitness and Predication: A Risky Linkage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):762-763.
  48. Lucas Champollion, Dissertation Proposal: Overview for Nonlinguists.
    This document describes my dissertation proposal, “Aspect, plurality and quantification”, for a nonlinguist audience for the purposes of Penn’s SAS Dissertation Completion Fellowship. The dissertation proposal is available online on my website, http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~champoll/, as well as a handout with a description targeted at a linguist audience.
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  49. Jean Claude Chevalier (1985). Grammatical Analysis and Logical Analysis in France. Topoi 4 (2):187-191.
    It is well known that, in France, this important movement, which originated in Port-Royal, did not remain exactly on the same basis during its development. In this paper we attempt to show how a new concept (the logical analysis of sentence from phrase) was proposed by Du Marsais (see grammatical articles of the Encyclopédie), Beauzée (1767) and, finally, Letellier (1805, 1811).
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  50. Noam Chomsky, In Leon A. Jakobovits & Murray S. Miron (1959). A Review of BF Skinner's Verbal Behavior. [REVIEW] Language 35 (1):26--58.
    I had intended this review not specifically as a criticism of Skinner's speculations regarding language, but rather as a more general critique of behaviorist (I would now prefer to say "empiricist") speculation as to the nature of higher mental processes. My reason for discussing Skinner's book in such detail was that it was the most careful and thoroughgoing presentation of such speculations, an evaluation that I feel is still accurate. Therefore, if the conclusions I attempted to substantiate in the review (...)
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